Ethics Chapter10


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Ethics Chapter10

  1. 1. Ethics Prepared for Assumption University April 22, 2009 9am-4pm By Scott Michael Smith
  2. 2. *Mind Mapping <ul><li>In the afternoon we will have a Mind mapping activity….It would be best if you start by taking brief notes of key words </li></ul>
  3. 3. 4 Ethical theories we will discuss The Greatest Good Virtues Treating others fairly Duties and Rights
  4. 4. The Golden Rule The Utilitarian Principle Kantanian Ethics The Principle of Justice
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ethics and equity and the principles of justice do not change with the calendar. David Herbert Lawrence </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><ul><li>Actions speak louder than words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Knowing what should be done and doing it </li></ul><ul><li>-by SMS </li></ul>What is your definition?
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>It takes two people to lie. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One to lie, and one to listen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homer Simpson </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Two components in Ethics <ul><li>Ideological </li></ul><ul><li>(What we believe) </li></ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>( How we behave) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics. Jane Addams
  11. 11. The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainable Tourism
  12. 12. <ul><li>Five-Step Test for Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>1. Is the decision legal? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is the decision fair? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does the decision hurt anyone? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Have I been honest with those affected? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Can I live with my decision </li></ul>
  13. 13. Is the decision legal? <ul><li>As a human resources manager, you know it's illegal to ask whether a candidate for a position at your company is planning on starting a family, but during the course of the interview a woman reveals that she intends to do that. Can you decide whether to hire her based on the knowledge she might leave the company sooner or take maternity leave? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, since she revealed it, it's fair game in deciding hires. </li></ul><ul><li>b) No, it would be discriminatory to avoid picking her for that reason. </li></ul><ul><li>c) If another candidate seems just as good and that's the only difference, it can become a factor to break the tie. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Is the decision fair? <ul><li>An employee casually reveals to you that he cheats on his wife. You're a manager in a different department. Another manager is writing up a positive performance evaluation for this employee. Do you tell your co-manager what you learned? </li></ul><ul><li>No, what's personal is personal. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Yes, this behavior could eventually affect the company. </li></ul><ul><li>c) I hint at it but avoid making any definite claim </li></ul>
  15. 15. Does the decision Hurt anyone? <ul><li>You're a candidate for hire at a great company, but you plan to move across the country in a year. Do you reveal that during the interview? </li></ul><ul><li>No, they have no right to know I have relocation plans. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Yes, I would feel obligated to tell. </li></ul><ul><li>c) If the interviewer asks my long-term intentions, I'll admit to my plan. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Have I been Honest with those affected? <ul><li>A coworker who is also a friend tells you that he has major concerns about a large project and plans to tell the vice president. You just learned the vice president has been known to fire people who have been too vocal against this project. Do you encourage your friend to be honest anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, honesty is always the best policy. </li></ul><ul><li>b) No, I reveal the dangers of the decision and encourage the friend to protect his job. </li></ul><ul><li>c) I explain what I know but try to avoid encouraging my friend one way or another. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Can I live with my decision? <ul><li>Missing Drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Late one night while you're out on the town, you stop by the bar where your friend works. After a couple of rounds you're ready to leave, so she slips you your tab. </li></ul><ul><li>Several drinks are missing from the bill </li></ul><ul><li>— what would you do? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>The problem is not that we aim too high and fail, but that we aim too low and succeed . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do. Potter Stewart </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>A friend has just been fired from your company. You are an up-and-coming executive and your boss warns that if you're seen with this person, you could lose the respect of those who might promote you. Before leaving, the friend is upset and asks you to meet him in the conference room, something coworkers will likely see. Do you agree to go comfort your friend? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, human friendships matter more than any promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, but you ask if you can meet at a different location. </li></ul><ul><li>No, and you cut off all ties with the shunned employee. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Four Theories <ul><li>Utilitarianism(Jeremy Betham, John S. Mill) </li></ul><ul><li> looking at the social benefits and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Kantian ethics (Immanuel Kant): </li></ul><ul><li> rights and duties </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness and Justice ethics (John Rawls): </li></ul><ul><li> giving to each other what is his or her due </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotelian ethics (Aristotle): </li></ul><ul><li> virtues and vices </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are the issues? <ul><li>How to apply to the four theories covered in the textbook? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Most influential consequentialist theory </li></ul><ul><li>Takes name from “utility” </li></ul><ul><li>States that an action is morally justified if it maximizes benefits and minimizes harm </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to achieve greatest net benefit </li></ul><ul><li>“ The greatest good for the greatest number of people” </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is “Good”? <ul><li>One utilitarian definition : greatest good means greatest happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Support statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone wants to be happy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is moral to maximize happiness and minimize unhappiness </li></ul>
  25. 25. All Count Equally <ul><li>Utilitarianism states that an action is moral if it maximizes the benefits and happiness of all – each person counts equally </li></ul><ul><li>All consequences must be counted – both short and long term </li></ul>
  26. 26. Jeremy Bentham Pleasures and Pains <ul><li>Philosopher credited with founding utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Argues that happiness and unhappiness are identical to amount of pleasure and pain experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Determines morality by measuring pleasure or pain of an action </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The morally relevant question about animals is not, Can they reason ? or Can they talk ? But can they suffer ?” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Objections to Bentham <ul><li>Difficult to quantify units of pleasure and pain </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure and pain are wrong measures of happiness and unhappiness </li></ul>
  29. 29. John Stuart Mill The Quality of Happiness <ul><li>Added to Bentham </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated qualitative differences between pleasures. Mill states: </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question. The other party to the comparison knows both sides. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Kant Deontological Ethical Theory <ul><li>“ deon” – Greek word meaning duty </li></ul><ul><li>Deontological ethical theory states that actions are moral or immoral based on their nature, not on their consequences </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the motive that counts. We must act out of a sense of duty . </li></ul>
  31. 31. What is our duty? <ul><li>How do we determine our duty? </li></ul><ul><li>Only human beings are rational and only human beings can reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason requires us to be logical and consistent . We must make consistent rules that can be universally applied. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Categorical Imperative <ul><li>The categorical imperative is Kant’s basic rule of morality – a universal rule </li></ul><ul><li>It is a rule that must be followed regardless of the consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the categorical imperative is the rule that must be followed at all times in all places under all circumstances if we wish to be acting morally </li></ul>
  33. 33. The first formulation of the categorical imperative <ul><li>Act in such a way that you would want the rule you are following to be a universal one that everyone should follow </li></ul><ul><li>For example: if you can cheat, then everyone else should be allowed to cheat </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Golden Rule <ul><li>Kant’s categorical imperative is very similar to the Golden Rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do unto others as you would have others do unto you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is not identical because the Golden Rule depends on consequences </li></ul>
  35. 35. The second formulation of the categorical imperative <ul><li>Treat each person as an end unto himself </li></ul><ul><li>Do not treat people as things; do not use people </li></ul><ul><li>You must never use a person just for your own purpose; treat each person as someone of independent moral worth </li></ul><ul><li>If you use another person, you have degraded them from a person to a thing </li></ul>
  36. 36. Strengths of Kant’s system <ul><li>It upholds the sanctity of human life </li></ul><ul><li>Impartiality </li></ul><ul><li>Duty to treat people as people and not as things </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Concept of Rights <ul><li>If I have a duty to you, you have a right to demand that I fulfill that duty </li></ul><ul><li>A right is something one is entitled to; rights are individual entitlements </li></ul>
  38. 38. Justice Ethics <ul><li>States that we should treat each other fairly </li></ul><ul><li>Rawls’ Veil of Ignorance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you decide is acceptable if you did not know whether you were to be the front desk manager who earns a bonus based on profit and daily occupancy rate – or if you were to be the weary traveler who discovers the guaranteed room is not guaranteed? </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. John Rawls Justice as Fairness <ul><li>John Rawls (1921-2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a comprehensive theory on justice that tries to cover all situations </li></ul><ul><li>He said that what is fair can only be determined by what would be accepted as fair by rational people who would consider all points of view </li></ul>
  40. 40. Where will you be? <ul><li>Rawls wants you to decide what is fair by making the decision not knowing where you will be in society </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be the hotel general manager or the cashier or the chambermaid? </li></ul><ul><li>If you can take this viewpoint, you will make a fair and just decision </li></ul>
  41. 41. Rawls’ Positions <ul><li>Original Position – this is the position of people who do not know where they will end up in the society (behind the veil of ignorance ) </li></ul><ul><li>Veil of Ignorance – means that people do not know whether they will end up male or female, black or white, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>If people operate from behind the Veil of Ignorance, they will set up fair rules and social arrangements </li></ul>
  42. 42. Rawls’ Assumptions <ul><li>People operating behind the Veil of Ignorance are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable about society and social arrangements </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Strengths of Rawls’ System <ul><li>Fair way to set up rules </li></ul><ul><li>Provides important addition to utilitarianism – provides for distribution of benefits ( utilitarianism only spoke of maximizing benefits ) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides important addition to Kant – adds to discussion on fairness in distribution ( Kant spoke of individual rights but not how to distribute them fairly ) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Virtue Ethics <ul><li>The hotel is a human community </li></ul><ul><li>How does the hotel contribute to the development of the character traits of its employees? </li></ul><ul><li>Traits/virtues include: honesty, integrity, tolerance, fairness, and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue ethics requires businesses to foster values that relate to the way they interact with their community </li></ul>
  45. 45. Aristotle <ul><li>Most famous proponent of virtue ethics </li></ul><ul><li>He stated that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a morally virtuous person always acted the way a human being should act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral virtue is the tendency to do the right thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good character is an achievement, it is not a natural endowment </li></ul></ul>                    
  46. 46. Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Judges a person’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Helps us to define what a good person is </li></ul><ul><li>We look at the type of person someone is and compare it to what kind of person we believe they should be </li></ul><ul><li>Examines character rather than action </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is a moral virtue? “The Golden Mean” <ul><li>Virtues are the traits that enable us to act according to reason </li></ul><ul><li>We are acting reasonably when our actions are neither excessive nor deficient </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue lies in the middle ground – the “golden mean” </li></ul><ul><li>A person who lives a life of moderation will live a happy life </li></ul>
  48. 48. Examples of Virtues <ul><li>The four fundamental moral virtues: </li></ul><ul><li>Courage - being brave enough to do the right thing </li></ul><ul><li>Temperance – showing moderation in action, thought, or feeling as well as moderation in the indulgence of the appetites or passions </li></ul><ul><li>Justice – the ability to give other people exactly what they deserve, neither more nor less </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence (wisdom) – gives us the ability to know what is reasonable in different situations </li></ul>
  49. 49. Identify 10 virtues that important to you <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>7. </li></ul><ul><li>8. </li></ul><ul><li>9. </li></ul><ul><li>10. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Examples of other virtues <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Generosity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Tact </li></ul><ul><li>Kindness </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Civility </li></ul><ul><li>Sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>Gentleness </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolence </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Relationship of Virtues to Moral Principles <ul><li>Virtue ethics can be closely related to the other ethical theories </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If someone is generous and kind, he will probably try to maximize benefits for others (utilitarianism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If someone is honest, trustworthy and sincere, he will not treat other people as things (Kant) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. The Relationship of Virtues to Human Nature <ul><li>A person’s idea of what a virtue is depends on his idea of human nature and on what he sees as the purpose of life </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you think humility is a virtue, then you will think that someone who is not humble (is prideful) is not virtuous </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Chapter 10 Ethics and the Human Resources Management Function
  54. 54. Four Theories <ul><li>Utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><li> looking at the social benefits and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Kantian ethics: </li></ul><ul><li> rights and duties </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness and Justice ethics: </li></ul><ul><li> giving to each other what is his or her due </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotelian ethics: </li></ul><ul><li> virtues and vices </li></ul>
  55. 55. Ethics and HR <ul><li>The administration and supervision of the people in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Four topic areas for discussion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation, diversity, employee treatment, and working conditions </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Human Resources Managers <ul><li>Balance efficiency with equity </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for loyalty – ensures fewer turnovers </li></ul><ul><li>Theorists on equitable treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarians : balancing greatest good for greatest number of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kant : respect for rights of human beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rawls : fair and just treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle : moral character when dealing with others </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Case: Salary Disclosure (read it fast if you have not read it) <ul><li>The Players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dan Maloney, Jensen Hotel Front Desk Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George, front desk agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbara, front desk agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Grey, Jensen Hotel Manager </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. The Facts <ul><li>Jensen Hotel policy states that employees are forbidden to discuss salary information with other employees </li></ul><ul><li>Two front desk agents, George and Barbara, discussed their salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara claims that, even though she is doing the same job as George, she is being paid less </li></ul>
  59. 59. The Issues <ul><li>Possible discriminatory compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Principal human resources issue: fairness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it fair to pay two people different salaries for doing the same work? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both a legal and ethical issue </li></ul>
  60. 60. Utilitarianism <ul><li>An action is moral if it maximizes benefits and minimizes harm </li></ul><ul><li>Potential benefit to hotel: budgetary savings </li></ul><ul><li>However, violating fairness principle usually leads to negative consequences </li></ul><ul><li>(for example, a demoralized workforce which could lead to turnover, low productivity, etc.) </li></ul>
  61. 61. In addition . . . <ul><li>Prohibiting employees from salary discussion is illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Any dialogue among employees about wages or other conditions of employment cannot be barred as long as it does not interfere with their work </li></ul>
  62. 62. Kant <ul><li>Could the principle being used to determine compensation be turned into a universal principle without being contradictory? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the rule prohibiting employees from speaking to each other about salaries violating the equal liberty of all to live as autonomous, rational human beings? </li></ul>
  63. 63. Kant on Hiding Salaries <ul><li>Would consider it degrading </li></ul><ul><li>The categorical imperative states that human beings have an interest in being free from fraud and being free to think and speak as they choose </li></ul><ul><li>Rights can be prohibited only if it is agreed that they are prohibited for all </li></ul>
  64. 64. Rawls <ul><li>Would ask all the players to step behind the Veil of Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>What would the salary arrangements be if no one knew who was to be the front desk agent and who was to be the manager? </li></ul><ul><li>Rawls said that economic inequality is only acceptable if it is to the greatest benefit for the least advantaged person (Barbara) </li></ul>
  65. 65. Does Barbara Benefit? <ul><li>Could management prove that Barbara was receiving a higher salary because of this inequality? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a higher salary than she would be paid if she were paid the same as George? </li></ul>
  66. 66. Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Rawls’ principle of equal liberty also includes the right to freedom of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Management can restrict certain types of speech (for example, slander) </li></ul><ul><li>However, restrictions have to be equally allocated among employees </li></ul><ul><li>Any restrictions must be carefully justified according to Rawls </li></ul>
  67. 67. Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Scrutinizes the character of the persons involved in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Of Aristotle’s four cardinal virtues (courage, temperance, justice and prudence), justice is the most relevant in this case </li></ul><ul><li>Salaries should be based on merit and requirements; if an employee is paid a just rate, he or she will receive exactly what he or she deserves </li></ul>
  68. 68. Case Studies (groups of 3) <ul><li>Discriminating forces </li></ul><ul><li>The come on </li></ul><ul><li>Is this sexual harassment? </li></ul><ul><li>Taking Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Stars are difficult to come by </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Vest Pizza and customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>But can she do the job? </li></ul>
  69. 69. Read assigned case study and prepare a 3-5 minute presentation Summarize the case Answer the questions provided Apply your favorite ethical theory
  70. 70. Presentations after lunch-Enjoy