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Male reproductive system

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By Mr. Hanan Kumar

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

Male reproductive system

  1. 1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM By Mr .HANAN
  2. 2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• TESTES• EPIDIDYMIS• VAS DEFERENS• SEMINAL VESICLES• PROSTATE• BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS• URETHRA
  3. 3. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• TESTISTUNICA ALBUGINEA - thick connective tissue capsule - connective tissue septa divide testis into 250 lobules - each lobule contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules and interstitial connective tissue(1) SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES - produce spermINTERSTITIAL TISSUE - contains Leydig cells which produce testosterone(2) RECTUS TUBULES(3) RETE TESTIS(4) EFFERENT DUCTULES(5) EPIDIDYMIS
  4. 4. TESTIS• TESTIS = situated external to abdominal cavity in scrotal sac; allows reduced temperature below that of the body core (37oC), this reduced temperature is important for viability of sperm.• The testis is covered by a dense collagenous coat called the tunica albuginea.• Septa extend into the testis to separate the lobules.• In mature testis, there is a prominent vascular layer immediately beneath the tunica albuginea
  5. 5. • Most of the testis is occupied by highly coiled seminiferous tubules.
  6. 6. Leydig cells
  7. 7. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM TUNICA ALBUGINEA • TESTIS Med ia RET stinum c E TE STIS ontainin gEPIDIDYMIS LOBULES
  8. 8. • The abundant seminiferous tubules all lead into the mediastinum of the testis, separated from the rest of the testis by the tunica albuginea as well.• The mediastinum includes the rete testis, which lead to the efferent ducts and then the epididymis at the posterior aspect of the testis.• The epididymis can be divided into three parts – the head, the body, and the tail.• The ductus deferens is continuous with the tail of the epididymis.• As mentioned before, it passes through the superficial inguinal ring in the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal, exits the deep inguinal ring, and joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejactulatory duct.
  9. 9. TESTIS H&ESEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
  10. 10. TESTIS H&ESEMINIFEROUS TUBULES SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
  11. 11. TESTIS H&ESEMINIFEROUS TUBULES SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES INTERSTITIAL CONN. TISSUE
  12. 12. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• TESTIS TUNICA VAGINALIS TUNICA ALBUGINEA SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM - complex stratified epithelium containing two basic cell populations: (1) SPERMATOGENIC CELLS (2) SERTOLI CELLS
  13. 13. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• TESTIS SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM - complex stratified epithelium containing two basic cell populations: (1) SPERMATOGENIC CELLS stem cells which regularly replicate and differentiate into mature sperm as they migrate toward the lumen (2) SERTOLI CELLS nutritive and supportive cells INTERSTITIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE (1) LEYDIG CELLS produce and release testosterone
  14. 14. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• SPERMATOGENESIS SPERMATOGONIA 1º SPERMATOCYTE 2º SPERMATOCYTE SPERMATIDS SPERMATIDS 2º SPERMATOCYTE 1º SPERMATOCYTE SERTOLI SPERMATOGONIA CELLS
  15. 15. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES• SPERMATOGENESISTHREE PHASES:(1) Spermatogonial Phase (Mitosis) - spermatogonia proliferate by mitotic divisions to provide stem cells and cells which will proceed through spermatogenesis (1º spermatocytes)(2) Spermatocyte Phase (Meiosis) - diploid cells (2n) created in spermatogonial phase give rise to haploid cells (1n) - Meiosis I (reduction division) & Meiosis II (equatorial division) - 1º spermatocytes enter Meiosis I to form 2º spermatocytes which then enter Meiosis II and result in spermatids(3) Spermatid Phase (Spermiogenesis) - spermatid differentiation into spermatazoa
  16. 16. LEYDIG CELLS
  17. 17. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• TESTISTUNICA ALBUGINEA - thick connective tissue capsule - connective tissue septa divide testis into 250 lobules - each lobule contains 1-4 seminiferous tubules and interstitial connective tissue(1) SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES - produce spermINTERSTITIAL TISSUE - contains Leydig cells which produce testosterone(2) RECTUS TUBULES(3) RETE TESTIS(4) EFFERENT DUCTULES(5) EPIDIDYMIS
  18. 18. • Fully formed spermatozoa leave the seminiferous tubules by straight tubules and enter interconnected channels called rete testis within the mediastinum• These flattened channels are lined with low cuboidal epithelium. As mentioned before, the mediastinum contains the dense connective tissue of the tunica albuginea.• The rete testis lead into the efferent ductules that lead into the head of the epididymis.• Efferent ductules have unusual serrated or scalloped epithelial lining.• This is due to alternating tall and short cells. Note the cells have cilia, which beat to help move mature sperm to the epididymis.
  19. 19. EPIDIDYMIS EFFERENT DUCTULES
  20. 20. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• EFFERENT DUCTULESCONNECT RETE TESTIS WITH EPIDIDYMISIRREGULAR LUMINAL APPEARANCE DUETO TALL CILIATED CELLS AND SHORTNON-CILIATED CELLSCILIATED CELLS BEAT TOWARD EPIDIDYMIS;THIN LAYER OF SMOOTH MUSCLE ALSO AIDSMOVEMENT INTO EPIDIDYMIS
  21. 21. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• EPIDIDYMISRECEIVES EFFERENT DUCTULESDIVIDED INTO HEAD, BODY, AND TAILPSEUDOSTRATIFIED EPITHELIUM CONSISTINGOF PRINCIPAL AND BASAL CELLSSMOOTH MUSCLE IN HEAD AND TAILCONTRACT SPONTANEOUSLY; SMOOTHMUSCLE IN TAIL REQUIRES SYMPATHETICINNERVATION FOR CONTRACTION
  22. 22. • Note the efferent ductules located right next to the epididymis. They empty their contents into the head of the epididymis, located outside the testis.• Note the difference between the epithelia of the efferent ductules and the epididymis.• The long and convoluted epididymis is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium (bottom right) with stereocilia.• Sperm is stored in the tail of the epididymis in preparation for ejaculation.• From there, the sperm enters the ductus deferens.
  23. 23. EFFERENT DUCTULES EPIDIDYMIS
  24. 24. EFFERENTDUCTULES EPIDIDYMIS
  25. 25. EPIDIDYMIS
  26. 26. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• VAS DEFERENSCONNECTS EPIDIDYMIS WITHSEMINAL VESICLESPSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUMSMOOTH MUSCLE ARRANGED IN 3 LAYERSSMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION VIASYMPATHETIC STIMULATION DURINGEJACULATION
  27. 27. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• VAS DEFERENS
  28. 28. VAS DEFERENS H&E
  29. 29. Seminal vesicles• Small glands adjacent to Seminal vesicle end of vas deferens• Secrete an alkaline (basic) fluid – Has high sugar content that helps sperm motility by giving them a lot of energy – This fluid is the greatest portion of the volume of semen released during ejaculation
  30. 30. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• SEMINAL VESICLES MUCOSA HIGHLY FOLDED EPITHELIUM PSEUDOSTRATIFIED SECRETIONS ARE HIGH IN FRUCTOSE AND BASIC REGULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTS DURING EJACULATION
  31. 31. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• SEMINAL VESICLES EPITHELIUM PSEUDOSTRATIFIED
  32. 32. Prostate gland• Walnut-sized gland at the base of the bladder.• Secrete milky, alkaline (basic) Prostate gland fluid that makes up about 30% of volume of semen released during ejaculation. – Alkalinity helps counteract
  33. 33. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• PROSTATESIMPLE OR PSEUDOSTRATIFIEDCOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM30-50 TUBULOALVEOLAR GLANDSWHICH EMPTY INTO URETHRAPROSTATIC SECRETIONS RICH INCITRIC ACID, ACID PHOSPHATASE,AND PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES
  34. 34. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• PROSTATESIMPLE OR PSEUDOSTRATIFIEDCOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
  35. 35. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• PROSTATEPROSTATIC CONCRETIONS- precipitation of secretory product
  36. 36. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• PROSTATEPROSTATIC CONCRETIONS-precipitation of secretory product,-
  37. 37. • The calcified material, which is an insoluble fibrous protein, blocks the prostatic ducts.• This is believed to happen when the prostate cannot function normally and the fluid it produces cannot be secreted properly or if there has been an infection in the prostate and the pus from the infection cannot drain properly.• If this happens the fluids stuck in the ducts harden over time and calcify causing little stones which block the tube where the fluids pass out the prostate, this makes more fluid build up and causes more stone to be made over a period of time• Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition found in older men where the prostate naturally swells to an abnormal size and shape. When this happens it can cause the prostate to press on the urethra and make it painful, or difficult to pass urine.• The abnormal size is what is believed to cause the prostate stones (Corpora amylacea), because the prostate is not its normal size the ducts cannot function properly and release the fluids down the tubes because they become twisted or narrow from the swelling.
  38. 38. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM• URETHRA PROSTATIC, MEMBRANOUS, SPONGY (PENILE)
  39. 39. Internal structure of the penis: cross-section
  40. 40. NOTE:• The glans of the penis at the tip, connected to the bulb via the corpus spongiosum. The corpus cavernosum is on both sides, connected to the ischial tuberosity.• The superficial dorsal, and lateral superficial veins underneath the skin but outside the tunica albuginea.• he deep dorsal vein, dorsal artery, and dorsal nerve within the tunica albuginea.• The deep artery within the corpus cavernosum.• The urethra within the corpus spongiosum.
  41. 41. PENIS CC CC URETHRA CS
  42. 42. PENIS ERECTILE BODIES
  43. 43. - The two corpora cavernosa and single corpusspongiosum form the erectile tissue of the penis.-Note on the top left panel the trabeculae and irregularvenous spaces.-During an erection, blood flow enters the erectiletissue via arteries, fill the venous spaces, and staythere due to obstructed venous outflow.-
  44. 44. THANK YOU

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