Examine this map: notice that the Europeans have created sea-based empires. But much of the world still remains nomadic and untouched by Europeans (although that is quickly changing). But in the end the LAND empires are still important. In particular look at central Asia. WRITE ON BOARD: Sea-based North American Spanish, English, French colonies Mesoamerican and South American Spanish and Portuguese colonies Caribbean Spanish, French, English colonies Dutch East Indies Spanish Philippines Land-based Ottoman Empire (Mediterranean/Middle East/Eastern Europe) Safavid Empire (Persia/Central Asia) Mughal Empire (South Asia) Ming & Qing Dynasties (East Asia) Russia (Northern Asia/Eastern Europe) Kingdoms Western Coastline (Dahomey, Benin, Congo) Japan Korea Champa/Vietnam/Khmer/Siam
Now we can explore the RUG that is on the table: textiles from Islamic world.
One of the reasons the Europeans also invested in ocean trade (besides the fact that it was cheaper) was because Silk Road and Red Sea access closed off by rise of post-Mongol empires, aka, GUNPOWDER EMPIRES. Europe isn’t the only place changing life with guns
Close-up: Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals. Notice Ottomans come up against Europe, Safavids are neighbors with Ottoman and Mughuls, Mughuls near Persia. Turkish origins of all of these empires (CHECK!!)
Let’s start with the Ottomans - The Ottomans were one of the many Turkic warrior groups that had started to migrate into Anatolia after 1000 CE (remember Seljuks?). - By the mid-15th century, the Ottomans had carved out a state that encompassed much of the Anatolian peninsula and had acquired in the process a substantial Christian population.
1453 Conquest of Constantinople – end of Byzantine Empire
Transformation of Constantinople to Istanbul: Hagia Sophia becomes mosque (compare Seville/Cordoba). Great description of Constantinople in textbook – Blue Mosque as stunning architecture
Gaining Constantinople meant not only gaining Roman Empire, but the Ottoman sultans added the title of ‘Caliph’ to their other titles, claiming the legacy of the earlier Arab empires. The Ottomans sought to bring a renewed unity to the Islamic world, while also serving as protector of the faith. This is a painting of Suleiman the Magnificent, who ruled the Ottoman Empire in mid-16th century.
Ottomans were aggressive, building a navy to have patrol eastern Mediterranean and verging on the borders of European kingdoms. (Think about how the Europeans still had a Crusader mentality too!)
As the Ottomans expanded across Anatolia, its largely Christian population converted in large numbers to Islam (see Islam handout from Unit 3). Yet in the Christian Balkans there was less conversion due to the scarcity of Turkish settlers and the willingness of the Ottoman authorities to accommodate the region’s Christian churches. Over time Christian churches were granted considerable autonomy in regulating their internal social, religious, educational, and charitable affairs. A substantial number of Christians became part of the Ottoman elite without converting and Jewish refugees (fleeing from Christian persecution in Europe) found greater opportunity under the Ottomans as well.
Through a process known as devshirme, Balkan Christian communities were required to hand over a quota of young boys, who were then removed from their families, required to learn Turkish, usually converted to Islam, and trained for either civil administration or military service in elite units called janissaries.
Some families hoped sons would become janissaries – they become the elite fighting force and owed their complete allegience to the sultan.
Ottoman Empire would become home to amazing handicrafts, including textiles and furniture
Existed as early as the Caliphates, but had its heydey with support from Turkish empires
the attainment of the knowledge that comes with such intimacy with God, Sufis assert, is the very purpose of the creation
Sufis of all orders agree that the combination of knowledge, love, and action is necessary for the seeker to come close to God in this world and to prepare for the next. All Sufis are Muslims and adhere to Islamic Law. Being Sufi does not affect other aspects of one’s faith. One can be Sunni or Shi’a and Sufi at the same time.
Move on to the Safavids. The Safavids were also Turkish in origin, but had emerged from a Sufi religious order. The Safavids forcibly imposed a Shia version of Islam as the official religion of the state, causing periods of intense conflict with its Sunni neighbors.
Consider Safavid neighbors and its location: Safavid rulers recruited Persians for positions at court and in the expanding imperial bureaucracy. The struggle for power between Turkic and Persian notables was further complicated by the practice of recruiting into the bureaucracy and army slave boys captured in campaigns in southern Russia. These Russian slaves could rise to high positions of power and became a major force in Safavid political struggles.
Isfahan and blending of Persian/Arab elements. Safavids as Shi’ite empire: The Safavid government planned and directed teaching in mosques and supervised mosque leaders, who are called mullahs.
Persian carpets were in high demand and merchants were encouraged to trade with India, China, and eventually the Europeans who arrived via the Persian Gulf.
And then the Mughals The Mughal Empire was the creation of an Islamicized Turkic group which invaded in 1526. Its rulers claimed descent from Genghis Khan. The ruling dynasty and around 20% of the population were Muslims; thus a religious minority ruled over a (diverse) Hindu majority. Centralized empire but local princes and elites could still dominate
The most famous Mughal emperor, Akbar (ruled 1556-1605), married several Hindu princesses and did not require them to convert to Islam. He incorporated a substantial number of Hindus into the political-military elite of the empire and supported the building of Hindu temples as well as mosques, palaces, and forts. He also removed the special tax (jizya) on non-Muslims. He constructed a special House of Wisdom where he presided over intellectual discussion with representatives of many religions, including Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism.
(This is a depiction of Akbar with Catholic Jesuits)
Mughals are a blend of Hindu, Persian, and Muslim elements. This hybrid also is shown in the development of Sikhism, which we will look at in a primary source
The creation of a hybrid Indian-Persian-Turkic culture fostered opposition from some Muslims. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707) reversed Akbar’s policy of accommodation and sought to impose Islamic supremacy. Some Hindu temples were even destroyed and the jizya was reimposed. “Censors of public morals” enforced Islamic law. Aurangzeb’s policies and high taxes antagonized Hindus and prompted various movements of opposition. These opposition movements opened the way for British takeover in the 18th century as India became religiously divided.
Sources from Strayer textbook (Mughal & Sikh, Ottoman)