Cell as a unit of life


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Cell as a unit of life

  2. 2. name Muhammad danial amirul b. zainuddin Class 101 form 1 subject science teacher Madam dewiyana bt mohmad ashari
  3. 3. 2.1 What is a cell?    A cell is the basic unit of life. Its size is too small to be seen with the naked eye. We need an instrument called a microscope to observe cells. io On l Cel n l Cel eek Ch n ma Hu
  4. 4. Microscope
  5. 5. The functions of the microscope’s parts part function Eyepiece To magnify the image form by the objective lens Obj ect ive lense To magnify the image of the object St age clip To hold the microscope slide in possition Adj ust ment knob To get a sharper focus of the object Diapr agm To control the amount of light that entering the objective lens St age To support the microscope slide
  6. 6. Animal cell and plant cell Animal cell and plant cell
  7. 7. Similarities between Animal cell and Plant cell  Have cell Membrane - Control the movement of substances in and out of the cell  Have nucleus - Control the activities of a cell  Have cytoplasm - It’s a jelly like substance fluid filled with cell sap (where chemical processes take place)
  8. 8. Differences between Animal cell and Plant cell Differences Plant Cells Has a irregular and Small in size Shape The shape is big and fix because it has a cell wall Without cell wall Cell wall Cell wall was made up Of cellulose to protect The cell Vacuole Form the biggest part in Plant cell. Adult plant Cell has many vacuole that Filled with fluid and food Animal Cells Does not have vacuole . If it does, it will presence In very small size and is called vesicle Does not have chloroplast Chloroplast Contains glycogen granules Chloroplast Have chloroplast which Contain chlorophyll To Absorb energy From sun and use it In the process of photosynthesis Contains starch granules (stored food that found Cytoplasm)
  9. 9. 2.2 unicellular and multicellular organism  Organism consists of living things which include microscopic of animals and plants(bacteria, viruses and fungus).  A life process is a process conducted by all living things to enable them to survive in the world.  Life process conducted by multicellular organisms are more complex compare to a unicellular organisms.
  10. 10. Unicellular organism   Organism that consist of only one cell are called unicellular organism These organisms usually live in water. Some of them such as bacteria and yeast can even live in air and human body Amoeba Paramecium Pleurococcus yeast
  11. 11. Uncellular organisms that photosynthesis  Unicellular organism such as euglena and chlamydomonas which consist of chloroplast can produce food by themselves through the process of photosynthesis Chlamydomonas Euglena
  12. 12. Multicellular organisms  Multicellular organisms are complex organisms that made up of many cells.  Multicellular organisms have many types of different cells with its special function. This caused them to have a huge size in shape Spirogyra Mucor Hydra
  13. 13. Organsation of cells in human body  Human body is the most complex multicellular organism. It has about 60,000 billion of cells  The cells differ by its size, shape and structure to enables it to perform a particular function  A speciallised cell is a cell that performs only one specific function in order to carry out and maintain the stability of a huge processes
  14. 14. Human cells and its functions cell functions Nerve cell Send nerve impulse to the whole body Red blood cell Carry oxygen from lung throughout the whole body Epithelial skin Form the outer layer of skin to protect the body surface Sperm cell Fertilizes the ovum in sexual reproduction Skeletal muscle cell Allow movement Bone cell Found in bones and functions in the support system of the body
  15. 15. Examples of human cells Red ll d ce bloo r Spe cell m th Epi ell al c eli ell ec Bon al elet Sk ell le c c m us e ve c Ner ll
  16. 16. Tissue  A tissue is a group of similar cells that carry out the same function. Example: IMAGES TISSUES FUNCTIONS Epithelium tissue To protect the tissue beneath it Muscle tissue Made up of muscle cells that contracts and relaxes to enable movement of body Nervous tissue Carry massages from one part of the body to another Connective tissue To connect and join several tissues together for support and protect the organs and body
  17. 17. Organs   When different tissues co-operate to carry out a certain function is called an organ For example, heart is an organ formed of muscle tissues and connective tissues that co-operate to carry out the function of blood circulation to the entire body
  18. 18. There are some examples of human organs as shown below:
  19. 19. Systems  A group of different organs that co-operate toperform a certain function of life process is known as the systems.  The body system as a whole enable human to carry out our life process normally and more efficiently.  There are 10 main systems in a human body
  20. 20. Systems and its functions  Digest food and absorb nutrient
  21. 21. Circulatory System  Transport oxygen and digested food to the body.  Carries unwanted excretory materials to organs to be disposed from the body.
  22. 22. Respiratory System  Inhales oxygen into the body and exhales carbon dioxide out of the body.  During respiration, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases occur in the alveolus.
  23. 23. The Endocrine System  Coordination of body activities, such as digestion and metabolism.
  24. 24. Skeletal System  Preserve the body shape.  Provides support and protection to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, and other organs.
  25. 25. Muscular System  Enables body movement.  Muscles usually react as opposing pairs to produces movement.
  26. 26. Reproduction System  Produces offspring to continue the generation A B Ma le Fe al m e
  27. 27. Excretory System     Dispose waste from the body. Lung - Carbon dioxide and water vapour. Skin - Urea, mineral salt, water. Kidney – Urea, mineral salt, water.
  28. 28. Nervous System  Co-ordinates and control all activities in the body.  Respond to the stimuli when the sensory organs receive impulses from brain.
  29. 29. Lymphatic System   Body defense. Remove bacteria from the tissue.
  30. 30. Organisms   simple All systems in the body works together to perform a life process that produce an independent organism. to Cell organization allows different types of work to work more smoothly and efficiently. complex
  31. 31. The human being-the complex organism  Human considered to be a complex organisms because they have various types of cell that form tissues, organs, and systems. (cell specialization).
  32. 32. Conclusion  There are two types of cell that is animal cell and plant cell. The parts of animal cell are nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm while the parts of plant cell are cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole, and three parts more which is that part is the same with animal cell. Besides that, there are also unicellular and multicellular organisms such as amoeba, paramecium, hydra, spirogyra and etc. Lastly, our body is made up of cell, tissue, organ, system and organism.
  33. 33. That’s all from me. Thank you so much.  Science is very important in the world, So, just make it as the way of your life. Learn new things everyday, gain knowledge and improve your life.