Emotional Intelligence Research


Published on

On overview of Emotional Intelligence and difference in Gender Leadership Ability

Emotional Intelligence Research

  1. 1. Emotional Intelligence Kelly A. Brown Kelly & Company, LLC
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Daniel Goleman and the birth of EI • What is Emotional Intelligence (EI)? • Good Ol’ Street Smarts • Leadership and EI • Leadership Application of EI • Men vs. Women and EI • Criticisms of EI
  3. 3. Daniel Goleman & the birth of EI • The person most commonly associated with the term emotional intelligence is a New York writer and consultant named Daniel Goleman, PhD. In the early 1990's Goleman had been writing articles for the magazine Popular Psychology and then later for the New York Times newspaper. • In 1992 he was doing research for a book about emotions and emotional literacy when he discovered the 1990 article by Salovey and Mayer. – According to the article by Annie Paul, Goleman asked them permission to use the term "emotional intelligence" in his book and that permission was granted providing he told people where he heard the term."
  4. 4. More Goleman… • In 1995, Goleman's book came out under the title "Emotional Intelligence." – Cover of Time Magazine in the USA – Goleman began appearing on American television shows such as Oprah Winfrey and Phil Donahue • He also began a speaking tour to promote the book and the book became an international best seller. It remained on the New York Times best- seller list for approximately one year. • www.danielgoleman.info – Website and Blog
  5. 5. What is Emotional Intelligence? • Emotional intelligence (EI) is about influence, without manipulation or authority. It is about perceiving, learning, relating, innovating, prioritizing, and acting in ways that take into account emotional valence, rather than relying on logic or intellect or technical analysis alone (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997, p.182). • EI skills are synergistic with cognitive ones; top performers have both (Goleman, 1998, p.22) • “When two people interact, the direction of mood transfer is from the one who is more forceful in expressing feelings to the one who is more passive” (Goleman, 2005, p. 116)
  6. 6. So who is Emotionally Intelligent? The High EI Individual is: 1. Better with perceiving emotions, use them in thought, understand their meanings, and manage emotions, than others. 2. Able to solve emotional problems that likely requires less cognitive effort for this individual. 3. Somewhat higher in verbal, social, and other intelligences. 4. The individual tends to be more open and agreeable than others. 5. Drawn to occupations involving social interactions such as teaching and counseling more so than to occupations involving clerical or administrative tasks. (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004, p. 210)
  7. 7. High EI Individual Characteristics • Relative to others, is less apt to engage in problem behaviors, and avoids self- destructive, negative behaviors such as smoking, excessive drinking, drug abuse, or violent episodes with others. • More likely to have possessions of sentimental attachment around the home and to have more positive social interactions. • Such individuals may also be more adept at describing motivational goals, aims, and missions. (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004, p. 210)
  8. 8. Goleman’s Model Personal Competence: • Self-awareness - the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. • Self-management - involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Social Competence: • Social awareness - the ability to sense, understand, and react to other's emotions while comprehending social networks. • Relationship management - the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict. (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007, p. 163)
  9. 9. Classroom Exercise
  10. 10. Good Ol’ Street Smarts • Kreitner (2004) suggests that world- renown author Daniel Goleman’s overall concept of Emotional Intelligence, is the ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex situations (p. 504). • Daniel Goleman’s book, Emotional Intelligence, further states that “emotional intelligence is good old street smarts—knowing when to share sensitive information with colleagues, laugh at the boss’s jokes or speak up in a meeting” (Kreitner, 2004, p. 504).
  11. 11. Four Branch Model • The four branch model of emotional intelligence describes four areas of capacities or skills that collectively describe many of areas of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).
  12. 12. Defining EI More specifically, this model defines emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to: • accurately perceive emotions in oneself and others • use emotions to facilitate thinking • understand emotional meanings, and • manage emotions
  13. 13. Measuring leaders • In today’s corporate environment, the newest commentary speaks to Emotional Intelligence (EI) and a leader’s ability to build social relationships and control his or her emotions. • Measuring one’s EI is becoming a standard way to measure leadership effectiveness. • A powerful leader is able to move an audience if they are easily able to receive and send emotions (Goleman, 2005, p. 116). • Some researchers suggest that EI contributes to effective leadership because an emotionally intelligent leader focuses on followers, on inspiring them and on developing enthusiasm (Nahavandi, p. 69).
  14. 14. Leadership and EI • Research shows that emotional intelligence may actually be significantly more important than cognitive ability and technical expertise combined (Kemper, 1999, para.1). • Some studies indicate that EI is more than twice as important as standard IQ abilities (Kemper, 1999, para. 1). • Further, evidence increasingly shows that the higher one goes in an organization, the more important EQ can be. • When Goleman compared star performers to average performers nearly 90% of their profiles was attributable to emotional intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007, p. 513).
  15. 15. Leadership and EI “Leadership is not domination, but the art of persuading people to work toward a common goal. And in terms of managing our own center, there may be nothing more essential than recognizing our deepest feelings about what we do-and what changes might make us more truly satisfied with our work.” (Goleman, 2005, p. 149)
  16. 16. Leaders Not Emotionally Intact Issues Caused In The Workplace: -Miserable Morale -Intimidated Workers -Arrogant Bosses When employees are emotionally upset, people cannot remember, attend, learn, or make decisions clearly. “Stress makes people stupid” (Goleman, 2005 p. 149)
  17. 17. Applications of Emotional Intelligence Three Applications Discussed By Goleman That Leaders Need To Use: -Criticism Is Job One -Dealing With Diversity -Organizational Savvy And The Group IQ (Goleman, 2005, p. 150)
  18. 18. Criticism Is Job One How Criticism Is Handled: -Feedback *Most Important But Dreaded Task *How Criticisms Are Perceived Goes A Long Way (Be Artful Not Tactful) *Destructive Criticism Tends To Cause Conflict & Reduce Motivation (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007, p. 279) -The Artful Critique: *Be Specific *Offer A Solution *Be Present *Be Sensitive -Do Not Be Defensive To Criticism As A Leader
  19. 19. Dealing With Diversity • Prejudices are an emotional learning occurred early in life. While the beliefs that are used to justify if come later. • Know the social knack how to speak against bias. • Make others empathize how others would feel. • Turning a blind eye to acts of bias allow discrimination to thrive (i.e.Denny’s example). (Goleman, 2005, p. 158)
  20. 20. Organizational Savvy • Social Harmony is the key to high group IQ. It allows a group to take advantage of its most creative and talented member’s ability. • “What makes a difference between stars and the others is not their academic IQ but their emotional IQ” (Goleman, 2005, p. 161)
  21. 21. “Stoplight”6 Step Approach Red Light: 1. Stop, calm down, and think before you act. Yellow Light: 2. Say the problem and how you feel. 3. Set a positive goal. 4. Think of lots of solutions. 5. Think ahead to the consequences. Green Light: 6. Go Ahead and try the best plan. (Goleman, 2005, p. 276)
  22. 22. Short Video • http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=fXY1rxQEcCo
  23. 23. Men vs. Women and EI • Many in leadership roles feel that EI is skewed toward gender and that women are just naturally better at EI than men. • Goleman (1998) shows that thankfully, our level of EI is not fixed genetically, nor does it develop in early childhood alone. • Unlike IQ, which changes little after the teen years, emotional intelligence is largely learned, and it continues to develop as people go through life and learn from their experiences (p. 7). • Kreitner & Kinicki (2007) state that there is no difference in felt emotions between that women are just more expressive than men (p. 164).
  24. 24. Men vs. Women and EI con’t • Men who are high in EI are socially poised, outgoing and cheerful, not prone to fearfulness or worried rumination. They have a notable capacity for commitment to people or causes. • Women who are high in EI tend to be assertive and express their feelings directly, and to feel positive about themselves; life holds meaning for them. (Goleman, 2005, p. 45)
  25. 25. Boys vs. Girls and EI • Parent teach boys and girls very different lessons about handling emotions. • Girls are taught emotions (with the exceptions of anger) more so than boys by their parents • When parents make up stories to tell their preschool children they use more emotions when talking to their daughters. • Girls are taught more about the emotional state itself and boys are taught more about the consequences. (Goleman, 2005, p. 131)
  26. 26. Criticisms of EI Concepts • EI is too broadly defined and the definitions are unstable • EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence • EI has no substantial predictive value
  27. 27. Those you know with EI…
  28. 28. Summary • Daniel Goleman and the birth of EI • What is Emotional Intelligence (EI)? • Good Ol’ Street Smarts • Leadership and EI • Leadership Applications of EI • Men vs. Women and EI • Criticisms of EI Questions?
  29. 29. References • Cooper, R. & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in Leadership & Organizations. New York, NY: Penguin Putnam. • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books • Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books • Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional Intelligence. 10th Anniversary Edition. New York: Bantam Books. • Kemper, C. (1999) Communication World. EQ vs. IQ. Retrieved October 7, 2006 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4422/is_9_16/ai_57786889 • Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2007). Organizational Behavior (7th ed.) Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. • Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence. New York: Basic Books. • Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. • Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence: imagination, cognition, and personality. San Francisco: Jossee Bass.