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Which code to specify for ball valves?

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Explain the differences between the code for pipeline ball valves (API 6D) and that for process valves (API 608)

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Which code to specify for ball valves?

  1. 1. Piping codes, valve standards and ball valve selection Ron Manson, March 2015
  2. 2. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES Valve Requirements for Piping Codes - 2 ASME B31.1 - Power Piping, 2014 ASME B31.3 - Process Piping, 2012 ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries, 2012 ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 2012 All the above codes list valves as a piping component. See sections 101.1.1, 300.2, 400.1 & 803.2 respectively
  3. 3. ASME B31.1 - Power Piping, 2014 Listed valves (table 126.1) - ASME B16.34 - Valves – Flanged, Threaded and Weld End MSS SP67 - Butterfly Valves MSS SP68 - High Pressure Butterfly Valves with Offset Design Note: the list excludes cast iron and bronze valves 107 VALVES 107.1 General (A) Valves complying with the standards and specifications listed in Table 126.1 shall be used within the specified pressure–temperature ratings. Unless otherwise required in the individual standards and specifications listed in Table 126.1, such steel valves shall be pressure tested in accordance with MSS SP-61. (B) Valves not complying with (A) above shall be of a design, or equal to the design, that the manufacturer recommends for the service as stipulated in para. 102.2.2. Such valves shall be pressure tested in accordance with MSS SP-61.
  4. 4. ASME B31.3 - Process Piping, 2012 Listed valves (table 326.1) - ASME B16.34 - Valves – Flanged, Threaded and Weld End MSS SP72 - Ball Valves with Flanged or Butt-Welding Ends for General Service API 608 - Metal Ball Valves-Flanged, Threaded and Welding Ends Note: the list excludes cast iron and bronze valves 307 VALVES AND SPECIALTY COMPONENTS The following requirements for valves shall also be met as applicable by other pressure containing piping components, such as traps, strainers, and separators. See also Appendix F, paras. F301.4 and F307. 307.1 General 307.1.1 Listed Valves. A listed valve is suitable for use in Normal Fluid Service, except as stated in para. 307.2. 307.1.2 Unlisted Valves. Unlisted valves may be used only in accordance with para. 302.2.3. Unless pressure–temperature ratings are established by the method set forth in ASME B16.34, pressure design shall be qualified as required by para. 304.7.2
  5. 5. ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries, 2012 Listed valves (table 423.1.1) - ASME B16.34 - Valves – Flanged, Threaded and Weld End MSS SP68 - High Pressure Butterfly Valves with Offset Design MSS SP72 - Ball Valves with Flanged or Butt-Welding Ends for General Service API 600 - Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-welding Ends, Bolted Bonnets, Twelfth Edition API 602 - Steel Gate, Globe and Check Valves for Sizes DN 100 and Smaller for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries, 9th Ed API 603 - Corrosion-resistant, Bolted Bonnet Gate Valves-Flanged and Butt-welding Ends, Eighth Edition API 6D - Specification for Pipeline and Piping Valves, 24th Ed API 6A - Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Note: the list excludes cast iron and bronze valves
  6. 6. ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries, 2012 404.5 Valves 404.5.1 General. Steel valves conforming to standards and specifications listed in Tables 423.1-1 and 426.1-1 may be used. These valves may contain certain cast, malleable, or wrought iron parts as provided for in API 6D. Cast iron valves conforming to standards and specifications listed in Tables 423.1-1 and 426.1-1 may be used for pressures not to exceed 250 psi (17 bar). Care shall be exercised to prevent excessive mechanical loading (see para. 404.4.8.3). Working pressure ratings of the steel parts of steel valves are applicable with the temperature limitations of -20°F (-30°C) to 250°F (120°C) (see para. 401.2.2.4). Where resilient, rubber-like, or plastic materials are used for sealing, they shall be capable of withstanding the fluid, pressure, and temperature specified for the piping system. 404.5.2 Special Valves. Special valves not listed in Tables 423.1-1 and 426.1-1 shall be permitted, provided that their design is of at least equal strength and tightness and they are capable of withstanding the same test requirements as covered in these standards, and structural features satisfy the material specification and test procedures of valves in similar service set forth in the listed standards.
  7. 7. ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 2012 Listed valves (table 423.1.1) - ASME B16.33 - Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems up to 175 psi (Sizes NPS1/2 Through NPS 2) ASME B16.34 - Valves — Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End ASME B16.38 - Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution: Manually Operated, NPS 21 .2 (DN 65) to NPS 12 (DN 300), 125 psig (8.6 bar) Maximum API 6D - Specification for Pipeline and Piping Valves, 24th Ed API 6A - Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Note: the list excludes cast iron and bronze valves
  8. 8. ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 2012 831.1 Valves and Pressure-Reducing Devices 831.1.1 Valves Without Threads. Valves shall conform to standards and specifications referenced in this Code and shall be used only in accordance with the service recommendations of the manufacturer. (a) Valves manufactured in accordance with the following standards may be used: see previous list. (b) Valves having shell (body, bonnet, cover, and/or end flange) components made of cast ductile iron in compliance with ASTM A395 and having dimensions conforming to ASME B16.1, ASME B16.33, ASME B16.34, ASME B16.38, ASME B16.40, or API 6D/ISO 14313 may be used at pressures not exceeding 80% of the pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temperature, provided the pressure does not exceed 1,000 psig (6 900 kPa), and welding is not employed on any ductile iron component in the fabrication of the valve shells or their assembly as part of the piping system. (c) Valves having shell components made of cast iron shall not be used in gas piping components for compressor stations.
  9. 9. Federal Codes for Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline §192.145 Valves. Link to an amendment published at 80 FR 181, Jan. 5, 2015. (a) Except for cast iron and plastic valves, each valve must meet the minimum requirements of API 6D (incorporated by reference, see §192.7), or to a national or international standard that provides an equivalent performance level. A valve may not be used under operating conditions that exceed the applicable pressure- temperature ratings contained in those requirements. (b) Each cast iron and plastic valve must comply with the following: (1) The valve must have a maximum service pressure rating for temperatures that equal or exceed the maximum service temperature. (2) The valve must be tested as part of the manufacturing, as follows: (i) With the valve in the fully open position, the shell must be tested with no leakage to a pressure at least 1.5 times the maximum service rating. (ii) After the shell test, the seat must be tested to a pressure not less than 1.5 times the maximum service pressure rating. Except for swing check valves, test pressure during the seat test must be applied successively on each side of the closed valve with the opposite side open. No visible leakage is permitted.
  10. 10. Federal Codes for Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline (iii) After the last pressure test is completed, the valve must be operated through its full travel to demonstrate freedom from interference. (c) Each valve must be able to meet the anticipated operating conditions. (d) No valve having shell (body, bonnet, cover, and/or end flange) components made of ductile iron may be used at pressures exceeding 80 percent of the pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temperature. However, a valve having shell components made of ductile iron may be used at pressures up to 80 percent of the pressure ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temperature, if: (1) The temperature-adjusted service pressure does not exceed 1,000 p.s.i. (7 Mpa) gage; and (2) Welding is not used on any ductile iron component in the fabrication of the valve shells or their assembly. (e) No valve having shell (body, bonnet, cover, and/or end flange) components made of cast iron, malleable iron, or ductile iron may be used in the gas pipe components of compressor stations. [35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989; Amdt. 192-85, 63 FR 37502, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 192-94, 69 FR 32894, June 14, 2004; Amdt. 192-114, 75 FR 48603, Aug. 11, 2010]
  11. 11. Federal Codes for Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline §195.116 Valves. Link to an amendment published at 80 FR 186, Jan. 5, 2015. Each valve installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The valve must be of a sound engineering design. (b) Materials subject to the internal pressure of the pipeline system, including welded and flanged ends, must be compatible with the pipe or fittings to which the valve is attached. (c) Each part of the valve that will be in contact with the carbon dioxide or hazardous liquid stream must be made of materials that are compatible with carbon dioxide or each hazardous liquid that it is anticipated will flow through the pipeline system. (d) Each valve must be both hydrostatically shell tested and hydrostatically seat tested without leakage to at least the requirements set forth in Section 11 of API Standard 6D (incorporated by reference, see §195.3). (e) Each valve other than a check valve must be equipped with a means for clearly indicating the position of the valve (open, closed, etc.). (f) Each valve must be marked on the body or the nameplate, with at least the following: Not shown in this presentation
  12. 12. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES Comparison of Valve Standards API 6D vs API 608 12 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Scope This specification defines the requirements for the design, manufacturing, assembly, testing, and documentation of ball, check, gate, and plug valves for application in pipeline and piping systems for the petroleum and natural gas industries. This specification is not applicable to valves for pressure ratings exceeding Class 2500. If product is supplied bearing the API Monogram and manufactured at a facility licensed by API, the requirements of Annex A applies. Annexes B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, and O are annexes that are used in order listed. 1.1 This standard specifies the requirements for metal ball valves suitable for petroleum, petrochemical and industrial applications that have flanged ends in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 20 (DN 15 through DN500); butt-welding ends in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 20 (DN 15 through DN 500); socket-welding ends in sizes NPS 1/4 through NPS 2 (DN 8 through DN 50); threaded ends in sizes NPS 1/4 through NPS 2 (DN 8 through DN 50). Corresponding to the nominal pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M.This standard applies to metal ball valves with pressure classes as follows; flanged ends in Classes 150, 300 and 600 (PN 16, 25, 40 and 100);butt-welding ends in Classes 150, 300 and 600 (PN 16, 25, 40 and 100); socket-welding ends in Classes 150, 300, 600 and 800 (PN 16, 25, 40 and 100); threaded ends in Classes 150, 300, 600 and 800 (PN 16, 25, 40 and 100). 1 Conformance 1.2 Units of measurement Addressed 1.2.1 Not addressed Rounding Addressed 1.2.2 Not addressed Conformance with Specification Addressed 1.3 Not addressed Processes Requiring Validation Addressed 1.4 Not addressed
  13. 13. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES13 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Normative references 2 2 Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Units 3 3 Terms and Definitions 3.1 Acronyms and Abbreviations Addressed 3.2 Not addressed Symbols and Units Addressed 3.3 Not addressed Valves types and configurations 4 Valve types Covers Ball, Gate, Check and Plug Valves. Example of covered valve given (Valve Drawing) 4.1 Covers Ball Valves only (No valve Drawings) 1 Valve configurations Full-opening valves shall have an internal minimum cylindrical opening for categorizing bore size as specified in Table 1. Minimum valve bore values given, (NPS 0.5 - NPS 60). Obturator and seat dimensions shall meet Table 1. For valve not covered in Table 1, the size and bore shall be by agreement and the manufacture shall stamp the size and bore on the nameplate. For Reduced-opening valves: - valves NPS 4 (DN 100) to NPS 12 (DN 300): one size below nominal size of valve with bore according to Table 1, - valves NPS 14 (DN 350) to NPS 24 (DN 600): two sizes below nominal size of valve with bore according to Table 1. 4.2 Flow passageway in this standard categorized as full bore; single reduced bore and double reduced bore. Minimum cylindrical diameter for categorizing bore size given, (NPS 0.25 - NPS 20) 5.2
  14. 14. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES14 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Design 5 Design standards and calculations In accordance with an internationally recognized design code: e.g. ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Division 1 or Division 2; ASME B16.34; EN 12516- 1 or EN 12516-2; and EN 13445-3. 5.1 Meet the requirements of Standard Class valves per ASME B16.34 5 Wall Thickness Referenced from ASME B16.34 orASME Section VIII. 5.1 In accordance to requirements of ASME B16.34 5.3. 1 Pressure and temperature rating In ASME rating class. Pressure-temperature ratings for class-rated valves is based per ASME B16.34 and Class 400 valves is based per ASME B16.5. Covers up to Class 2500 maximum. NOTE: It is not required that identical material or material form be used for body and bonnet or cover parts. Pressure-temperature ratings are based on material group of valve's end connection. Where the valve ends are made from material in two different groups, the material with the lower pressure–temperature rating shall govern. Valves with flanged end(s) shall not be designed to an intermediate rating due to the risk of the valve being transferred to a different application, which may utilize the full flange rating. Manufacturer shall advise any limits on the design pressures and the minimum and maximum design temperatures due to nonmetallic parts. 5.2 Valve rating shall be the lesser of the shell rating or seat rating. Valve shell rating shall be the rating for the shell material as listed for Standard Class in ASME B16.34. Covers up to Class 600 (Class 150, 300, and 600) for flanged and butt-welding ends, and up to Class 800 (Class 150, 300, 600 and 800) for socket-welding and threaded ends. 1.2, 4 Sizes International Standard, NPS sizes are stated first followed by the equivalent DN size between brackets. Values given up to NPS 60" for class 150-600. 5.3 Nominal Pipe Size covers NPS up to NPS 20" 1.2
  15. 15. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES15 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Sizes International Standard, NPS sizes are stated first followed by the equivalent DN size between brackets. Values given up to NPS 60" for class 150-600. 5.3 Nominal Pipe Size covers NPS up to NPS 20" 1.2 Ball-stem design and construction Not addressed Contains Requirements for strength of ball to stem connection and location of weakest part of stem 5.5 Packing glands and gland bolting Not addressed Requires adjustable packing glands 5.7 Face-to-face and End-to-end Dimensions Values given, or per ASME B16.10 for valve sizes not specified. Tolererances of +/- 1.5mm for NPS 10 and smaller. Tolerance of +/- 3.0mm for NPS 12 and larger. In some cases the support legs on some valve designs may have to be extended beyond the end- to-end dimensions to assure that the valve can be safely supported. These extensions shall be able to be removed if required after installation. 5.4 Face to face dimensions of flanged valves & end-to- end dimensions of butt-welding end valves per ASME B16.10 ball valves—long or short pattern. End to end dimensions for threaded and socket welding end valves - per manufacturers standard. 5.3. 2, 5.3. 3 Valve operation Criteria which determine which type of operator should be used: 1. Max. pressure differential (MPD) 2. Flow coefficient 3. Breakaway thrust or torque and the breakaway travel or angle 4. Valve run thrust or torque 5. Max. allowable stem thrust or torque on the valve 6. Number of turns for manually operated valves 5.5 Requirements for manual operators - lever type handles and gear operators - fitted with hand wheels are stated. 5.8 Pigging Purchaser specify pigging requirements 5.6 Not addressed
  16. 16. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES16 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Valve ends Flanged ends Specified dimensions, tolerances, and finishes, including drilling templates, flange facing, nut-bearing surfaces (i.e. spot facing and back facing), outside diameters, and thickness (see Figure 1) shall be in accordance with: - ASME B16.5 for sizes up to and including NPS 24 (DN 600) except NPS 22 (DN 550) - MSS SP-44 for NPS 22 (DN 550) - ASME B16.47, Series A for NPS 26 (DN 650) and larger sizes For valves with heavy wall sections, flanges with nut stops in accordance with Mandatory Appendix 2, Figure 2-4 (Sketch 12 or 12a) of ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Division 1 may be required. 5.7.1 End flanges & bonnet flanges - Dimensions and facing finish of end flanges shall conform to ASME B16.5. - Shall be cast or forged integral with the body. Cast or forged flanges attached by full penetration butt-welding may be used if agreed to by the purchaser. Flanges attached by welding -Paragraph 2.1.6 ASME B16.34. 5.3. 8 Welding ends - Conforms to ASME B31.3, ASME B31.4, or ASME B31.8 5.7.2 Butt-welding ends - Conforms to ASME B16.25 Socket-welding ends - Conforms to ASME B16.11, minimum wall thicknesses shall conform to Table 4 of ASME B16.34 5.3. 5, 5.3. 6 Alternate valve end connections - specified by purchaser 5.7.3 Threaded ends shall have taper pipe threads - ASME B1.20.1, minimum wall thicknesses shall conform to Table 4 of ASME B16.34 5.3. 7 Valve Cavity Pressure Relief Valve cavity relief pressure when added to the valve pressure rating shall not exceed 133 % of the valve pressure rating at maximum specified design temperature. To achieve a higher cavity relief pressure, the valve shell shall be designed and tested to withstand a higher hydrostatic shell test pressure. If a relief valve fitted to the cavity is required, purchaser may specify provisions to facilitate in service testing. External cavity relief valves shall be NPS 1/2 (DN 15) or larger. Cavity relief testing and functionality may be demonstrated by tests in H.8.2 for trunnion mounted ball valves and gate valves. Floating ball valve functionality may be demonstrated by agreement. 5.8 Each valve shall be tested in accordance with AP1 598 7.3
  17. 17. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES17 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Drains Drilled and threaded unless otherwise specified. Tapered threads shall be capable of providing a seal and comply with ASME B1.20.1; Parallel threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1 or ISO 228-1. Minimum sizes shall be in accordance with Table 2. 5.9 Drain, bypass or other types of auxiliary connections - ASME B16.34 5.3. 10 Injection points For sealant, lubrication, or flushing may be provided for seats and/or stem. When provided, the injection points shall incorporate a check valve and a secondary means of isolation for each injection point. Sealant fittings shall have a design pressure not less than the greater of the pipeline or piping valve rated pressure and the injection pressure. 5.10 Not addressed Drain, vent and sealant lines • Drain and vent lines shall: - Have design pressure not less thn the rated pressure of the valve on which they are installed - Be capable of withstanding the hydrostatic shell test pressure of the valve - Be designed in accordance with a recognized design code - Be suitable for blow –down operation • Sealant lines design pressure not less than the greater of the pipeline valve rated pressure and the injection pressure 5.11 Not addressed Drain, Vent, and Sealant Valves • Drain and vent block valves shall have a rated pressure not less than the valve on which they are installed and be suitable for blow-down operation. • Block and check valves fitted to sealant injection lines shall be rated for the greater of the pipeline valve rated pressure & the injection pressure defined in 5.10 5.12 Not addressed
  18. 18. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES18 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Handwheels and Wrenches — Levers Max force to apply the breakaway torque or thrust shall not exceed 360N. Wrenches shall not longer than twice the face to face/ end to end dimension. Handwheel diameter shall not exceed 40in (1065 mm). Spokes shall not extend beyond the perimeter of the handwheel. Direction of closing shall be clockwise. 5.13 Length of lever handle or the gear ratio. Efficiency and handwheel diameter of gear operators shall be designed so that required input force to fully open and close valve shall not exceed 360N when operating at maximum published torque (5.5.3). Handwheel on manual gear operators - marked to indicate the direction of opening and/or closing. Lever type handles parallel to ball bore (indicates ball bore position). If round or oval directed mounted handwheel , means of indicating ball bore position is included in handwheel design. Direction of closing shall be clockwise. 5.8. 3, 5.8. 7 Locking Provision Purchaser specification.Locking devices for check valves shall be designed to lock valve in open position only. Locking devices for other types of valve shall be designed to lock the valve in the open and/or closed position. 5.14 Valves furnished with a lockable device that accepts a purchaser-supplied padlock - allows the valve to be locked in both the fully open and fully closed positions. Lockable device designed such that a lock with a 5/16-in. (8-mm) diameter shank, not more than 4.0 in. (102 mm) long can be inserted directly through hole(s) in lockable device and locked. 5.8. 11 Position of the Obturator Except for check valve, position of the obturator shall not be altered by dynamic forces of the passing flow or in the case of screw operated gate valves by forces generated from internal pressure. 5.15 Not addressed Position Indicators Position indicator shall be in line with the pipeline when the valve is open and transverse when the valve is closed. Valves without position stops shall have provision for the verification of open and closed alignment with the operator/actuator removed. 5.16 An indication of the position of ball bore of the valve shall be integral with the valve stem. This indication may be by permanent marking to the top of the stem, or by shape of exposed stem portion. 5.8. 8 Travel Stops Provided on valves which do not require mechanical force to effect a seal and/or operator and they shall be located at the position of the obturator in the open and closed position. Guidance for travel stops by valve type provided in Annex D. 5.17 Position stops shall be provided for both fully open and fully closed positions of valve. Position stops integral with packing gland, gland flange or gland bolting shall not be used. 5.8. 5, 5.8. 12
  19. 19. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES19 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Actuator, Operators, and Stem Extensions Output of the actuator shall not exceed the stress limits of the valve drive train permitted by 5.20.2. Actuator sizing and mounting kits shall be in accordance with API 6DX. Operators, stem extensions and their interfaces shall be sealed to prevent ingress of external contaminants and moisture. 5.18 Not addressed Lifting The manufacturer shall determine the need for and verify suitability of lifting points of the valve. The purchaser shall specify when lifting points on the valve are not required. 5.19 Not addressed Drive Trains Design thrust or torque to be at least 2x breakaway thrust or torque. Design stresses for tensile stress, shear stress (including torsional shear stress) and bearing stress shall comply with ASME BPVC, Section VIII. Average primary shear stress across a section loaded under design conditions in pure shear, e.g. keys, shear rings, screw threads, etc., shall be limited to 0.6 Sm. The maximum primary shear under design conditions, exclusive of stress concentration at the periphery of a solid circular section in torsion, shall be limited to 0.8 Sm. The drive train shall be designed such that the weakest component is outside the pressure boundary. 5.20 The torsional strength of both the stem-to- ball connection and the portion of the stem within the pressure boundary (below top of packing) shall exceed the torsional strength of the stem portion above the pressure boundary (above the top of the packing) by at least 10 %. The stem and the ball-to-stem connection shall have no occurance of permanent deformation and failure of any part when the torque applied is equal to the greater of: - 15 ft-lbs (20 N-m), or - twice the manufacturer’s maximum published torque. The manufacturer’s maximum published torque shall be based upon clean, dry air service at the maximum differential pressure rating of the valve. 5.5. 2 Stem Retention Valves shall be designed to ensure that the stem does not eject under any internal pressure condition or if the packing gland components and/or valve operator mounting components are removed. 5.21 The valve shall be designed to insure that if a failure occurs at the stem-to-ball connection or of the stem itself within the pressure boundary, no portion of the stem is ejected by internal pressure. 5.5. 1 Fire Type-testing If specified, shall be per one of the following: API 6FA, API 6FD, API 607, or ISO 10497. 5.22 Per API 607 10
  20. 20. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES20 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Antistatic Device Soft-seated ball, plug, and gate valves shall have an antistatic device.The electrical resistance between the obturator and the valve body and between the stem/shaft and the valve body shall be measured using a direct-current power source not exceeding 12 V. The resistance shall be measured on dry valves before pressure testing and shall not exceed 10 ohm. 5.23 Valves shall incorporate an antistatic feature that insures electrical continuity between the stem and body of valves ≤ NPS 2 and between ball, stem and body of valves > NPS 2. The anti-static feature shall have electrical continuity across the discharge path with a resistance not exceeding 10 ohms from a power source not exceeding 12VDC when type tested on a new, dry, as-built valve after open-close position cycling of the valve at least 5 times. 5.4 End Flange Face Interruptions Not addressed Defines the allowable disruptions on the flange gasket face: - Ring shaped radial gaps in the faces of end flanges of flanged ball valves, located in the sealing surface of a centered ASME B16.20 spiral-wound gasket, shall not exceed 0.030 in. (0.75 mm); see dimension b on Figure 1. An example of this condition is the radial gap that exists between the outer diameter of a body insert and the inner bore of the body end flange of a valve as shown in Figure B.1 - For ball valves designed with a body insert as shown in Figure B.1, with a gasket seating face outer diameter located within the sealing area of a centered ASME B16.20 spiral-wound gasket, the body insert flange face shall not protrude beyond the valve body end flange face. The body insert flange face shall not be recessed below the body end flange face by more than 0.010 in. (0.25 mm). See dimension a on Figure 1. 5.9
  21. 21. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES21 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Materials 6 6 Material Specification Issued by the manufacturer and address the following: material grade; chemical analysis; heat treatment; mechanical properties (tensile); certification to report all items listed in 6.1. Other requirements of the material specifications shall be as follows, if applicable: carbon equivalent (CE); Charpy impacts; hardness; testing. Pressure containing parts shall be per 5.2. Guidance on selection of material suppliers is given in Annex E. 6.1 Shell per ASME B16.34. Trim, stem seals, body seals, and gaskets shall have properties at least equal or better than shell material. Threaded plugs shall have same nominal composition as shell material. Higher material grades may be specified by purchaser. 6 Tensile Test Requirements Tensile test specimens shall be removed from a test coupon (TC) after final heat-treatment cycle, and shall be performed per ASTM A370 or ISO 6892-1. Minimum of one tensile test shall be performed. All yield strengths shall be determined using 0.2 % offset method. Results of tensile test(s) shall satisfy the applicable material specification requirements. Otherwise, two additional tests on two additional test specimens (removed from same TC with no additional heat treatment) may be performed. The result of each of these tests shall satisfy the applicable requirements. 6.2 Not addressed Service Compatibility All process-wetted parts, metallic and non-metallic, and lubricants shall be suitable for commissioning fluids and service specified by purchaser. Metallic materials to avoid corrosion and galling. Elastomeric materials for valves intended for rapid gas decompression gas service Class 600 and above to consider explosive decompression. 6.3 Not addressed Forged Parts All forged material(s) shall be formed using a hot-working practice and heat treatment that produces a forged structure throughout the material. 6.4 Not addressed
  22. 22. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES22 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Materials 6 6 Composition Limits The chemical composition of carbon steel welding ends shall meet the following requirements. - The carbon content shall not exceed 0.23 % by mass. - The sulfur content shall not exceed 0.020 % by mass. - The phosphorus content shall not exceed 0.025 % by mass. - The carbon equivalent (CE) shall not exceed 0.43 %. 6.5 Not addressed Toughness Test Requirements All carbon, alloy steels and non-austenitic stainless steel for pressure-containing parts with design temperature below -20 °F (- 29 °C) shall be impact-tested using the Charpy V-notch technique per ASTM A370/ISO 148-1. Striker of 8mm shall be used when using ISO 148-1. Bolting material tests will meet requirement of ASTM A320. Impact values for full-size specimens of duplex or super duplex stainless steels are as follows: a)average of three specimens: 33 ft lb (45 J) minimum; b)no single specimen less than 26 ft lb (35 J); c)Impact test temperature shall be –50 °F (–46 °C). Requirements for impact test results for full size specimens given in Table 3. If a test fails, then a retest of three additional specimens removed from the same TC, with no additional heat treatment, may be made, each of which shall exhibit an impact value equal to or exceeding the required average value. 6.6 Not addressed Bolting Carbon/low-alloy steel bolting material with hardness exceeding HRC 35 (HBW 321) not valid for valve applications with possible hydrogen embrittlement. 6.7 Bolting shall be intermediate strength as per ASME B16.5 as a minimum; pruchaser may specify higher grades of bolting materials 6.3 Sour Service Shall meet NACE MR0175 or ISO 15156 (all parts) or NACE MR0103, purchaser to specify the standard to be used. 6.8 Not addressed
  23. 23. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES23 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Materials 6 6 Drain Connections Threaded plugs shall be compatible with the valve body material or made from a corrosion-resistant material. 6.9 Not addressed Heat-treating Equipment Qualification All heat treating of parts and TCs shall be performed with “production-type” equipment. "Production-type" heat-treating equipment shall be considered equipment that is routinely used to process production parts. All heat treatment for mechanical properties shall be performed using furnaces calibrated in accordance with Annex F. Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be performed with heat-treat equipment meeting the requirements specified by the manufacturer. Furnaces shall be calibrated and surveyed at least annually, records shall be maintained for a minimum of five years. 6.10 Not addressed Welding 7 Welding Consumables Shall conform to the American Welding Society's or manufacturer's specifications. The manufacturer shall have a written procedure for storage and control of welding consumables. Materials of low-hydrogen type (including electrodes, wires and fluxes) shall be stored and used as recommended by manufacturer of welding consumables to retain their original low-hydrogen properties. 7.1 Not addressed Welding Procedure and Welder/Welding Operator Qualifications Welding shall be as per ASME BPVC, Section IX, or ISO 15607, ISO 15609, and ISO 15614-1. Welders and welding operators shall be qualified per ASME BPVC, Section IX or ISO 9606-1, or EN 287-1. All qualifications documented in PQR. PWHT performed in accordance with applicable material specification or design code. Weld overlay shall be as per ASME BPVC, Section IX, Articles II and III or ISO 15614-7. Chemical analysis of the weld metal shall be as per ASME BPVC, Section IX at the minimum overlay thickness as specified by manufacturer for the finished component. Weld overlay or clad welding with nickel-based alloy UNS N06625, the thickness chemical composition shall meet one of the classes listed below: — Class Fe 10: iron mass fraction 10.0 % maximum; or — Class Fe 5: iron mass fraction 5.0 % maximum, when specified by the purchaser. For all other composition, the chemical analysis of the weld overlay or clad welding shall conform to the manufacturer’s written specification. 7.2 Not addressed Impact Testing On valves with design temperature below -29 °C (-20 °F). HAZ testing per ASME BPVC, Section IX or ISO 9606-1, ISO 15607, ISO 15609, ISO 15614-1, and ISO 15608. Also per ASTM A370 or ISO 148-1 using the Charpy V-notch technique. 7.3 Not addressed Hardness Testing Hardness testing shall be as per NACE MR0175, ISO 15156 (all parts), or NACE MR0103. Hardness surveys shall be performed on BM, WM and HAZ per NACE MR0175, ISO 15156 (all parts), or NACE MR0103, 7.4 Not addressed Repair Weld repair of forgings and plates shall not be performed to correct material defects, unless otherwise agreed. However, weld repair can be used to correct machining errors. The weld repair shall be in accordance with the applicable material standard, including any PWHT, if applicable. 7.5 Not addressed Repair of welds Shall be performed as per applicable design code or standard listed in 5.1. 7.6 Not addressed Quality Control 8 NDE Requirements Final surface (MT and PT) and ultrasonic (UT) shall be conducted after final heat treatment or postweld heat treatment. Final radiography (RT) shall be conducted after final heat treatment, unless otherwise agreed. Shall be selected from the list in accordance with Annex G if specified by the purchaser. 8.1 Not addressed Measuring and Test Equipment Dimension, pressure, and temperature measuring equiptment specifications are given 8.2 Not addressed Qualification of Personnel NDE personnel and welding inspector qualifications are given 8.3 Not addressed NDE of Repairs Excavated area examined by MT or PT methods in accordance with Annex G. Repair welds examined using the same NDE method that was used to detect the defect with a minimum of MT or PT. The final NDE activities conducted after post weld heat treatment 8.4 Not addressed Weld End NDE Acceptance criteria per clauses G.24, G.26, or G.27, 8.5 Not addressed Visual Inspection of Castings Per MSS SP-55 as a minimum, with the following acceptance criteria: — Type 1: none acceptable; — Type 2 to 12: A and B only. 8.6 Not addressed Quality Specification Levels (QSLs) Annex J describes the QSLs including specific requirements for NDE, pressure testing, and documentation of the manufacturing process if specified by the purchaser. 8.7 Not addressed
  24. 24. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES24 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Pressure Testing 9 7.3 General Tested with seating/sealing surfaces free from sealant except where sealant is primary means of sealing. The water temperature shall not be greater than 100 °F (38 °C) during the testing period. Supply pressure shall be isolated from the valve being tested and shall be stabilized prior to the start of pressure testing duration. The pressure measuring device shall be installed in the test apparatus in such a manner that the device continuously monitors/records the test pressure of the valve assembly. 9.1 Tested according to API 598 7.3 Stem backseat test 1.1 times pressure rating for material at 100 °F (38 °C), no visually detectable leakage permitted. 9.2 Not addressed Hydrostatic shell test 1.5 times pressure rating for material at 100 °F (38 °C), no visually detectable leakage permitted. When the valve has been designed to withstand a higher hydrostatic shell test pressure per 5.8, the shell test pressure shall be 1.5 or more times the higher design pressure at 100 °F (38 °C). When performing a higher hydrostatic shell test and the valve is flanged, the hydrostatic shell test shall be performed with bore sealing plugs to ensure the flanges are not subjected to test pressures greater than 1.5 times the valve flange rating. If pipe pups are to be welded to the valve as part of the final assembly, the pressure rating of the pipe pups may be insufficient for the hydrostatic-shell test pressure, then the pups shall be welded to the valve following the valve- shell test and the valve and pup(s) tested at a pressure lower than the hydrostatic shell test not to exceed the test pressure of the pipe pups. 9.3 Not addressed Hydrostatic seat test 1.1 times pressure rating for material at 100 °F (38 °C). Acceptance criteria: - Soft-seated valves and lubricated plug valves: Per ISO 5208, Rate A (no visible detectable leakage) - Metal-seated valves (except check valves): Per ISO 5208, Rate D - Metal-seated check valves: Per ISO 5208, Rate G 9.4 Not addressed
  25. 25. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES25 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Testing of Drain, Vent, and Sealant Injection Lines Subject to hydrostatic test in accordance with 9.3. Lines may be tested seperately at test pressure in 9.3. The final assembly connection is subjected to hydrostatic test in 9.3. 9.6 Not addressed Draining Valves drained/dried/lubricated before shipment where applicable. 9.7 Prior to packaging or shipping, each valve shall be drained of test fluid, including draining of the body cavity area between seats and around ball, and cavities of “cored balls” if used. 9.1 Coating/Painting For non-corrosion resistant valves only. Preventative measures shall be taken to assure no foreign material enters internal cavity of valve. Corrosion-resistant valves, flange face and actuator mounting flange sealing surfaces, weld bevel ends, and exposed stems shall not be coated (refer to Annex L). Corrosion protection shall be provided using the manufacturer’s documented requirements for flange faces, weld bevel ends, exposed stems, and internal surfaces of valve. 10 Valves manufactured with shell materials shown in ASME B16.34 Group 1 shall have lead-free rust preventative coatings on all unmachined exterior body surfaces 9.2 Marking Valves shall be marked in accordance with the requirements of Table 7. Certain criteria may be ommitted if size/shape limits. The nameplate shall be attached to the valve body; however, based on valve design the nameplate may be attached to the bonnet/cover or end connector at the option of the manufacturer. For valves smaller than NPS 2 (DN 50), nameplate may be attached to valve with stainless steel wire, but may be ommitted only by agreeement. Marking on the body closure/end connector and bonnet/cover shall be not less than 0.25 in. (6 mm). The nameplate minimum letter size shall be 0.125 in. (3 mm) on valves sizes NPS 2 (DN 50) and larger. For all valves NPS 1.5 in (DN 38) and smaller, the nameplate letter size shall be per the manufacturer's standard. 11 The identification plate(s) shall be attached to the valve body by welding or by pins made from same materials allowed for identification plate. Per ASME B16.34. Special markings required for unidirectional valves. Shall be marked as "API 608". 8
  26. 26. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES26 API 6D INDEX API 6D 24TH EDITION, AUGUST 2014 API 608, 4TH EDITION, DECEMBER 2008 Description Sec Description Sec Preparation for Shipment Plug, ball, and reverse-acting through-conduit gate valves shall be shipped in the fully open position, unless fitted with a fail-to-close actuator. Other gate valve types shall be shipped with the gate in the fully closed position. Check valves NPS 4 (DN 100) and larger shall be shipped with disc secured or supported. Valves shipped with stem extensions and without an operating mechanism shall have the annular space closed and the stem extension secured to the outer housing. 12 Drained of test fluid including body cavity area between seats and around ball. If export packaging is not specified, package to prevent damage during shipment. If specified, shipped in wooden boxes or crates and packed to prevent individual valves from moving 9 Documentation Required documents and conditions specified. A certificate of conformance to this specification shall be supplied together with the valves by manufacturer. 13 Not addressed Facility Requirements 14 Minimum Facility Requirements for the Assembler Category of Manufacturing The assembler (see 3.1.1) shall have on-site equipment and personnel to perform the required processes needed to produce the products under the scope of this specification as identified in Table 8. 14.1 Not addressed Activities Applicable to an Assembler Facility The activities for an assembler and applicable locations are given in Table 8. 14.2 Not addressed
  27. 27. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES27 Comparison of Valve Standards API 6D vs API 598 NOTE Per 6.4.3 of API 598: When closure testing gate, plug, and ball valves, a method of testing seat leakage shall be used that fills and fully pressurizes the body cavity to the test pressure between the seats and the bonnet area, as applicable, with the test fluid. Trunnion mounted ball valves cannot be seat tested to API 598 as the cavity is required to be pressurized. TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) HYDROSTATIC SHELL TEST Requirement Required for Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves Required for Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves Test Medium Air, inert gas, kerosene, water or non-corrosive liquid (viscosity ≤ water) Fresh water (may contain corrosion inhibitor - antifreeze) Temperature Range 41˚F - 122˚F (5˚C - 50˚C) 100˚F (38˚C) (Max) Test Pressure For ductile iron and cast iron (Refer to Table 1) For Steel: x 1.5 testing pressure as per ASMEB16.34 x 1.5 testing pressure as per ASME B16.34 Test Duration See attached Table 2 Acceptance Criteria No visible leakage through pressure boundary walls & fixed body joint. No visible leakage permitted.
  28. 28. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES28 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) BACKSEAT TEST Requirement Applicable for gate and globe valves only. Applicable for valves with backseat features. Test Medium Air, inert gas, kerosene, water or non-corrosive liquid (viscosity ≤ water) Fresh water (may contain corossion inhibitor - antifreeze) Temperature Range 41˚F - 122˚F (5˚C - 50˚C) 100˚F (38˚C) (Max) Test Pressure High Pressure: x 1.1 max allowable pressure Low Pressure: 60 - 100 psig x 1.1 testing pressure as per ASME B16.34 Test Duration See attached Table 2 Notes 'e' and 'f' per tables 1 & 2 are in error as a floating ball or a butterfly valve cannot be double block bleed. Acceptance Criteria No visible leakage permitted. No visible leakage permitted.
  29. 29. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES29 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) LOW PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST Test Low Pressure Closure Test Low-pressure Gas Seat Testing Requirement Ball Valve (Floatin g or Trunion) NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class ≤ 1500; or NPS > 4 & ASME Class ≤ 600 NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class > 1500; or NPS > 4 & ASME Class > 600 Optional Floating Trunnion Floating Trunnion Required Required Required Optional Gate, Plug, Globe, Check Valve NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class ≤ 1500 or NPS > 4 & ASME Class ≤ 600 NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class > 1500 or NPS > 4 & ASME Class > 600 Required: Gate, Plug Optional: Globe, Check, Lubricated Plug Optional
  30. 30. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES30 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) LOW PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST Test Medium Air / Inert gas Air / Nitrogen Temperature Range 41˚F - 122˚F (5˚C - 50˚C) 100˚F (38˚C) (Max) Test Pressure 60 - 100 psig Type 1 / Type 2 (Pneumatic Test) Type 1: 5 - 14.5 psig Type 2: 80 - 100 psig Test Duration See attached Table 2 Acceptance Criteria Visible leakage through disk, behind seat rings or past shaft seals is not permitted. (See attached Table 3) The acceptable leakage rate for low-pressure gas seat testing shall be: - Soft-seated: No visible leakage. - Metal-seated: ISO 5208, Rate D (See attached Table 4)
  31. 31. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES31 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST Test High Pressure Closure Test Hydrostatic Seat Test / High-pressure Gas Seat Testing Requirement Ball Valve (Floating or Trunion) NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class ≤ 1500; or NPS > 4 & ASME Class ≤ 600 NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class > 1500; or NPS > 4 & ASME Class > 600 Required: Hydrostatic Optional: Pneumatic (Gas) Floating Trunnion Floating Trunnion Optional (Required: if valves specified to be double block and bleed valves.) Optional (Required: if valves specified to be double block and bleed valves.) Optional (Required: if valves specified to be double block and bleed valves.) Required Gate, Plug, Globe, Check Valve NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class ≤ 1500 or NPS > 4 & ASME Class ≤ 600 NPS ≤ 4 & ASME Class > 1500 or NPS > 4 & ASME Class > 600 Required: Globe, Check, Lubricated Plug Optional: Gate, Plug Required Test Medium Air, inert gas, kerosene, water or non-corrosive liquid (viscosity ≤ water) Hydrostatic: Fresh water (may contain corrosion inhibitor - antifreeze) Pneumatic: Inert gas Temperature Range 41˚F - 122˚F (5˚C - 50˚C) 100˚F (38˚C) (Max) Test Pressure x 1.1 max allowable pressure at 100˚F x 1.1 testing pressure as per ASME B16.34
  32. 32. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES32 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST Test Medium Air, inert gas, kerosene, water or non-corrosive liquid (viscosity ≤ water) Hydrostatic: Fresh water (may contain corrosion inhibitor - antifreeze) Pneumatic: Inert gas Temperature Range 41˚F - 122˚F (5˚C - 50˚C) 100˚F (38˚C) (Max) Test Pressure x 1.1 max allowable pressure at 100˚F x 1.1 testing pressure as per ASME B16.34 Test Duration See attached Table 2 Hydrostatic Seat Test: High-pressure Gas Seat Testing:
  33. 33. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES33 TEST CRITERIA API 598 (9th EDITION, SEPTEMBER 2009) API 6D (24th EDITION, AUGUST 2014) Gate, Globe, Butterfly, Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 4500) Ball, Check, Gate & Plug Valves (≤ Class 2500) HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST Acceptance Criteria Visible leakage through disk, behind seat rings or past shaft seals is not permitted. (See attached Table 3) Hydrostatic Seat Test: Soft-seated: No visible leakage Metal-seated (except check valves): ISO 5208, Rate D (See attached Table 4) Metal-seated check valves: ISO 5208, Rate G (See attached Table 4) High-pressure Gas Seat Testing: Soft-seated: No visible leakage Metal-seated (except check valves): ≤ 2x ISO 5208, Rate D (See attached Table 4) Metal-seated check valves: ISO 5208, Rate EE (See attached Table 4) Additional Seat Testing Not addressed 1) If the purchaser specifies the functionality for the valve to be that of double block and bleed (DBB) valves, the test described in H.9 shall be performed. 2) If the purchaser specifies the functionality for the valve to be that of double isolation and bleed (DIB-1), both seats bidirectional, the test described in H.10 shall be performed. 3) If the purchaser specifies the functionality for the valve to be that of DIB- 2, one seat unidirectional and one seat bidirectional, the test described in H.11 shall be performed.
  34. 34. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES34 API 598 Test Tables Table 1 Table2
  35. 35. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES35 API 598 Test Tables Table 3
  36. 36. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES36 ISO 5208 Table 4
  37. 37. ENGINEERED & PROCESS VALVES37 Valve Selection Summary- API 608 for floating ball valves only – API 608 mandates testing to API 598 and section 6.4.3 does not allow for testing of a trunnion ball valve. API 6D for floating & trunnion ball valves, slab & expanding gates, plug and check valves

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