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Development and evaluation of an integrated education program based on the solution focused coaching (SFC)


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Development and evaluation of an integrated education program based on the Solution-focused Coaching (SFC):The relationship between the SFC, the PGIS-II and the SFI

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Development and evaluation of an integrated education program based on the solution focused coaching (SFC)

  1. 1. Development and evaluation of an integrated education program based on the Solution-focused Coaching (SFC) :The relationship between the SFC, the PGIS-II and the SFI Yoga TOKUYOSHI Syoichi IWASAKI Tohoku University SGCP 4th International Congress of Coaching Psychology 2014
  2. 2. 【Objective】 Recently, the Intervention studies of the Solution-focused Coaching (SFC) have increased. However, there have been few studies that focus and evaluate an education program of the SFC. This study focuses and reports on the development and evaluation of an integrated education program of the SFC.
  3. 3. September, 2013 Tokyo and Sendai in Japan This Study was conducted to assess the effect of the short education program using a semi-structured interview, a self-report questionnaires based on the GF-PRACTICE model (Tokuyoshi et al., 2013) and the original Coaching Card Game based on the SFC.
  4. 4. Method of the experiment Participants (N=28) were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control. Conditions of the intervention ◆Intervention Group received a short education program of SFC and filled out the interview sheet and then was interviewed by the Coach. ◆Control Group did not do anything during the intervention. The effect of the intervention was assessed with PGIS-II and SFI by comparing pre- and post- intervention scores.
  5. 5. Pre-Test ◆Intervention (n=15) 1.Guidance of the SFC 2.Education of the SFC 3.Practice of the SFC using Coaching Psychology Card and Interview Sheet. Post-Test 【Questionnaire】 (1)PGIS-II (Robitscheck, 2012) (2)SFI (Grant et al., 2012) 【Questionnaire】 (1)PGIS-II (2) SFI Figure Flow chart of this study. ◆Control (n=13) Main Subject Random assignment (RCT) ◆n=28 Mean age=41.4 (SD=10.0) ◆Data analysis 1: ANCOVA: Post-test (Bound variables), Pre-test(Covariate) 2 conditions(Fixed Factor) 2:ANOVA: 2 conditions: Intervention, Control & 2 intervention phase (Pre, Post) 3: Effect Size (Cohen’s d) :It was derived from & Intervention phase (Pre, Post)
  6. 6. Flow of the SFC Education ■(1) Guidance of the SFC ■(2) Education of the SFC ■(3) Introduction of the skills of the SFC ■(4) Practice of the question skills. e.g. Scaling question. ■(5) Practice using the questionnaire coaching cards based on the SFC ■(6) Practice using the Interview sheet. IS-GF-PRACTICE (Tokuyoshi et al., 2013)
  7. 7. ◆Introduction of Framework all over the world. PRACTICE(Palmer, 2008, 2011) OSKAR (Jackson & McKergow, 2007) SIMPLE (Jackson & McKergow, 2007) SOLUTION(Williams, Palmer, & O’Connell, 2011) FOCUS(Williams, Palmer, & O’Connell, 2011) CIGAR(Greene & Grant,2003) 7
  8. 8. 【Scaling Question】 Visser, C.F. (2009). Doen wat werkt. Oplossingsgericht werken, coachen en managen. Van Duuren Management, 2e druk.
  9. 9. Using the Coaching Card Game (1) Practitioners can learn the SFC through playing Card Games. (2) Coaching Cards are highly structured based on the SFC. (3) Coaching Cards can be combined with some Keywords of the SFC.
  10. 10. Coaching Card Game for the SFC to learn concepts of the SFC. Solution focused Positive Reframing Personal Growth Stop the bad practice Internal Resource Focus for the solutions than problems. Change one's point of view Develop a strategy for growth for solutions Stop if something goes wrong. Search the Internal Resource and Strength External Resource Goal setting Future focused Looking for exceptions More Simple Search the External Resource and Strength Set a Goal for one ‘s future. Focused one’s future. Continue being active if something goes good exceptionally Make less complex.
  11. 11. Interview Sheet of the SFC We made an Interview Sheet of the SFC. Applying the Practice model (Palmer, 2007; 2009; 2011). ◆What is the difference between this Interview sheet and Practice model? The rule of wanting to be more is "maximum effect with minimum intervention“ GF-PRACTICE model (1)It is used within one coaching session. (2)The imagery technique was added to run a simulation. (3) The Flow (Csikszentmihalyi et al., 1990) concept was added. (4) The evaluation of Confidence, Self-efficacy of SF was added.
  12. 12. PRACTICE model(Palmer, 2007; 2008; 2011) P:(Problem identification) R:(Realistic, relevant goals developed) (EX:SMART model) A:(Alternative solutions generated ) C:(Consideration of consequence) T:(Target most feasible solution(s)) IC:(Implementation of Chosen solution(s) E:(Evaluation) 12
  13. 13. ■PGIS-II was developed for the Counseling that necessitates an approach based on a Personal Growth. 【16 items with 6-point Likert scale. 4 subscales】 ◆【Using Resources】: 3 items (e.g., “I ask for help when I try to change myself.”) ◆【Readiness for Change】 : 4 items (e.g., “I can tell when I am ready to make specific changes in myself.”) ◆【Intentional Behavior】:4 items (e.g., “I take every opportunity to grow as it comes up.”) ◆【Planfulness】: 5 items (e.g., “I set realistic goals for what I want to change about myself.”) Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (Robitscheck et al., 2012)
  14. 14. Solution-focused Inventory (Grant et al., 2012) ■SFI was developed for a Solution focused approach. 【12 items with 6-point Likert scale. 3 subscales】 ◆【Goal Orientation】: 4 items A focus towards desired goal states. ◆【Resource activation】 : 4 items A focus on recognizing and utilizing strengths and resources. ◆【Problem disengagement】:4 items A focus on disengaging from problems and problems-focus thinking.
  15. 15. Result N=28, Mean Age=41.4 (SD=10.0) ◆pre data :2 condition & Gender : t-test (No significance) ◆t-test between PGIS-II pre total score and 2 conditions: t= -.46, df= 25.2, P = .65 (no significance) ◆t-test between SFI pre total score and 3 conditions t= -1.88, df= 25.2 P= .07 (Marginally significance) Results showed no significance differences in pre 2 conditions. Condition N Intervention 15 Control 13
  16. 16. PGIS-II Total Score (Average) Control < Intervention ** p <.01
  17. 17. Solution Focused Inventory Total Score Control < Intervention* p <.05
  18. 18. DeLong‘s test for two correlated ROC curves Intervention(1),Control(0) and Post data. SFI Total Cut Off Point : 50 Area under the curve: 0.818 95% CI: 0.65-0.98 Specificity=0.92 Sensitivity=0.67 PGIS-II Total Cut Off Point : 78 Area under the curve: 0.823 95% CI: 0.67-0.98 Specificity=0.85 Sensitivity 0.73
  19. 19. 8.6 8.4 8.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Education Card Game GF-PRACTICE Evaluation of the Programs (1-10 point)
  20. 20. 【Feedback & comment of the Intervention】 ◆Total ・「This workshop was very easy to understand. ・「This approach has objective evidence, and I understood that the SFC is a simple method of the SFC. ◆About the Caching Psychology Card ・「I have become increasingly aware of the feeling of oneness with coach.」 ・「I can do the SFC meaningfully without Coaching Skills.」 ◆About the IS-GF-PRACTICE training ・「I understood the issue in my life」 ・「This work was useful to crystallize my solutions」
  21. 21. Control Intervention PGIS-II Pre Post d Pre Post d F PGIS-II Total M 4.2 4.1 -.06 4.3 5.0 1.12 35.0*** SD 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6 Intentional Behavior M 4.8 4.8 .06 4.8 5.2 .69 5.3* SD 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.5 Readiness for Change M 3.8 3.8 -.04 4.0 4.9 1.18 34.1*** SD 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 Planfulness M 3.9 3.9 -.08 4.0 4.9 1.10 34.1*** SD 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.7 Using Resources M 4.2 4.0 -.18 4.5 5.0 .56 9.4** SD 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.8 Results of the PGIS-II
  22. 22. Control Intervention SFI Pre Post d Pre Post d F SFI Total M 42.3 42.5 .03 46.2 49.8 .63 6.4* SD 5.6 4.9 5.4 6.5 Goal Orientation M 14.1 14.1 .00 14.4 16.5 .75 7.2* SD 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.8 Resource Activation M 16.2 16.7 .16 16.7 19.1 .79 4.5* SD 3.1 3.0 2.0 2.0 Problem disengagement M 12.0 11.7 -.08 14.2 14.1 .00 0.7 SD 3.9 4.0 3.3 3.6 Results of the SFI
  23. 23. Main Reference • Grant, A. M., Cavanagh, M. J., Kleitman, S., Spence, G.B., Lakota, M. & Yu, N. (2012). Development and validation of the solution-focused inventory. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7 (4), 334-348. • Grant, A. (2013). Steps to Solutions: A process for putting solution-focused coaching principles into practice. The Coaching Psychologist, 9(1), 36-44. • Palmer, S. & Whybrow, A. (2007). Handbook of Coaching Psychology: A guide for practitioners. Routledge. • Robitschek, C., Ashton, M. W., Spering, C. C., Geiger, N., Byers, D., Schotts, G. C., & Thoen, M. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale – II. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 274-287. doi: 10.1037/a0027310 • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row. • Tokuyoshi,Y,Iwasaki,S, & Palmer,S. (2013). Development of an interview sheet based on the GF-PRACTICE model for Solution-focused coaching. Coaching Psychology International, 6(2), 14-21.
  24. 24. Reference material Research in Japan 2013.2 ~ 4 N=475 The relationship PGIS-II and SFI (Grant et al., 2012).