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Etiopathagensis of Asthma
Hatlan
Objectives
• Epidemiology
• Etiology
• Symptoms
• Types
• Pathogenesis
Epidemiology
• 235 million people worldwide are affected by
asthma (2011). by 2025 > 100 million
• 250,000 people die per year from the disease
• Asthma is among the most common chronic
illnesses in Saudi Arabia
• Female > Male
• Saudi Arabia 24%,Qatar 19.8%,Kuwait
16.8%,UAE 13% in the (NME 2013)
Etiology
• Hereditary
• Environmental allergens.
• Obesity
• Exercise
• Smoke
• Drugs: NSAID
• Viral respiratory tract infections
• Gastroesophageal reflux disease
• Occupational exposure
• Emotional factors or stress
Symptoms
• Coughing from asthma often is worse at night
or early in the morning, making it hard to
sleep.
• Wheezing. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky
sound that occurs when you breathe.
• Chest tightness.
• Shortness of breath.
Types of Asthma
1-Allergic or extrinsic
Allergic asthma is a result of an antigenantibody reaction
on mast cells in the respiratory tract. This reaction
causes the release of inflammatory mediators from
mast cells which elicit the clinical response associated
with an asthma attack.
2-Intrinsic or idiosyncratic
Idiosyncratic asthma is a result of neurological imbalances
in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in which the
alpha and beta adrenergic as well as the cholinergic
sites of the ANS are not properly coordinated.
Comparison
Pathogenesis of Asthma
• A triad of :
• Airway inflammation
• Intermittent airflow
obstruction
• Bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Airway inflammation
Airflow obstruction
• Airflow obstruction can be caused by a variety
of changes, including :
1. acute bronchoconstriction,
2. airway edema,
3. chronic mucous plug formation,
4. airway remodeling.
Airflow obstruction
• Airway obstruction causes
• increased resistance to airflow and decreased
expiratory flow rates and this lead to a
decreased ability to expel air and may result in
hyperinflation.
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness
• Hyperinflation compensates for the airflow
obstruction, but this compensation is limited
when the tidal volume approaches the volume
of the pulmonary dead space; the result is
alveolar hypoventilation.
• This eventually will lead to hypoxia.
• In the late stages due to increase breathing
and COP metabolic acidosis occurs and very
late respiratory acidosis.
•Thanxxxxxxxxx
x

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Asthma

  • 2. Objectives • Epidemiology • Etiology • Symptoms • Types • Pathogenesis
  • 3. Epidemiology • 235 million people worldwide are affected by asthma (2011). by 2025 > 100 million • 250,000 people die per year from the disease • Asthma is among the most common chronic illnesses in Saudi Arabia • Female > Male • Saudi Arabia 24%,Qatar 19.8%,Kuwait 16.8%,UAE 13% in the (NME 2013)
  • 4. Etiology • Hereditary • Environmental allergens. • Obesity • Exercise • Smoke • Drugs: NSAID • Viral respiratory tract infections • Gastroesophageal reflux disease • Occupational exposure • Emotional factors or stress
  • 5. Symptoms • Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep. • Wheezing. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe. • Chest tightness. • Shortness of breath.
  • 6. Types of Asthma 1-Allergic or extrinsic Allergic asthma is a result of an antigenantibody reaction on mast cells in the respiratory tract. This reaction causes the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells which elicit the clinical response associated with an asthma attack. 2-Intrinsic or idiosyncratic Idiosyncratic asthma is a result of neurological imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in which the alpha and beta adrenergic as well as the cholinergic sites of the ANS are not properly coordinated.
  • 8. Pathogenesis of Asthma • A triad of : • Airway inflammation • Intermittent airflow obstruction • Bronchial hyperresponsiveness
  • 10. Airflow obstruction • Airflow obstruction can be caused by a variety of changes, including : 1. acute bronchoconstriction, 2. airway edema, 3. chronic mucous plug formation, 4. airway remodeling.
  • 11. Airflow obstruction • Airway obstruction causes • increased resistance to airflow and decreased expiratory flow rates and this lead to a decreased ability to expel air and may result in hyperinflation.
  • 12. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness • Hyperinflation compensates for the airflow obstruction, but this compensation is limited when the tidal volume approaches the volume of the pulmonary dead space; the result is alveolar hypoventilation. • This eventually will lead to hypoxia. • In the late stages due to increase breathing and COP metabolic acidosis occurs and very late respiratory acidosis.
  • 13.