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PRIMARY WESTERN PECAN
INSECT PESTS
New Mexico Pecan Short Course
September 8-10, 2010
Outline
• Background
• Aphid Complex
– Species
– Biology
– Management Considerations
• Pecan Nut Casebearer
– Biology
– Ma...
Two Distinct Pecan Growing Regions
Regionalization of Pecan Pest
Management Practices
1. Yield
2. Profitability
3. Pest Pressure
4. Primary vs. Secondary Pes...
Pecan Leaf vs. Leaflet
Leaf/Compound Leaf
Leaflet
Pecan Aphid Complex
Black Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid Complex
Blackmargined Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid
Pecan Aphid Biology
Overwinter in bark as eggs
IJ. Park
Spring-eggs hatch, stem-
mothers arise
Populations build and decre...
Aphid Feeding
1. Aphid manipulates stylet
between cells to find sieve
elements
2. Remove products produced
by photosynthes...
Black Pecan Aphid
1. Adults dark black, nymphs dark grey
2. Wings extend past abdomen
3. Approximately 15 day lifespan
4. ...
Black Pecan Aphid Damage
1. Interveinal necrosis/defoliation
- Reductions in photosynthesis
2. May reduce nut quality*
3. ...
Yellow Aphid Complex
1. Yellow Pecan Aphid
Present in western orchards,
low populations
1. Blackmargined Pecan Aphid
Domin...
Blackmargined Aphids
I.J. Park
Aphid Skins
Parasitized blackmargined aphid (do not mistake
for black pecan aphid)
Mike Qui...
Blackmargined Aphid
1. Adult females both winged and non-winged
2. Characteristic “black band” on wings
3. All forms “lime...
Blackmargined Aphid Damage
1. Compete with the tree for photosynthates
“sinks”*
2. May reduce nut quality*
3. May reduce #...
Quick Summary
1. Aphid species
2. Damage differences
3. Difference in fecundity rates
Pecan Production Basics
(Aphid Control Considerations)
1. Pecans alternate between “heavy” and “light”
production years.
2...
Aphid Control Considerations
I. Economic Threshold Levels (internet)
• Black pecan aphid 1-3 per leaf
• Blackmargined aphi...
Aphid Control Considerations
(Treat or No-Treat)
I. Scout (insect)
- Species
- Density
- Location (within, proximity to ne...
Aphid Control Considerations
(Treat or No-Treat)
II. Scout (orchard information)
- Yield estimate
- Overall orchard condit...
Insecticide Selection & Application
• Number of insecticide active ingredients and activity for
aphid control
– Foliar tra...
Status of Conventional Insecticides
Used to Control Pecan Aphids
I. Foliar
•1) Pyrethroids (co-packs)
•2 ) Non-specific fe...
OMRI Approved Insecticides for Aphids
• Sulfur
• Pyrethrin
• Potassium salts of fatty acids
• Aromatic Oils (i.e. rosemary...
Decisions
Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics
• Most recent pest introduced into western area*
• Overwinter as a diapaused larvae in the bas...
Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics
PNC Life Stages
STAGE LOCATION APPROX DURATION
(days)
Egg Nutlet, Bud 5 - 10
Larvae Nutlet, Base of Bud
(overwintering)
25...
Pecan Nut Casebearer
(Western Region)
PNC Infested
Pecan Growing, PNC Uninfested
Three Pecan Nut Casebearer Generations
(Moth activity)
10 16 20
DAYS
Detecting PNC Adult Populations
(Pheromone Traps)
10 16 20
Placement of Pheromone Traps
Wind
1. Location
2. Minimum of two traps
3. Record moths and #
nights since last count
4. Use...
PNC Economic Decisions
• Economic Threshold Levels: (Internet)
– 1% egg infested clusters for 1st
generation
– 2% egg infe...
Pecan Nut Casebearer Management
A. Timing Insecticide
Application
1) Field Scouting
2) Modified Degree-Day Models
(1st
gen...
PNC Insecticides
(General Characteristics)
Broad Spectrum
• Older chemistries, less
expensive, residual less
than 10 days,...
Alternative PNC Management
Strategy
PNC Adult Suppression Program
No Eggs
Countable Moths
Spray
Countable Moths
Spray
1. Not considered IPM
2. Can treat every...
Addition of Pecan IPM PIPE Website
• Maintained by Texas A&M
• Information contributions by all pecan
belt entomology rese...
Pecan Weevil
Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural
Research Service, Bugwood.org
H C Ellis, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org...
Recently Infested
1998/2002
1999/2003
2000/2003
Weevil Infested
Pecan Weevil
(1st
trapped/Last trapped)
2008
Pecan Weevil Prevention
• Restrict the movement of in-shell pecan and
potted pecan nursery stock from pecan weevil
infeste...
Primary pest objective is to
prevent the movement of pecan
weevil into, and eradicate
establishing populations in New
Mexi...
Call
Brad lewis managing western pecan insects
Brad lewis managing western pecan insects
Brad lewis managing western pecan insects
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Brad lewis managing western pecan insects

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Brad lewis managing western pecan insects

  1. 1. PRIMARY WESTERN PECAN INSECT PESTS New Mexico Pecan Short Course September 8-10, 2010
  2. 2. Outline • Background • Aphid Complex – Species – Biology – Management Considerations • Pecan Nut Casebearer – Biology – Management Considerations • Pecan Weevil – Current Status – Prevention
  3. 3. Two Distinct Pecan Growing Regions
  4. 4. Regionalization of Pecan Pest Management Practices 1. Yield 2. Profitability 3. Pest Pressure 4. Primary vs. Secondary Pest 5. Cultivar
  5. 5. Pecan Leaf vs. Leaflet Leaf/Compound Leaf Leaflet
  6. 6. Pecan Aphid Complex Black Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid Complex Blackmargined Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid
  7. 7. Pecan Aphid Biology Overwinter in bark as eggs IJ. Park Spring-eggs hatch, stem- mothers arise Populations build and decrease over the season, winged and non- winged females produces Fall-males produced and mate with wingless (apterous) females eggs produced No alternate-host in the area
  8. 8. Aphid Feeding 1. Aphid manipulates stylet between cells to find sieve elements 2. Remove products produced by photosynthesis 3. May compete with other tree “sinks” for these products • Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati –Photo Credit
  9. 9. Black Pecan Aphid 1. Adults dark black, nymphs dark grey 2. Wings extend past abdomen 3. Approximately 15 day lifespan 4. Produce approximately 35 offspring 5. Populations tend to be “clumped” 6. Little “honeydew” produced 7. Feed both sides of leaflet Louis Tedders
  10. 10. Black Pecan Aphid Damage 1. Interveinal necrosis/defoliation - Reductions in photosynthesis 2. May reduce nut quality* 3. Possible reductions in fruiting sites (following year)* 4. Historically considered economic 5. Damage is visible
  11. 11. Yellow Aphid Complex 1. Yellow Pecan Aphid Present in western orchards, low populations 1. Blackmargined Pecan Aphid Dominate species throughout the season Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org Mike Quinn
  12. 12. Blackmargined Aphids I.J. Park Aphid Skins Parasitized blackmargined aphid (do not mistake for black pecan aphid) Mike Quinn Non-Winged Female “apterous” stem mother Winged Female “alate”
  13. 13. Blackmargined Aphid 1. Adult females both winged and non-winged 2. Characteristic “black band” on wings 3. All forms “lime green” 4. Lifespan approximately 30 days 5. Produce approximately 150 offspring 6. Populations tend to be uniform across the orchard 7. Feed primarily on underside of the leaflet
  14. 14. Blackmargined Aphid Damage 1. Compete with the tree for photosynthates “sinks”* 2. May reduce nut quality* 3. May reduce # flowers (next year)* 4. Historically considered “secondary pest” in other pecan growing regions 5. Provide a food source for sooty mold* (honeydew) 6. Damage not visible 7. Premature defoliation
  15. 15. Quick Summary 1. Aphid species 2. Damage differences 3. Difference in fecundity rates
  16. 16. Pecan Production Basics (Aphid Control Considerations) 1. Pecans alternate between “heavy” and “light” production years. 2. Number and location of flowers are determined the previous year. 3. Pecans are considered a “high value” crop.
  17. 17. Aphid Control Considerations I. Economic Threshold Levels (internet) • Black pecan aphid 1-3 per leaf • Blackmargined aphid 10 per leaf II. Yield reductions (regional) • Approximately 2%+ reduction in meat (“heavy” production year) • Reduce number of flowers following year (“light” production year) • Increase in “husk retention” at harvest (“heavy production” year)
  18. 18. Aphid Control Considerations (Treat or No-Treat) I. Scout (insect) - Species - Density - Location (within, proximity to neighboring orchards) - Aphid forms (winged, stem, nymphs) - Damage (black) - Honeydew production (blackmargined) - History (how many, how long)
  19. 19. Aphid Control Considerations (Treat or No-Treat) II. Scout (orchard information) - Yield estimate - Overall orchard condition - Foliar requirements (zinc) - Soil moisture III. Equipment availability IV. Dollars - Expected market price - Application costs (chemical, labor) V. Climate (treatment, honeydew, sooty mold)
  20. 20. Insecticide Selection & Application • Number of insecticide active ingredients and activity for aphid control – Foliar trans-laminar systemics (neonicitinoids) – Foliar true systemics (Movento*) – Soil applied systemics (neonicitinoids) – Contact (organophosphate, pyrethroids) • Restricted vs. non-restricted • Costs $5/acre to $30+/acre • Resistance issues • Adjuvants • Application (coverage, air vs. ground, speed)
  21. 21. Status of Conventional Insecticides Used to Control Pecan Aphids I. Foliar •1) Pyrethroids (co-packs) •2 ) Non-specific feeding blockers (Fulfill) •3) Neonicotinoids •4) Chlorpyriphos (Lorsban 4E to Lorsban Advanced) •5) Pyriproxyfen (Knack) •6) Spirotetramat (Movento) •7) 2012 ?? II. Systemic (soil applied) Carbamates (Aldicarb removed 2010) Neonicotinoids
  22. 22. OMRI Approved Insecticides for Aphids • Sulfur • Pyrethrin • Potassium salts of fatty acids • Aromatic Oils (i.e. rosemary, peppermint) • Azadiachtin • Plant Growth Regulator
  23. 23. Decisions
  24. 24. Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics • Most recent pest introduced into western area* • Overwinter as a diapaused larvae in the base of pecan bud • Emerge in spring • Normally three generations throughout the growing season • Larvae feed on developing pecan nuts (direct impact), or buds • Smaller the nuts, more nuts damaged by larval feeding • Populations monitored with pheromone traps and scouting for eggs and damage • Economic threshold levels dependent on yield
  25. 25. Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics
  26. 26. PNC Life Stages STAGE LOCATION APPROX DURATION (days) Egg Nutlet, Bud 5 - 10 Larvae Nutlet, Base of Bud (overwintering) 25 - 30 Pupae Nutlet, Base of Bud 10 – 15 Adult (100-150 eggs) Omnipresent 7-10
  27. 27. Pecan Nut Casebearer (Western Region) PNC Infested Pecan Growing, PNC Uninfested
  28. 28. Three Pecan Nut Casebearer Generations (Moth activity) 10 16 20 DAYS
  29. 29. Detecting PNC Adult Populations (Pheromone Traps) 10 16 20
  30. 30. Placement of Pheromone Traps Wind 1. Location 2. Minimum of two traps 3. Record moths and # nights since last count 4. Used to time egg scouting 5. Replace pheromone every month 6. Consider access A
  31. 31. PNC Economic Decisions • Economic Threshold Levels: (Internet) – 1% egg infested clusters for 1st generation – 2% egg infested clusters for 2nd and 3rd generation ON-YEAR 1st GENERATION -2,500 Lbs/Acre -65 Nuts/Lb -$1.80/Lb Market -40,000 clusters/Acre -At 1% infested = 400 Clusters/acre -3 damaged nuts/cluster =1200 nuts or 18 lbs or $32 Loss OFF-YEAR 1st GENERATION -1,500 Lbs/Acre -60 Nuts/Lb -$1.80/Lb Market -26,000 clusters/Acre -At 1% infested = 260 Clusters/acre -3 damaged nuts/cluster =780 nuts or 13 lbs or $23 Loss Western PNC may have a high egg mortality (up to 80%) Used to thin crop load?
  32. 32. Pecan Nut Casebearer Management A. Timing Insecticide Application 1) Field Scouting 2) Modified Degree-Day Models (1st gen. only) a. Biofix (Texas A&M) b. Traditional (egg survey) c. Forecast Model 3) Calendar Based a. 12 days following accumulation of 25 moths* Egg Egg Hatch, Larvae and Nut Entry Treatment Decision MothCatches TIME
  33. 33. PNC Insecticides (General Characteristics) Broad Spectrum • Older chemistries, less expensive, residual less than 10 days, high degree of familiarity, reduce moth population, tend to increase aphid density Narrower Spectrum • Newer chemistries, more expensive, primarily target larvae, conserve beneficials, longer residual (some), good OMRI approved products
  34. 34. Alternative PNC Management Strategy
  35. 35. PNC Adult Suppression Program No Eggs Countable Moths Spray Countable Moths Spray 1. Not considered IPM 2. Can treat every other row 3. Inexpensive 4. No investment in scouting
  36. 36. Addition of Pecan IPM PIPE Website • Maintained by Texas A&M • Information contributions by all pecan belt entomology researchers • Early development phase • www.pecan.ipmpipe.org • Caution: recommendations may not be appropriate for all growing regions
  37. 37. Pecan Weevil Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org H C Ellis, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org Texas A&M
  38. 38. Recently Infested 1998/2002 1999/2003 2000/2003 Weevil Infested Pecan Weevil (1st trapped/Last trapped) 2008
  39. 39. Pecan Weevil Prevention • Restrict the movement of in-shell pecan and potted pecan nursery stock from pecan weevil infested areas. • NMDA , WPGA, NMPG, WTPGA, APGA support statewide cleaning plant and buying station inspection programs. • NMDA, NMSU, WPGA, NMPG support pecan weevil eradication programs.
  40. 40. Primary pest objective is to prevent the movement of pecan weevil into, and eradicate establishing populations in New Mexico
  41. 41. Call

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