Applications of XML, Semantic Web & Linked Data
in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by
System Librarians.
H671...
Introduction
On August 6th 1991, Tim Berners-Lee
(1991) described a project called the
“World Wide Web (WWW)”
that aimed t...
Introduction
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NOAA_Internet_example.png 3
An example of how the Internet allows n...
Library Science
4
“… the Web was one of several network-
based systems to be pressed into service
at the same time as the ...
The Telidon
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telidon 5
“… attempts to create public information
infrastructure through...
The Web
Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web technologies are changing the r...
The Web in Libraries: The Beginnings
Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web te...
HTML Contents Needs To Be Dynamic
Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web techn...
Integrated Library System
Source: http://www.mayo.edu/library/information-systems.html 9
10
Linking, Stability and Convenience
Source: http://www.mayo.edu/library/information-systems.html 11
Linking issues for libr...
The Importance of XML
Source: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/bibcontrol/moen_paper.html 12
Every substantive Web initiative
is ...
The Importance of XML
Source: http://infomotions.com/musings/mylibrary-framework/ 13
XML is also an important
enabling tec...
XML Technologies of Interest
Source: http://infomotions.com/musings/mylibrary-framework/ 14
In Systems Librarians’ Daily W...
Example: NTU Digital Repository
Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 15
DSpace is the software of choi...
16
17
18
Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress)
Source:http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_Support , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML-RPC ...
Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress)
Source:http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_Support , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML-RPC ...
Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress)
Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 21
An XML sitemap is a must for ...
22
Semantic Web
Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 23
“The Semantic Web is not a
separate Web but an ex...
Web & Library Portals (Blogs @ NTU)
Source:http://ep-books.ehumanities.nl/semantic-words 24
Semantic WordPress for
Digital...
Semantic Web in Federated Search
Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New...
Semantic Web in Federated Search
Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New...
Semantic Web in Federated Search
Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New...
Semantic Web in Federated Search
Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 28
Linked Data
Source:http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html 29
“The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data
on th...
The Principles in Linked Data
Source:http://mashstream.com/semantic-web/about-mashups-and-linked-data/ 30
The principles i...
NTU LIBRARY’s Web Scale Discovery
Source: Vaughan, J. (2010), Web-Scale Discovery. URL: http://americanlibrariesmagazine.o...
How does it works?
Source: Vaughan, J. (2010), Web-Scale Discovery. URL: http://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/columns/disp...
One Search @ NTU Library
33
Industrial Experience :
34
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• In early 2000, EMA (Energy Market Authority of Singapo...
Implication of Energy Liberation
35
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• Singapore Power used to supply the energy.
• ...
Implication of Energy Liberation
36
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• Liberation means
o Price competitions
o Ensur...
Implication of Energy Liberation
37
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• Singapore Power used to supply the energy.
• ...
The Role of IT in Establishing KM
38
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• A system to permit transfer of energy readin...
Solution
39
Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry
• SonicMQ by Progess as a messaging broker
o A messaging software that ...
Skills & Knowledge Needed
42
Main Activities/Tasks Done By System Librarians
Leadership, policies and procedures, collabor...
Skills & Knowledge Needed
43
Main Activities/Tasks Done By System Librarians
44
45Source: http://dailyinfographic.com/anatomy-of-a-librarian-infographic
46Source: http://dailyinfographic.com/anatomy-of-a-librarian-infographic
Applications of XML, Semantic Web & Linked Data
in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by
System Librarians.
H671...
Applications of xml, semantic web or linked data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians.
Applications of xml, semantic web or linked data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians.
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Applications of xml, semantic web or linked data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians.

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Applications of XML, Semantic Web & Linked Data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians.

H6716 (Internet & Web Technologies) & K6224 (Internet Technologies & Applications)

Semester 2 – 2011/2012
Hazman Aziz, Librarian (Library Technology & Systems)
Amirrudin Dahlan, Senior IT Specialist (Center for IT & Services)
Nanyang Technological University

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Applications of xml, semantic web or linked data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians.

  1. 1. Applications of XML, Semantic Web & Linked Data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians. H6716 (Internet & Web Technologies) & K6224 (Internet Technologies & Applications) Semester 2 – 2011/2012 Hazman Aziz, Librarian (Library Technology & Systems) Amirrudin Dahlan, Senior IT Specialist (Center for IT & Services) Nanyang Technological University 1
  2. 2. Introduction On August 6th 1991, Tim Berners-Lee (1991) described a project called the “World Wide Web (WWW)” that aimed to “allow links to be made to any information anywhere”. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee 2
  3. 3. Introduction Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NOAA_Internet_example.png 3 An example of how the Internet allows near-universal connectivity.
  4. 4. Library Science 4 “… the Web was one of several network- based systems to be pressed into service at the same time as the Internet was changing the rules for widespread communications.” Late 80s Gopher was introduced ANSI Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval Service 1991 1991 Wide Area Information Servers WAIS
  5. 5. The Telidon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telidon 5 “… attempts to create public information infrastructure through technologies such as Telidon.”
  6. 6. The Web Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web technologies are changing the role of the systems librarian", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.289 – 296 | DOI (Permanent URL): 10.1108/07378830310494463 6 “Yet the Web was different from these initiatives in that it did not stay on the fringes of the library computing landscape for very long.” “… the technologies of the Web would become far more pervasive and central to the library’s operations.
  7. 7. The Web in Libraries: The Beginnings Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web technologies are changing the role of the systems librarian", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.289 – 296 | DOI (Permanent URL): 10.1108/07378830310494463 7 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) … an easy way to publish a system of “links” known as hypertext. … links were typically to information on library hours and services, and usually offered information on how to access the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue). Figure 1: Web server uses HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) to serve HTML documents located on disk to a Web browser
  8. 8. HTML Contents Needs To Be Dynamic Source: Arthur Rhyno, (2003) "From library systems to mainstream software: how Web technologies are changing the role of the systems librarian", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.289 – 296 | DOI (Permanent URL): 10.1108/07378830310494463 8 Introduction to Common Gateway Interface CGI specification allowed external applications to be wired into the Web … provided an interactive experience, and just as importantly, opened the door to plugging in applications that predated the Web. Figure 2: An application is made available through CGI to any Web browser Two of the earliest library-related CGI programs were CNIDR’s Z39.50 Gateway (Zgate) and an interface called “WebCat” from the University of Waterloo that provided a Web layer for the library’s GEAC system
  9. 9. Integrated Library System Source: http://www.mayo.edu/library/information-systems.html 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Linking, Stability and Convenience Source: http://www.mayo.edu/library/information-systems.html 11 Linking issues for libraries tend to fall into two major areas,: 1. authentication, i.e. verifying the user’s digital identity so that they can be given access, and 2. redirection or link resolving, where a mechanism is put in place to ensure that users are matched to the resources that are appropriate to the context of the link itself.
  12. 12. The Importance of XML Source: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/bibcontrol/moen_paper.html 12 Every substantive Web initiative is now expected to demonstrate its relationship to XML and the library community has utilized or is investigating XML for many of its data formats, including MARC and other forms of metadata, as well as using it for passing information back and forth for protocols such as Z39.50 and NCIP.
  13. 13. The Importance of XML Source: http://infomotions.com/musings/mylibrary-framework/ 13 XML is also an important enabling technology for sharing library information with other applications … pass circulation information into a patron’s calendaring system, for example, XML is most likely to be the exchange format to make this happen.
  14. 14. XML Technologies of Interest Source: http://infomotions.com/musings/mylibrary-framework/ 14 In Systems Librarians’ Daily Work
  15. 15. Example: NTU Digital Repository Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 15 DSpace is the software of choice for academic, non- profit, and commercial organizations building open digital repositories.
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress) Source:http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_Support , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML-RPC , http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_wp 19 WordPress is web software you can use to create a beautiful website, blog a multi-blog platform XML-RPC Support WordPress uses an XML-RPC interface. We currently support the Blogger API, metaWeblog API, and the Movable Type API. It's a spec and a set of implementations that allow software running on disparate operating systems, running in different environments to make procedure calls over the Internet. It's remote procedure calling using HTTP as the transport and XML as the encoding. XML-RPC is designed to be as simple as possible, while allowing complex data structures to be transmitted, processed and returned.
  20. 20. Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress) Source:http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_Support , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML-RPC , http://codex.wordpress.org/XML-RPC_wp 20 Defining the WordPress API to match with the other Blog providers Pull and write into the WordPress Database.
  21. 21. Example: Blogs @ NTU (WordPress) Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 21 An XML sitemap is a must for your Blogs @ NTU XML is the format that Google, Yahoo and Bing wants us to submit our Sitemaps to them so they can crawl the deeper pages of our blog.
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Semantic Web Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 23 “The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation” (Berners-Lee et al., 2001). Planned to take advantage of the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and additional standards, the semantic Web is being developed by the W3C in collaboration with a large number of researchers and industrial partners (RDF, 2002) (W3C, 2001). The goal is to construct a network of structured, sharable semantics that is accessible, understandable, and manipulable by computer agents. Computer agents (Semantic Web agents), acting on behalf of people or other computer agents, will traverse the semantic network, find and manipulate information, perform desired tasks, and offer services.
  24. 24. Web & Library Portals (Blogs @ NTU) Source:http://ep-books.ehumanities.nl/semantic-words 24 Semantic WordPress for Digital Scholarship framework (Semantic WORDS) • Enhanced Bibliplug • Enhanced Publication for WordPress http://ep- books.ehumanities.nl/enhanced- bibliplug-plugin-for-wordpress http://ep- books.ehumanities.nl/enhanced- publication-plugin-for-wordpress
  25. 25. Semantic Web in Federated Search Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New Library World, Vol. 104 Iss: 1/2, pp.11 - 19 25 The current process of accessing several resources for the sake of seeking information is cumbersome and requires some knowledge of the various resources, their access mechanisms, the query interface they provide, and the type of results they return. … requires a manual comparison between the results returned from several resources and does not enable the user to move from one resource to another for further discovery and navigation.
  26. 26. Semantic Web in Federated Search Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New Library World, Vol. 104 Iss: 1/2, pp.11 - 19 26 Semantic Web (Web 2.0 Applications) Web portal (NTU Library) Library Portal (Library Management System / OPAC / Database Directory) Federated (Cross-Database Searching) MetaLib KnowledgeBase The functional information in the KnowledgeBase • Information that sets the rules for the transfer of a query • Information that sets the rules for the interpretation of the results obtained from the resource.
  27. 27. Semantic Web in Federated Search Source: Tamar Sadeh, Jenny Walker, (2003) "Library portals: toward the semantic Web", New Library World, Vol. 104 Iss: 1/2, pp.11 - 19 27 Berners-Lee et al. (2001) state that “for the semantic Web to function, computers must have access to structured collections of information and sets of inference rules that they can use to conduct automated reasoning”. A feasible example of the implementation of such inference rules is the use of a set of transformations to convert the user query into a format that matches the specification of the target’s search engine.
  28. 28. Semantic Web in Federated Search Source: http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-guide2versioning/ 28
  29. 29. Linked Data Source:http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html 29 “The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the web of data. With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data.” Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web Watch: http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_web.html In computing, linked data describes a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. It builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP and URIs, but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. This enables data from different sources to be connected and queried One example is : WikiPedia
  30. 30. The Principles in Linked Data Source:http://mashstream.com/semantic-web/about-mashups-and-linked-data/ 30 The principles in Linked Data are the following: 1. Use URIs as names for things. 2. Use HTTP URIs, so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL). 4. Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things.
  31. 31. NTU LIBRARY’s Web Scale Discovery Source: Vaughan, J. (2010), Web-Scale Discovery. URL: http://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/columns/dispatches-field/web-scale-discovery 31 Web-scale discovery services for the library environment are an evolution holding great potential to easily connect researchers with the library’s vast information repository, whether physical holdings, such as books and DVDs; local electronic content, such as digital image collections and institutional repository materials; or remotely hosted content purchased or licensed by the library, such as e-books and publisher or aggregator content for thousands of full-text and abstracting and indexing resources.
  32. 32. How does it works? Source: Vaughan, J. (2010), Web-Scale Discovery. URL: http://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/columns/dispatches-field/web-scale-discovery 32 NTU Web Scale Discovery HTML RSS OpenURL - XML MARC - XML OAI - XML Dublin Core / Custom - XML SFX OpenURL link server Metalib Federated Search Engine Library Catalogue Database of local book, media & journals Holidings, as well as print and media resources Digital Repository Local Publication of the university. Student works, etc E Resources Database of e-resources MARC - XML Z39.50 XML MARC
  33. 33. One Search @ NTU Library 33
  34. 34. Industrial Experience : 34 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • In early 2000, EMA (Energy Market Authority of Singapore) decided to liberate the energy market of big consumers. • Big consumers include: o Industries o Oil and Gas production plants o Pharmaceutical companies o Ministries o etc Liberation of Market for Large Energy Consumers
  35. 35. Implication of Energy Liberation 35 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • Singapore Power used to supply the energy. • Liberation means o There are many energy provider (retailers) for consumers to choose from. o Concept similar to Telco’s: o No longer relying on Singtel o Competitors are M1 and Starhub o Energy retailers o Power Seraya o Senoko & etc
  36. 36. Implication of Energy Liberation 36 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • Liberation means o Price competitions o Ensuring quality of good energy supply o Absence of energy monopolizing by a single entity (Singapore Power) o Fairer energy price pegs for the energy consumption. o Benefit the consumer by a reduction in the overall energy bill due to competition.
  37. 37. Implication of Energy Liberation 37 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • Singapore Power used to supply the energy. • Liberation means o There are many energy provider (retailers) for consumers to choose from. o Concept similar to Telco’s: o No longer relying on Singtel o Competitors are M1 and Starhub o Energy retailers o Power Seraya o Senoko & etc
  38. 38. The Role of IT in Establishing KM 38 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • A system to permit transfer of energy readings from SP Services to retailers for billing calculations. • Keeping in mind these factors o Independence from different business needs of retailers. o Independence from the adopted technology adopted by each retailers. o Permit easy segregation of cost of building the system. o High availability o Expansion opportunity to include new energy retailers.
  39. 39. Solution 39 Usage of XML in Energy Market Industry • SonicMQ by Progess as a messaging broker o A messaging software that open channels to allow transmission of XML between 2 entities. o Adopting J2ME engine. o Independent of the software that consumes or transmit the XML. o Works with o Microsoft .Net platform o Java SDK
  40. 40. Skills & Knowledge Needed 42 Main Activities/Tasks Done By System Librarians Leadership, policies and procedures, collaboration, planning, supervision, resource management, project management, grant, representation Management Digital projects/initiatives, technical standards/practices, design, development and implementation, digital preservation, framework, digital repository, digital contents aspects Digital Library Websites, digitizing/converting, technical support, system administration/maintenance, data conversion, system analysis/testing, open source software development, usability testing, interoperability, digital library technology Technology Metadata, access and retrieval mechanisms (bibliographic records, finding aids, EAD, MARC records), quality control, databases. Processing Collection development, collection management, preservation/record management, online resources Collection & Resources Instruction/staff training, reference/public services, liaison, professional activities, user studies Others
  41. 41. Skills & Knowledge Needed 43 Main Activities/Tasks Done By System Librarians
  42. 42. 44
  43. 43. 45Source: http://dailyinfographic.com/anatomy-of-a-librarian-infographic
  44. 44. 46Source: http://dailyinfographic.com/anatomy-of-a-librarian-infographic
  45. 45. Applications of XML, Semantic Web & Linked Data in Library/Information Services & Skills needed by System Librarians. H6716 (Internet & Web Technologies) & K6224 (Internet Technologies & Applications) Semester 2 – 2011/2012 Hazman Aziz, Librarian (Library Technology & Systems) Amirrudin Dahlan, Senior IT Specialist (Center for IT & Services) Nanyang Technological University 47

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