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  1. 1. What is function overloading? Write a c++ program to implement a function overloading. Answer More than one user defined functions can have same name and perform different operations this feature of c++ is known as function overloading. Every overloaded function should however have a different prototype. To find area of square, rectangle and circle #include< iostream.h> #include< conio.h> int area(int); int area(int,int); float area(float); void main() { clrscr(); cout< < " Area Of Square: "< < area(4); cout< < " Area Of Rectangle: "< < area(4,4); cout< < " Area Of Circle: "< < area(3.2); getch(); } int area(int a) { return (a*a); } int area(int a,int b) { return(a*b); } float area(float r) { return(3.14 * r * r); }
  2. 2. Explain about the constructors and Destructors with suitable example Answer Constructors and Destructors: Constructors are member functions of a class which have a same name as a class name. Constructors are called automatically whenever an object class is created. Whereas destructors are also the member functions with the same name as class, they are invoked automatically whenever object life expires , therefore it is used to return memory back to the system if the memory was dynamically allocated. Generally the destructor function is needed only when constructor has allocated dynamic memory. Destructors are differentiated by prefix tilde (~) from constructors. Constructor and destructors are usually defined as public members of their class and may never possess a return value. Constructs can be overloaded whereas destructors cannot be overloaded. Example : constructor class myclass { private: int a; int b; public: myclass() {a=10; b=10; } int add(void) {return a+b; } }; void main(void) {myclass a; cout<<a.add(); } Example Destructor #include<iostream.h> class myclass {public: ~myclass() {cout<<"destructedn"; } }; void main(void) {myclass obj; cout<<"inside mainn } Explain about polymorphism. Explain its significance Answer Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form. Defined as feature in c++ where operator or function behaves differently depending upon what they are operating on. The behavior depends on the data types used in the operation. Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing Inheritance. The operator + will be adding two numbers when used with integer variables. However when used with user defined string class, + operator may concatenate two strings. Similarly same functions with same function name can perform different actions depending upon which object calls the function. Operator overloading is a kind of polymorphism. In C++, polymorphism enables the same program code calling different functions of different classes
  3. 3. Example: In below codewWe are using a common code as following so that you can draw several of these shapes with same code and the shape to be drawn is decided during runtime: Shape *ptr[100] For (int j=0;j<n;j++) Ptr[j]->draw(); As in the above code if ptr pointing to rectangle then rectangle is drawn and if it points to circle then circle is drawn. What is an inheritance? Explain different types of inheritance Answer Inheritance allows one data type to acquire characteristics and behavior of other data types this feature of inheritance allows easy modification of existing code and also programmer can reuse code without modifying the original one which saves the debugging and programming time and effort. It can be defined as process of creating a new class called derived class from the existing or base class. Thus the child class has all the functionality of the parent class and has additional features of its own. Inheritance from a base class may be declared as public, protected, or private. Types of Inheritance: Inheritance are of five types as follows 1) Single inheritance It has only one base class and one derived class 2) Multilevel inheritance In multilevel inheritance another class is derived from the derived class 3) Multiple Inheritance There are two base classes and one derived class which is derived from both two base classes. 4) Hierarchical inheritance In this there are several classes derived from a single base class. 5) Hybrid inheritance Combination of any above mentioned inheritance types. Write a c++ program to implement the relational operator overloading for the distance class Answer #include <iostream> using namespace std; class Distance {private: int feet; // 0 to infinite int inches; // 0 to 12 public: // required constructors Distance(){ feet = 0; inches = 0; } Distance(int f, int i){ feet = f; inches = i; } // method to display distance void displayDistance() {cout << "F: " << feet << " I:" << inches <<endl; }
  4. 4. // overloaded minus (-) operator Distance operator- () {feet = -feet; inches = -inches; return Distance(feet, inches); } // overloaded < operator bool operator <(const Distance& d) {if(feet < d.feet) {return true; } if(feet == d.feet && inches < d.inches) {return true; } return false; } }; int main() {Distance D1(11, 10), D2(5, 11); if( D1 < D2 ) {cout << "D1 is less than D2 " << endl; } else {cout << "D2 is less than D1 " << endl; } return 0; } Create a class String which stores a string value. Overload ++ operator which converts the characters of the string to uppercase (toupper() library function of “ctype.h” can be used). Answer # include<iostream.h> # include<ctype.h> # include<string.h> # include<conio.h> class string { char str[25]; public: string() { strcpy(str, “”);} string(char ch[]) { strcpy(str, ch);} void display() { cout<<str;} string operator ++() {string temp; int i; for(i=0;str[i]!=’0′;i++) temp.str[i]=toupper(str[i]); temp.str[i]=’0′; return temp; }
  5. 5. }; void main() { clrscr(); string s1=”hello”, s2; s2=s1++; s2.display(); getch(); } What is a virtual function? Explain it with an example Answer A virtual function is a member function that is declared within a base class and redefined by a derived class. To create virtual function, precede the function’s declaration in the base class with the keyword virtual. When a class containing virtual function is inherited, the derived class redefines the virtual function to suit its own needs. Virtual means existing in effect but not in reality. Virtual functions are primarily used in inheritance. Class A { int a; public: A() { a = 1; } virtual void show() { cout <<a; } }; Class B: public A { int b; public: B() { b = 2; } virtual void show() { cout <<b; } }; int main() { A *pA; B oB; pA = &oB; pA->show(); return 0; } Output is 2 since pA points to object of B and show() is virtual in base class A.
  6. 6. Explain different access specifiers in a class Answer Access specifiers control access to class members. Or access specifiers in C++ determine the scope of the class members. A common set of access specifiers that c++ supports are as follows: Private: Restricts the access to the class itself therefore none of the external function can access the private data and member functions. Therefore if a class member is private, it can be used only by the members and friends of class. Public: Public means that any code can access the member by its name. Therefore If a class member is public, it can be used anywhere without the access restrictions. Protected: The protected access specifier restricts access to member functions of the same Class, or those of derived classes. Define a STUDENT class with USN, Name, and Marks in 3 tests of subject. Declare an array of 10 STUDENT objects. Using appropriate functions, find the average of two better marks for each student. Print the USN, Name and the average marks of all the student Answer #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> class student { private: char usn[10]; float avg; char name[30]; int test[3]; public: void get_stud_details() { cout<<"Enter the USN number: "; cin>>usn; cout<<"Enter the name of the student: "; cin>>name; cout<<"Enter the marks of three test: n"; for(int i=0;i<3;i++) { cin>> test[i]; } } void net_avg() { int m,j,k; avg=0; for( j=0;j<2;j++) { for(int k=j+1;k<3;k++) { if(test[j]>test[k])
  7. 7. { m=test[j]; test[j]=test[k]; test[k]=m; } } } avg=(test[1]+test[2])/2.0; } void display() { cout<<"|******Student details are******|"<<endl; cout<<"Student USN:"<<usn<<endl; cout<<"Student name:"<<name<<endl; cout<<"The best of two from the three marks"<<endl; for( int i=1;i<3;i++) cout<<test[i]<<endl; cout<<"nAverage:"<<avg<<endl; } }; void main() { int n; student s[100]; clrscr(); cout<<"Enter the number of students:"; cin>>n; for(int i=0;i<n;i++) { s[i].get_stud_details(); s[i].net_avg(); } for(i=0;i<n;i++) { s[i].display(); } getch(); } Write a C++ program to create a template function for quick sort and demonstrate sorting of integers Answer #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> template<class T> int partition( T a[],int low,int high ) {T num=a[low]; int i=low+1; int j=high; T temp; while( 1 ) {while( i<high && num>a[i] )
  8. 8. i++; while( num<a[j] ) j--; if( i<j ) {temp=a[i]; a[i]=a[j]; a[j]=temp; }else {temp=a[low]; a[low]=a[j]; a[j]=temp; return(j); } } } template<class T> void Quick(T a[],int low,int high ) {int j; if( low<high ) {j=partition(a,low,high); Quick(a,low,j-1); Quick(a,j+1,high ); } } void main() {int N; clrscr(); cout<<"Enter array size : "; cin>>N; int *p=new int[N]; cout<<"nEnter "<<N<<" int no's..n"; for(int i=0; i<N; i++ ) {cin>>p[i]; } cout<<"nArray before sorting is..n"; for(i=0; i<N; i++ ) cout<<p[i]<<"n"; Quick( p,0,N-1 ); cout<<"nArray after sorting is..n"; for(i=0; i<N; i++ ) cout<<p[i]<<"n"; getch(); }