Dealing with Disruptive Technologies
In Educational Contexts
Scenario
Realities
“Over the course of a riveting 75-minute discussion of the birth ofGandhian non-violent activism, I found myself becoming ...
Learning &The ProblemSplit Attention
Technology is a Forcethe Good                      forwhen it:        •   Increases Productivity        •   Increases Acce...
isDisruptiontechnology’s  Dark Side
should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
Visual   PhoneticPathway   Pathway
Looking at a          PowerPoint           Looking at a          laptop screen Visual                   PhoneticPathway   ...
Listening to             Lecture           Listening to           Phone RingPhoneticPathway
Distractions   Multi-Tasking
Un-intentional & Intermittent Disruptions
Study by Jill T. Shelton, et al. (2009)
ExamExperimental                Control  Study by Jill T. Shelton, et al. (2009)
   (Shelton, J.T. et al., 2009)   80                                   70                                   60           ...
Visual and auditory disruptions decrease  retention and comprehension of materialDistractions
Intentional & Extended Disruption
Two Groups                 Open Laptop      Closed Laptop                   Group              Group(Hembrooke and Gay, 20...
Quiz(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
Browsers             Seekers          Laptop Open Users          Divided Into 2 Groups(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
Browsers        Seekers                 Quick Use   Extended Use(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
   Multi-taskers learn less flexibly (Foerde, et al., 2006)    Habit                                                   De...
   Heavy Media Multi-taskers exhibit reduced          cognitive control                                             Less ...
•   Less Accurate   •   Learned less flexibly   •   Worse at multi-taskingMulti-Tasking
The split attention caused by multi-tasking andmomentary distractions like cellphone rings…   Significantly reduces reten...
Because it              diminishes the              effectiveness of                 instructionshould I addressdisruptive...
should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
Disruption                 Disruption    for                     for theIndividual                   Class              Di...
Disruption    for             Texting                                   Surfing the                                      W...
Percent of studentsOff-task behavior             engaging in this                              behaviorChecking e-mail    ...
   Deny Access   Address on a Case-by-Case Basis   Allow Choice
Percent of studentsOn-task behavior                           engaging in this                                           b...
Disruption     Obvious          Clicking &                                       for the     Texting           Tapping    ...
Beginning of the   Semester               Beginning of                Each Class                              At the Time ...
When it disrupts the            class & possibly when                it disrupts an                  individualshould I ad...
should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
A student’s cell phone rings inclass, how do you address it? Ignore it and                      Chastise the              ...
1. Educate Students About The   Effects of Disruption2. CommunicateYour   Expectations3. Address Disruptions
2 Resources to Help1. PowerPoint – Research &   Expectations2. Video – Research Only                             Back
1. Set groundrules/expectations2. Outline them in your syllabus3. Discuss them in your first class
   Silence or turn off electronic devices during class   Be considerate of others and avoid distracting    yourself and ...
   Silence or turn off electronic devices during class   Be considerate of others and avoid distracting    yourself and ...
   Silence or turn off electronic devices during class    and put them away during class. Cell phones    are prohibited i...
General Guidelines for Class Disruptions:   Pause instruction   Remedy the situation (if necessary)   Rehash ground rul...
General Guidelines for Individual Disruptions:   Privately address before or after class or    during a break
   Have students generate groundrules.   Display a PowerPoint slide (as students arrive    to class) at the beginning of...
1. Educate Students on Effects       2. Communicate Expectations           3.Address Disruptionsshould I addressdisruptive...
A number of studies  This depends onhave demonstrated 1. Educate students  whether thethatabout the effects of       techn...
Created by the       OIT – Instructional Technology Services                Heidi Beezley, Instructional Technologist     ...
   Benbennick, David. A left human ear. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ear.jpg.    Web. 7 June 2011. (CC Attribution-S...
   Bugeja, M. (2007). Distractions in the Wireless Classroom. Chronicle of Higher    Education, 53(21), C1-C4. Retrieved ...
   Makany, T., Kemp, J., & Dror, I. E. (2009). Optimising the use of note-taking as an external    cognitive aid for incr...
Ignore it and continue teachingInstructional time is not lost, but the instruction occurringduring the interruption will m...
Chastise the student for not silencing the phoneThis adversarial response informs the student that you areupset by the dis...
Wait & Regroup once resolvedSmall loss of instructional time, but students will notforget the instruction taught during th...
Classroom management dealing with disruptive technologies (AKA The Dark Side of Technology in Educational Contexts) - Dart...
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Classroom management dealing with disruptive technologies (AKA The Dark Side of Technology in Educational Contexts) - Darth Vader redacted

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This version of the presentation was delivered to faculty members of Georgia Perimeter College in the Fall of 2011 for the New Faculty Academy and the Part Time Faculty Symposium.

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  • This presentation is titled Classroom Management: Dealing with Disruptive Technologies
  • But an alternate name is “Resisting the Seductive Call of the Dark Side” for reasons that will be revealed shortly.
  • Jackson is concentrating on an in-class quiz in his history class when across the room, a cell phone rings. How does the ring affect Jackson and the other students? What are other ways that technology could “disrupt” instruction in a classroom?Do you think that students looking up information relevant to lecture or taking notes would be a disruptive technology?
  • In today’s world, students come to class with a variety of technology tools that are meant to help them stay connected and help them learn.
  • The problem is that you come to class in order to learn (click to reveal individual in yellow box), and this requires attention to any lecture, group-work, film, or other informational medium used in class. But cell phones (click to reveal cell phone) and laptops (click to reveal person with laptop) often compete for the attention of students. This affects learning because it causes (click twice to reveal text “Learning & Split Attention”) what is called split attention. This is when (click to reveal the brain) the brain is focused in two different directions (click twice to reveal the two arrows).
  • There is a good side to technology. (click to reveal additional text) Technology is a force for the good when it (click to reveal first bullet & reveal subsequent bullets only after you’ve discussed the previous one)Increases Productivity – such as making note-taking easier and fasterIncreases Access – allows us to quickly find answers to questionsConnects Us – allows us to share notes or discuss things more easilyAllows Us to Create – such as when it makes it easier for us to create diagrams or mindmaps of informationMakes Our Lives Easier
  • Although technology generally helps us, it also has a dark side. Disruption (click to reveal additional text) is technology’s Dark Side. You may have experienced this dark side if you attempted to text while driving and found that you swerved a bit or didn’t realize the car in front of you was slowing down and you had to quickly react to correct the problem. The dark side affects educational settings as well because it causes something called Split Attention.
  • As we learn, our primary pathways to memory are the visual and phonetic. These work together. As long as they are focused toward the same task, they compliment each other in the learning environment.
  • It is visual and auditory information above and beyond the lecture presentation that leads to multi-tasking. Is dividing attention between simultaneously occurring tasks a problem?
  • How do disruptions affect cognition? Jill T. Shelton, et al. conducted four experiments measuring the effect of a sound on cognitive performance. Two studies were outside of a “real-world” setting and two were done in a college classroom. In the college classroom studies, students were presented information related to prenatal development. Information included the development of multiple sensory systems. During the presentation of one of the sensory systems (i.e. either taste or auditory) a phone rang (click to reveal the ring)
  • At the end of the class students were given a brief 10-question quiz. One question, the control question, asked about the development of one of the sensory systems that was not interrupted by a cell phone ring. The experimental question asked a structurally identical question about the sensory system that was presented during the phone ring. What do you expect was the result?
  • Students were significantly more likely to incorrectly answer quiz questions related to the information presented at the time of the ring. In experiment 3a, the phone ring was accompanied by an individual near the front pretending to search for the phone in the backpack. In experiment 3b, only the ring disrupted the class. (click to reveal the graph) On the quiz 26% - 40% more students missed questions about the topic presented during the phone ring.
  • Research continues to indicate that visual and auditory disruptions decrease retention and comprehension of material. This includes visual disruptions such as un-related movement on computer screens (such as Twitter, Facebook, and email notifications), students getting up to walk out of the room to answer a call, students searching for a device to silence it, and more. Disruptions also include auditory disruptions such as phones ringing, computer alert noises, etc.
  • How does multi-tasking affect cognition? There are a number of studies that have documented negative affects of mulit-tasking. One study observed the effect of laptop use on retention of material presented during class in a class where all students had a college issued laptop. One group of students were asked to attend class and keep their laptops closed. The other group was asked to keep their laptops open (but no requirements or expectations were outlined for how these would be used).
  • At the end of the class, students were given a brief quiz about the material that was covered.
  • Students who had their laptops closed scored approximately 10 points higher than counterparts who had their laptops open.
  • What was more interesting about this study is that scores were not higher if the student used the laptop for on-task purposes. (click to reveal each of two groups) Instead, students who were browsers performed better than students who were seekers.
  • Browsers were defined as individuals who used technology rarely and briefly (click to reveal “Quick Use”) while students who were seekers used the computer more often and for longer periods of time (click to reveal “Extended Use”). Students who used the laptop more (regardless of whether it was for on-task or off-task purposes) performed worse than those that used the laptop more infrequently.
  • To summarize, there was no clear link between whether the use of the laptop was on-task or off-task and performance. Instead, what was an indicator was the amount of time on the laptop regardless of whether it was on related or unrelated content. A quote from the study was that “The sustained distraction, regardless of content relevance appears to be the nemesis of the multitasker; if one is adroit at staccato-like browsing, processing multiple inputs simultaneously may not suffer to thesame extent.”
  • (click to reveal the second bullet) Another study revealed that multi-taskers are more likely to learn using the part of the brain associated with building habits and single-taskers are more likely to learn using the part associated with declarative memory. Habit learning, that occurs in the striatum, involves the gradual acquisition of behavioral tendencies and is associated with automaticity while declarative memory is flexibly accessible. Students who learned the material using declarative memory were better able to apply their learning in new contexts and consider and use what they learned more flexibly.Habit Forming memory - striatumDelcarative memory - medial temporal lobeSo for example, knowledge that is learned and stored in declarative memory can be easily used in other contexts, but knowledge learned in habit memory is generally only useful in similar circumstances.Article found at: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/31/11778.full.pdf
  • (Click to reveal the first bullet) Another study compared heavy media multi-taskers to light media multi-taskers. Those that were heavy multi-taskers had a higher opinion of their ability to multi-task compared to light media multi-taskers. However, the heavy multi-taskers(click to reveal the next bullet) had more trouble filtering out irrelevant stimuli. That is, their attention was more easily drawn away from the primary task by irrelevant stimuli. Also (click to reveal the next bullet) heavy media-multi-taskers were shown to be less effective task switchers. Switching tasks took more time.
  • Research continues to indicate that visual and auditory disruptions decrease retention and comprehension of material. This includes visual disruptions such as un-related movement on computer screens (such as Twitter, Facebook, and email notifications), students getting up to walk out of the room to answer a call, students searching for a device to silence it, and more. Disruptions also include auditory disruptions such as phones ringing, computer alert noises, etc.
  • What does research on distractions and multi-tasking reveal? The split attention caused by multi-tasking and momentary distractions like cellphone rings.. (click to reveal first bullet) Significantly reduces retention (click to reveal the second bullet) and results in less flexible use of retained information.
  • Recognize that violations are likely due to accidents (i.e. forgetting to turn off cell-phones, computer noises) – This is different than vocal disruptions where a choice is made to interrupt. Technology requires remembering to silence.
  • Recognize that violations are likely due to accidents (i.e. forgetting to turn off cell-phones, computer noises) – This is different than vocal disruptions where a choice is made to interrupt. Technology requires remembering to silence.
  • Recognize that violations are likely due to accidents (i.e. forgetting to turn off cell-phones, computer noises) – This is different than vocal disruptions where a choice is made to interrupt. Technology requires remembering to silence.
  • (Click to reveal each bullet individually) Discuss each ground rule one at a time.
  • (Click to reveal each bullet individually) Discuss each ground rule one at a time.
  • (Click to reveal each bullet individually) Discuss each ground rule one at a time.
  • Classroom management dealing with disruptive technologies (AKA The Dark Side of Technology in Educational Contexts) - Darth Vader redacted

    1. 1. Dealing with Disruptive Technologies
    2. 2. In Educational Contexts
    3. 3. Scenario
    4. 4. Realities
    5. 5. “Over the course of a riveting 75-minute discussion of the birth ofGandhian non-violent activism, I found myself becoming increasinglydistressed as I watched students cruising Facebook, checking out theNY Times, editing photo collections, texting, reading PeopleMagazine, shopping for jeans, dresses, sweaters, and shoes onEbay, Urban Outfitters and J. Crew, reorganizing their socialcalendars, emailing on Gmail and AOL, playing solitaire, doinghomework for other classes, chatting on AIM, and buying tickets onExpedia.”(Waitskin, 2011)
    6. 6. Learning &The ProblemSplit Attention
    7. 7. Technology is a Forcethe Good forwhen it: • Increases Productivity • Increases Access • Connects Us • Allows Us to Create • Makes Our Lives Easier
    8. 8. isDisruptiontechnology’s Dark Side
    9. 9. should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    10. 10. should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    11. 11. Visual PhoneticPathway Pathway
    12. 12. Looking at a PowerPoint Looking at a laptop screen Visual PhoneticPathway Pathway
    13. 13. Listening to Lecture Listening to Phone RingPhoneticPathway
    14. 14. Distractions Multi-Tasking
    15. 15. Un-intentional & Intermittent Disruptions
    16. 16. Study by Jill T. Shelton, et al. (2009)
    17. 17. ExamExperimental Control Study by Jill T. Shelton, et al. (2009)
    18. 18.  (Shelton, J.T. et al., 2009) 80 70 60 50 Experiment 3a 40 30 20 Experiment 3b 10 0 Experimental Control Question Question
    19. 19. Visual and auditory disruptions decrease retention and comprehension of materialDistractions
    20. 20. Intentional & Extended Disruption
    21. 21. Two Groups Open Laptop Closed Laptop Group Group(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    22. 22. Quiz(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    23. 23. (Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    24. 24. Browsers Seekers Laptop Open Users Divided Into 2 Groups(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    25. 25. Browsers Seekers Quick Use Extended Use(Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    26. 26. (Hembrooke and Gay, 2003)
    27. 27.  Multi-taskers learn less flexibly (Foerde, et al., 2006) Habit Declarative . Multi-taskers Single-taskers
    28. 28.  Heavy Media Multi-taskers exhibit reduced cognitive control Less Difficulty effective filtering out task irrelevant switchers stimuli(Ophir, et. al.,2009)
    29. 29. • Less Accurate • Learned less flexibly • Worse at multi-taskingMulti-Tasking
    30. 30. The split attention caused by multi-tasking andmomentary distractions like cellphone rings… Significantly reduces retention Results in less flexible use of retained information Distractions Multi-Tasking
    31. 31. Because it diminishes the effectiveness of instructionshould I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    32. 32. should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    33. 33. Disruption Disruption for for theIndividual Class Disruptive Technology
    34. 34. Disruption for Texting Surfing the WebIndividual Updating Taking Facebook Notes Buying Checking Shoes Email Doing Playing Looking Homework Games Things Up
    35. 35. Percent of studentsOff-task behavior engaging in this behaviorChecking e-mail 95.2%Web-surfing 75.3%Instant messaging 57.2%Preparing for another class 36.1%Playing online games 18.1%Playing offline games 17.5%Other 7.8%
    36. 36.  Deny Access Address on a Case-by-Case Basis Allow Choice
    37. 37. Percent of studentsOn-task behavior engaging in this behaviorTaking notes on class discussions 92.9%Reviewing notes from past 82.2%classes/readingsAccessing online research materials 66.9%relevant to class discussionLooking up answers to a question the 36.7%professor has posedOther 9.5%Making a recording of lecture/discussion 5.9%
    38. 38. Disruption Obvious Clicking & for the Texting Tapping ClassPhones ComputerRinging Sounds Showing your Email and computer Text screen Notifications Taking a Getting Up Call to Plug In
    39. 39. Beginning of the Semester Beginning of Each Class At the Time of Disruption
    40. 40. When it disrupts the class & possibly when it disrupts an individualshould I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    41. 41. should I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    42. 42. A student’s cell phone rings inclass, how do you address it? Ignore it and Chastise the Wait & Regroup continue student for not once resolved teaching silencing phone Scenario
    43. 43. 1. Educate Students About The Effects of Disruption2. CommunicateYour Expectations3. Address Disruptions
    44. 44. 2 Resources to Help1. PowerPoint – Research & Expectations2. Video – Research Only Back
    45. 45. 1. Set groundrules/expectations2. Outline them in your syllabus3. Discuss them in your first class
    46. 46.  Silence or turn off electronic devices during class Be considerate of others and avoid distracting yourself and others with technology. It is your choice whether you multi-task during class. If multi-tasking distracts others or appears to adversely affect your performance, you will be asked not to use the electronic device during class. If there is an emergency or urgent situation and you may need to respond to a call, inform the instructor, sit near the door, and discreetly and quickly exit before responding to the call. Students that continue to disrupt class will be asked to leave according to GPC Policy 113.
    47. 47.  Silence or turn off electronic devices during class Be considerate of others and avoid distracting yourself and others with technology. It is your choice whether you multi-task during class. However, you are responsible for material taught, and the instructor will not repeat or review information missed due to multi-tasking. If there is an emergency or urgent situation and you may need to respond to a call, inform the instructor, sit near the door, and discreetly and quickly exit before responding to the call. Students that continue to disrupt class will be asked to leave according to GPC Policy 113
    48. 48.  Silence or turn off electronic devices during class and put them away during class. Cell phones are prohibited in class rooms according to GPC Policy 206. Be considerate of others and avoid distracting yourself and others with technology. If there is an emergency or urgent situation and you may need to respond to a call, inform the instructor, sit near the door, and discreetly and quickly exit before responding to the call. Students that continue to disrupt class will be asked to leave according to GPC Policy 113. Back
    49. 49. General Guidelines for Class Disruptions: Pause instruction Remedy the situation (if necessary) Rehash ground rules and reasons for them Re-group – remind students of where you were when you left off
    50. 50. General Guidelines for Individual Disruptions: Privately address before or after class or during a break
    51. 51.  Have students generate groundrules. Display a PowerPoint slide (as students arrive to class) at the beginning of class that asks students to silence or turn off electronic devices. Dock participation points for students who abuse the use of technology.
    52. 52. 1. Educate Students on Effects 2. Communicate Expectations 3.Address Disruptionsshould I addressdisruptivetechnologies?
    53. 53. A number of studies This depends onhave demonstrated 1. Educate students whether thethatabout the effects of technological technology disruptsdistraction during or only the individual disruptionlearning: 2. students. Three all Communicate your good times to address expecations• disruption are: Significantly reduces (through retention groundrules) • Address disruptions 3. At the beginning of• Results inhappen in a the they less flexible as semester •use the beginning of At of retained way that minimizes information each class additional • As disruptions occur disruption
    54. 54. Created by the OIT – Instructional Technology Services Heidi Beezley, Instructional Technologist August 2011You are free to share and remix this work as long as your use is noncommercial, providesattribution, and share alike any derivative work
    55. 55.  Benbennick, David. A left human ear. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ear.jpg. Web. 7 June 2011. (CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported) Enright, Andrew. Laptop – Closed.jpg. 2005. http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewcoulterenright/62884682/ Fri. 10 June 2011 (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic) Euskalanto. Human Brain.jpg. 2004. http://www.flickr.com/photos/17657816@N05/1971826491/. Web. 31 May 2011. (CC Attribution-NonCommercial Share Alike 2.0 Generic) Euskalanto. Human brain, medial view.jpg. 2004. http://www.flickr.com/photos/17657816@N05/1971827663/. Web. Fri. 10 June 2011 (CC Attribution-NonCommercial Share Alike 2.0 Generic) Euskalanto. Human brain, lateral view.jpg. 2004. http://www.flickr.com/photos/17657816@N05/1971828859/in/photostream/. Web. Fri. 10 June 2011 (CC Attribution-NonCommercial Share Alike 2.0 Generic) NASA. A Swarm of Ancient Stars. http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/SMALL/GPN- 2000-000930.jpg/. Web. 31 May 2011.
    56. 56.  Bugeja, M. (2007). Distractions in the Wireless Classroom. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(21), C1-C4. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. http://proxygsu- dek1.galileo.usg.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN =23897140&site=ehost-live Bugeja, M. (2008). The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor?. Futurist, 42(1), 68-66. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Cole, S., & Kosc, G. (2010). Quit Surfing and Start "Clicking": One Professors Effort to Combat the Problems of Teaching the U.S. Survey in a Large Lecture Hall. History Teacher, 43(3), 397-410. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Fink III, J. L. (2010). Why We Banned Use of Laptops and "Scribe Notes" in Our Classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(6), 1-2. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Foerde, K., Knowlton, B. J., & Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(31), 11778-11783. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602659103 Glenn, D. (2010). Divided Attention. Chronicle of Higher Education, 56(21), B6-B8. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. http://proxygsu- dek1.galileo.usg.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN =48278407&site=ehost-live Hembrooke, H. & Gay, Geri. (2003). The Laptop and the Lecture: The Effects of Multitasking in Learning Environments. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 15(1), ?-?. Jill T. Shelton et al., The distracting effects of a ringing cell phone: An investigation of the laboratory and..., Journal of Environmental Psychology (2009), doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.03.001
    57. 57.  Makany, T., Kemp, J., & Dror, I. E. (2009). Optimising the use of note-taking as an external cognitive aid for increasing learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(4), 619-635. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00906.x Markel, G. (2009). HOW LEARNING PROFESSIONALS CAN Keep Technology Distractions at Bay. T+D, 63(9), 68-69. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Murray, K. E. (2011). LET THEM USE LAPTOPS: DEBUNKING THE ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE DEBATE OVER LAPTOPS IN THE CLASSROOM. Oklahoma City University Law Review, 185- 229. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Ophir, E., Nass, C., & Wagner, A. D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(37), 15583-15587. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903620106 Paridon, H. M., & Kaufmann, M. (2010). Multitasking in work-related situations and its relevance for occupational health and safety: Effects on performance, subjective strain and physiological parameters. Europes Journal of Psychology, 110-124. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Stephens, B. R. (2005). Laptops in psychology: Conducting flexible in-class research and writing laboratories. New directions for teaching and learning, 2005(101), 15-26. Waitskin, J. (n.d.). Distractions and Multitasking Virus in Our Classrooms. Building healthy relationships and letting go of unhealthy relationships. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from http://www.support4change.com/general/books/excerpt/distracted.html Young, J. R. (2006). The Fight for Classroom Attention: Professor vs. Laptop. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(39), A27-A29. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. http://proxygsu- dek1.galileo.usg.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN =21116420&site=ehost-live
    58. 58. Ignore it and continue teachingInstructional time is not lost, but the instruction occurringduring the interruption will most likely not beremembered. Choose an alternate approach Response
    59. 59. Chastise the student for not silencing the phoneThis adversarial response informs the student that you areupset by the disruption, but students likely already areaware of this. Choose an alternate approach Response
    60. 60. Wait & Regroup once resolvedSmall loss of instructional time, but students will notforget the instruction taught during the time of thedisruption. Best Option! Response

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