Holly CavanaughAnth410Spring 2013Week 4 Cover Essay By looking at my category titles, my interests seem to be everywhere andanywhere in Anthropology; however, my course work at Humboldt State directly reﬂectsalmost all of these categories, with the exception of Culinary Anthropology, which comesfrom a separate and recent source of interest. Other categories include: development,globalization and sustainability; digital and virtual anthropology; and the anthropology ofart. Culinary Anthropology (the Anthropology of Food, Food Studies, etc.) is a recentinterests. Iʼve always planned on attending culinary school after obtaining my BachelorʼsDegree, but with my increasing passion for anthropology, Iʼve become determined toinclude both in my future. I am currently conducting a literature review of culinaryanthropology to further my knowledge on the growing ﬁeld of research through a foodlens. By growing my library on Food related subjects, I hope to carve out my own nichein Culinary Anthropology, and conduct ethnographic ﬁeldwork in graduate school, in therelatively distant future (5-10 years). Development and globalization have been of interest to me during my collegiatecareer. Iʼm really interest in community-based development in relation to foodsustainability in developing countries. Establishing efﬁcient, environmentally aware, andsustainable food programs is becoming more important in the developing world. By
combining a knowledge of food studies with developmental anthropology, workingtowards a goal of sustainability would be rewarding and interesting. Digital and virtual anthropology is quickly becoming more relevant within thediscipline. The virtual world is growing every day and spreading to every corner of theglobe. Understanding and being aware of this growth is important within any category ofanthropology. Having personal background in ethnographic research of a virtualcommunity, I will be able to jump between the virtual and physical worlds. Finally, art has had a personal inﬂuence on my academic career and my personallife. Iʼve taken classes in the anthropology of art and I am completing my minor in StudioArt- Photography. I think having the theoretical background on art, and the ability ofanalyze it anthropologically, in addition to the practical knowledge of photography will behelpful when conducting research. Photography is important in ethnographic research(especially with the rise of ʻlive ﬁeld notingʼ), in documenting subjects, and mostlycreating the ability to go back to the ﬁeld through the photographs. By cross-referencing these areas for the same project, I think I can make myanthropological career very successful. Some possible topics that could arise from thisbibliography are: ethnographic research on food-related sustainability in developingcountries; food-related activism through social media (anti-obesity discussions onTwitter); Using photography to help people document their food-related sustainabilityefforts, and working together on ﬁnding solutions. There are many possibilities in theﬁelds of inquiry I am interested in, and that make up who I am as an anthropologist. Ihope to utilize these ﬁelds in my own future research.
Annotated BibliographyCategories:1. Culinary Anthropology2. Development, Globalization & Sustainability3. Digital & Virtual Anthropology4. Anthropology of Art5. Blog(s)Section 1: Culinary AnthropologyBourdain, A. Kitchen Conﬁdential. Bloomsbury. 2000. Print. Anthony Bourdain is a chef turned food writer and TV host. In his ﬁrst book,Kitchen Conﬁdential, he tells of his somewhat scandalous career as a chef and ﬁrst-handedly details many ʻunknownʼ parts of a chefʼs life in the fast-paced restaurantindustry.Bugge, A., Lavik, R. “Eating Out: A Multifaceted Activity in Contemporary Norway.”Food, Culture & Society. Vol. 13, No. 2. 2010: 215-240. An analysis of the growing popularity of ʻeating outʼ or away form home inNorway. This study covers reasons for this popularity and how it contributes to anindividualʼs self-representation and identity.Clapp, J. “A Global Outlook on Food Studies.” Food, Culture & Society. Vol. 11, No. 3.2008: 281-286. Two issues are presented for Food Studies researchers to consider: the ʻgrowingcorporate inﬂuence in food governance at the global levelʼ and ʻagricultural tradeliberalization under the WTOʼ. The apparent uneven relationship of the global foodsystem is a topic more researchers need to start inquiring about and conduct ﬁeld workon.Deutsch, J., Miller, A.. Food Studies. Berg. 2009. Print.
A comprehensive overview of research methods and tactics when conductingfood related research. Jon Deutsch and Jeff Miller cover ethnographic methods,literature reviewing, and acknowledgement of responsibilities to protect participants.Freedman, R. “Wanted: A Journal in Culinary Anthropology.” Current Anthropology. Vol.9, No. 1. 1968: 62-63. This is a short article, essentially a listing of references of examples of culinaryanthropology writings in existence, claiming that the establishment of an ethnoculinaryjournal would be beneﬁcial to the culinary anthropology community.Jensen, T., Johansson, B., Hansen, G., Huotilainen, A., Mäkelä, J., Roos, G., “NordicChildrenʼs Foodscapes: Images and Reﬂections.” Food, Culture & Society. Vol.12 No. 1.2009: 25-51. Ethnographic ﬁeldwork conducted by a team of researchers in Nordic countries(Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway) discussing the western ʻfoodscape,ʼ morespeciﬁcally how children view the modern ʻfoodscape.ʼ Children who participated weretreated more like co-researchers, than simply research subjects, in analyzing their foodchoices and the effects of said choices.Kessler, D. The End of Overeating: Controlling the Insatiable American Appetite. NewYork: Rodale, Inc. 2009. Print. David Kessler is a former FDA commissioner, tackling the American food industryand its effects it is having on the nationʼs people. He presents issues within the industryand gives solutions to aiding in the end of growing obesity rates.*Loﬁnk, H., Ulijaszek, S. “Obesity in Biocultural Perspective.” Annual Review ofAnthropology. Vol. 35. 2006: 337-360. With the rise of obesity in human populations, peopleʼs relationship with food isevolving. Looking at food through differing perspectives, such as biological, cultural, andeconomic perspectives, this aticle is reviewing the changing patterns and knowledge ofobesity.
Ruhlman, M. The Making of a Chef. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1997. Print. Journalist Michael Ruhlman documents his experience of being immersed in theculinary program at the Culinary Institute of America. His goal is to write about how onelearns to become a chef and the process of doing so.Robbins, J. Diet for a New America: How your food choices affect your health,happiness and the future life on Earth. Walpole: Stillpoint International Inc. 1987. Print. An investigation of the food industry, focused on the treatment of animals raisedfor dairy, egg, and meat production. Robbins discusses factory farms, environmentalissues, and the American diet, with ways to reduce poor consumption patterns andmove forward towards a healthier and more conscience lifestyle.Rousseau, S. Food Media: Celebrity chefs and the Politics of Everyday Interference.Berg. 2012. Print. Following the ʻcelebrityʼ of the food industry, Signe Rousseau examines theinﬂuence the media and celebrity culture have inﬂuenced the food industry, speciﬁcallyhow it inﬂuences peopleʼs day to day eating habits.Schlosser, E. Fast Food Nation: The dark side of the all-American meal. MifﬂinCompany. 2002. Print. Taking a critical look into the American fast food system, Eric Schlosserdiscusses the wide landscape of the fast food industry. He travels to the restaurantsthemselves, slaughter houses, and talks to consumers and producers for their views.Section 2: Development, Globalization & SustainabilityBricas, N., Raoult-Wack, A. “Ethincal Issues Related to Food Sector Evolution inDeveloping Countries: About Sustainability and Equity. Journal of Agricultural andEnvironmental Ethics. Vol. 15, No. 3. 202: 323-334. With the worldʼs population increasing, food demand is increasing alongside it,this is paired with the rise and introduction of urbanization into developing countries.
This article answers many questions surrounded by this dichotomy, concerning themesoften found in anthropology, such as gender, sustainability, and equity (to name a few).Edelman, M., Haugerud, A. The Anthropology of Development and Globalization.Oxofrd: Blackwell Publishing. 2005. Print. Collected essays and articles covering development and globalization, this is agoodpver view of how anthropology plays into development and globalization. Theessay that currently stands out to me is Chapter 27: “Beyond Development” (Gardnerand Lewis) which discusses the possibility of a ʻpost-developmentʼ era, or if that eracould even exist.Gilligan, D., Hoddinott, J. “Is There Persistence in the Impact of Emergency Food Aid?Evidence on Consumption, Food Security, and Assets in Rural Ethiopia.” AmericanJournal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 89 No. 2. 2007: 225-242. Food security is negatively impacted by food aid, even when food consumption ishigh. Looking at a case study of a post-drought Ethipoia, this research is attempting todetermine how effective emergency food aid programs are, and if they are long lasting.Illich, I. “To Hell With Good Intentions.” Speech. Speaking to a group of American students volunteering in Mexico, Illich accusesthem of a hypocrisy of intentions. By doing what America sees as a helping poorMexicans ʻdevelop,ʼ is seen as extremely unhelpful, and harmful towards those beingimposed upon, in this case native Mexicans.Karim, L. Microﬁnance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh. Minneapolis:Regents of the University of Minnesota. 2011. Print. The result of ethnographic research on numerous microﬁnance operations, Karimlooks at the ʻdark sideʼ of the growing fad of microﬁnance. Through interviews,participant observation, surveying, and archival research, Karim tell the untold tale ofmicroﬁnance and its negative effects on the women it proclaims to empower.
Moyo, D. Dead Aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa.New York: Farrer, Straus and Giroux. 2009. Print. An economist, Moyo takes a critical look at aid and how it is not helping Africancountries, but hindering them through enabling and corruption.*Phillips, L. “Food and Globalization.” Annual Review of Anthropology. vol. 35. 2006:37-57. ʻExploring the theme of food and globalizationʼ this review analyzes how food andglobalization and food have interacted with each other. The ever growing mobility ofpeople has created incalculable foodscapes, and ultimately a globalized foodscape thataffects all global citizens.Rapley, John. Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the Third World.Boulder: Lynne Reinner Publishers. 2007. Print. A concise overview of the history of developmental theory in the post WWIIclimate. Covering structuralism, modernization theory, dependency theory, neoclassicaltheory, and developmental practices between the ﬁrst, second and third worlds over a60 year period.Ruhblom, H. “Swedish Multiculturalism in a Comparative European Perspective.”Sociological Forum. Vol. 9, No. 4. 1994: (623-640). Sweden illustrates, more than any other European country, a radical shift from anethnically homogenous population to one with mixed ethnic background. Sweden wasnever a colonial power, so there was never a ﬂow of peoples after decolonization ofdeveloping countries; however, refugees began ﬂowing in after many of the wars inIslamic-based countries.Section 3: Digital & Virtual AnthropologyBower, B. “Facebook Users are the Real Thing.” Science News. Vol. 177 No. 7. 2010.Web.
This article discusses how college aged Facebook users generally portraythemselves accurately which thus allows for social interactions to feel real. This articledemonstrates how people can use their online lives to reﬂect their ofﬂine lives, whichcan lead to some individuals relying on their social life on the internet as their mainsocial ﬁeld.Emmerson, R., Fretz, R., Shaw, L. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. 1995. Print. A comprehensive guide to conducting and recording ethnographic research.Discusses methods used in ethnography and how to efﬁciently note-take and record.Strickland, B. “Identitiy/Identity Formation.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology.2nded: 322-323. 2001. Web. This article is on identity and identity formation and how personal identity goeshand in hand with group (or collective) identity. People from a similar social group willtend to have similar aspects to their personal identities, which happens in both ofﬂineand online situations.Section 4: Anthropology of Art Curtis, G. The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the Worldʼs First Artists.New York: Random House. 2006. Print. A comprehensive introduction to the lavish caves in France and Spain that areriddled with some of the earliest artistic depictions- cave paintings. Discussing theplethora of theories about cave art inspirations, and the individuals who rediscoveredand studied the paintings.Dissanayake, E. What Is Art For? Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1988. Print. Analyzing Art as a human behavior, Dissanayake attempts to answer the titlequestion, “What is art for?” Humans have utilized art for thousands of years, for manyreasons, aesthetics and emotion being two, and Dissanyake intends not to fully answerthe question, but the gain further insight on the possible answers.
Layton, Robert. The Anthropology of Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1991. Print. Specifying in non-western art, this book looks analytically at the aestheticsinvolves in non western cultures and their art forms. Additionally, Latyon discusses thecontext in which much of the art is utilized: rituals, power, and other cultural aspects.Portman, M. “Photography for Anthropologists.” The Journal of the AnthropologicalInstitute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 25. 1896: 75-87. This is a very old article, but interesting because Portman is claiming that utilizingphotography in the ethnographic ﬁeld is essential- especially once back from the ﬁeld.This is relevant to today because methods such as ʻlive ﬁeld notingʼ are surfacing withinethnography, the utilization of photographs was important in the early days ofanthropology and is still today.Section 5: MiscellaneousMoore, H., Sanders, T. Anthropology in Theory: Issues in Epistemology. Malden:Blackwell Publishing. 2006. Print A collection of articles discussing anthropological theory, past and present. Thiscollection serves as a ʻgo-toʼ for references of the different theories and ideas present intodayʼs anthropology.Section 6: Blog(s)“Society for the Anthropology of Food and Nutrition” (SAFN). http://foodanthro.com/ SAFN is a section of the the American Anthropological Association, and this istheir blog. Blog contributors are members of the SAFN, and posts are constantly beinguploaded about various topics in the Anthropology of Food and Nutrition.“Ethnography Matters: Exploring what it means to be an ethnographer today.” 2011.http://ethnographymatters.net/ Numerous contributors discussing methods and experiences in ethnography.