Female reproductive system

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By Mr. Hanan Kumar

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Female reproductive system

  1. 1. CLINICAL LABORATORY CYTOPATHOLOGYFEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM BY HANAN
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• OVARIES• OVIDUCTS• UTERUS• VAGINA
  3. 3. OvariesSuspended by ovarian ligament & suspensory ligamentFunctions:1. Ova production2. Hormone production
  4. 4. Oogenesis (= ovum production)takes place insideovarian follicles in ovaries as partof ovarian cycleOogonia (= stem cells) complete mitoticdivisions before birth
  5. 5. Histology of ovary– Germinal epithelium – covers surface of ovary • Does not give rise to ova – cells that arise form yolk sac and migrate to ovaries do– Tunica albuginea– Ovarian cortex • Ovarian follicles and stromal cells– Ovarian medulla • Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves– Ovarian follicles – in cortex and consist of oocytes in various stages of development • Surrounding cells nourish developing oocyte and secrete estrogens as follicle grows– Mature (graafian) follicle – large, fluid-filled follicle ready to expel secondary oocyte during ovulation– Corpus luteum – remnants of mature follicle after ovulation • Produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin and inhibin until it degenerates into corpus albicans
  6. 6. Histology of the ovary
  7. 7. Oogenesis and follicular development– Formation of gametes in ovary– Oogenesis begins before females are born– Essentially same steps of meiosis as spermatogenesis– During early fetal development, primordial (primitive) germ cells migrate from yolk sac to ovaries– Germ cells then differentiate into oogonia – diploid (2n) stem cells– Before birth, most germ cells degenerate – atresia– A few develop into primary oocytes that enter meiosis I during fetal development • Each covered by single layer of flat follicular cells – primordial follicle • About 200,000 to 2,000,000 at birth, 40,00 remain at puberty, and around 400 will mature during a lifetime
  8. 8. Follicular development– Each month from puberty to menopause, FSH and LH stimulate the development of several primordial follicles • Usually, only one reaches ovulation– Primordial follicles develop into primary follicles • Primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells • Forms zona pellucida between granulosa cells and primary oocyte • Stromal cells begin to form theca folliculi– Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles • Theca differentiates into theca interna secreting estrogens and theca externa • Granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid in antrum • Innermost layer of granulosa cells attaches to zona pellucida forming corona radiata
  9. 9. Ovarian follicles
  10. 10. Primordial Follicle or Egg NestsPresent at birth (simple squamous layer) in cortex
  11. 11. Follicles enlarge inPrimary Follicle response to FSH and produce estrogensFollicle cells Oocytes
  12. 12. Secondary Follicle Few relative to number of primary follicles Produce follicular fluid Rapid enlargement = Clear glycoprotein layer
  13. 13. Tertiary or Graafian FollicleSpans entire width of cortexFirst meiotic division beingcompleted: 1 oocyte divides into one2 oocyte and one polar body
  14. 14. OvulationOocyte and follicular cells shed into abdominal cavity then1. Empty follicle forms corpus luteum which produces progesterone2. Corpus luteum degenerates and becomes corpus albicans3. GnRH increases under low estrogen and progesterone levels
  15. 15. Summary of oogenesis and follicular development
  16. 16. Uterine (fallopian) tubes or oviducts– Provide a route for sperm to reach an ovum– Transport secondary oocytes and fertilized ova from ovaries to uterus– Infundibulum ends in finger-like fimbriae • Produce currents to sweep secondary oocyte in– Ampulla – widest longest portion– Isthmus – joins uterus– 3 layers • Mucosa – ciliary conveyor belt, peg cells provide nutrition to ovum • Muscularis – peristaltic contractions • Serosa – outer layer
  17. 17. Uterine Tube= Fallopian tube = oviduct Fig 27-14Two muscular tubes – infundibulum with fimbriae – Ampulla (place of fertilization) – Isthmus – intramural portion
  18. 18. Histology of the uterine (fallopian) tube
  19. 19. Uterine Tube HistologyCiliated and non-ciliated simple columnar epitheliumCiliary movement and periodic peristaltic contractions move ovaSecretion of nutrient substances
  20. 20. • TWO CELL TYPES• CILIATED• NON CILIATED (PEG CELLS)
  21. 21. Uterus• Pear-shaped structure attached to oviducts at upper end and to vagina at lower end• Uterine wall has 3 layers – Endometrium – Myometrium – Adventitia/Serosa
  22. 22. Adventitia/Serosa• Dense irregular connective tissue with attached mesothelium (serosa)• Dense irregular connective tissue (adventitia)• Blood vessels
  23. 23. Myometrium• Thickest layer• Four poorly defined layers of smooth muscle separated by connective tissue• Inner and outer layers are mostly longitudinal in orientation• Middle layers are more circular• Middle layer thickens in pregnancy with more smooth muscle cells and increased collagen
  24. 24. Endometrium• Simple columnar epithelium invaginated into simple tubular glands• Ciliated columnar cells and secretory columnar cells• Lamina propria of highly cellular connective tissue and vessels• 2 zones in endometrium – functional layer – basal layer
  25. 25. Endometrial Layers• Functional layer – surface layer sloughed off during menstruation – replaced during each menstrual cycle• Basal layer – deeper layer retained after menstruation – gland cells give rise to new epithelium
  26. 26. Histology of the uterus
  27. 27. Functions of Uterus• Protection of embryo/fetus• Nutritional support• Waste removal• Ejection of fetus at birth
  28. 28. Uterine Cervix• Lower part of uterus• Lined by mucous secreting simple columnar epithelium• Some smooth muscle and much connective tissue in lamina propria• Part of cervix in upper vagina has stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
  29. 29. Uterine Cervix• Cervical mucosa has mucous glands• Cervical mucosa remains intact during menstrual cycle• Cervical gland secretions vary during menstrual cycle – at ovulation mucous is watery so sperm can penetrate easily – in luteal phase or pregnancy mucous more viscous to block sperm or microbes
  30. 30. Vagina• Epithelium is stratified squamous partly keratinized• No glands in epithelium• Underlying lamina propria of loose connective tissue, highly vascularized with many elastic fibers• Muscular layer of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle• Adventitia of dense irregular connective tissue with elastic fibers, many vessels and nerves
  31. 31. HOME WORK• MAMARY GLANDS

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