CHAPTER XIIIRESEARCH REPORT WRITING          Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep.                                     ...
Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this chapter students will be able  to:• Describe how the research is the crucial  means ...
8.1.           Report parts                        Report partsPrefatory parts    Main body of the report                 ...
Prefatory parts Title page                                     Abstract                                            Objecti...
Appended partsData collectionformsDetailedcalculationsGeneral tablesOthers(e.g Glossaries) if any       Tesfay Aregawi, Me...
The Communication Process    Field of Experience                                          Field of ExperienceCommunicator ...
9.2. Guidelines in Research Report writing•   Plan the project well in advance; fix the    target and the final date of co...
….Guidelines in Research Report writing•   Select a structure for the report, arrange in group    the data, documents, bib...
….Guidelines in Research Report writing•   In the event of any doubt, get it cleared by    reading, thinking, recollecting...
8.3.     MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT   Prefatories/Preliminaries   i) Title page       Title of the Research   ...
iii) Acknowledgementiv) Acronyms (if any, abbreviations alphabetically   arranged)v) Table of Contentsvi) List of Tablesvi...
Components continued       CHAPTER I        INTRODUCTION1.1. Background of the study –Deductive order Definitions and Con...
Components continued1.2 . Statement of the Problem or (Justification of      the study) Facts that motivated the investig...
1.3.2. Research Objectives – Ends met by               conducting the research What the investigator analyzed and how; w...
Components continued1.4. Significance of the study- Benefit of the  study (Who may use the findings)    Contribution to li...
1.5. Scope and Limitation of the study Scope provides the boundary or framework     Theoretical/Conceptual     Methodol...
Limitation of the Study• No proposed research project is without limitations;  there is no such thing as a perfectly desig...
Limitation ….• Limitations derive from the conceptual framework  and the studys design.• A discussion of these limitations...
1.6   Definition of key Terminologies and             Concepts (Optional)Conceptual definitions – general and related to ...
CHAPTER II     REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. Deductive Order (General to specific) Concepts and definitions of terminolo...
CHAPTER IIITHEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWQORK.             Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep.                        ...
CHAPTER IV   Research Methods and Data Collection4.1.    Description of the Study Area (Use only data       relevant to yo...
Components continuedSecondary Sources (Who and Which sources were  used by stating justifiable reasons) and exactly state...
4.3. Research Designs and Strategies Qualitative vs Quantitative Strategies    Stating appropriate reasons for your choi...
Steps in Sampling Design Determine the universe/target population Determine the sampling unit Determine source list/sam...
Components continued      4.4. Data collection      4.4.1. Data collection instruments State the data collection tool or ...
4.4.2. Data Collection Procedures ( show in detail) How the Questionnaire was administered Who was involved? How many p...
4.5. Data Processing and Analysis.4.5.1. Data processing• Coding• Editing• Data entry4.5.2. Data analysis• Methods used• D...
CHAPTER V FINDINGS or RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.• Shows which data deserve further illustration and  explanation• Show appro...
CHAPTER VISUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS6.1. Summary  – Provides basic facts that are having implications    or ...
6.2. Conclusion/Interpretation• Deals with the implication of the data for the  problem or solution• Basically the interpr...
6.3. Recommendation• The possible solutions to the problem• But these potential solutions should be made  ready made solut...
• References/Bibliography• Annexes/Appended parts    •   Questionnaire    •   Forms of data collection    •   Detailed cal...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Research reports ch 8

457 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
457
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Research reports ch 8

  1. 1. CHAPTER XIIIRESEARCH REPORT WRITING Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 1 2010
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this chapter students will be able to:• Describe how the research is the crucial means for communicating the whole research project• Describe the guidelines in writing a research• Outline the research report format and its major components Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 2 2010
  3. 3. 8.1. Report parts Report partsPrefatory parts Main body of the report Appended parts Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 3 2010
  4. 4. Prefatory parts Title page Abstract Objectives/problemAcknowledgement Methods Acronyms Key Results Table of contents Recommendations Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 4 2010
  5. 5. Appended partsData collectionformsDetailedcalculationsGeneral tablesOthers(e.g Glossaries) if any Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 5 2010
  6. 6. The Communication Process Field of Experience Field of ExperienceCommunicator Encoding Message Decoding Audience Communication Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 6 2010
  7. 7. 9.2. Guidelines in Research Report writing• Plan the project well in advance; fix the target and the final date of completing the report.• The time for completing data collection and data processing should be well planned, and implemented• The time for report writing should be planned, and the task of report writing should not be put off till the last minute. Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 7 2010
  8. 8. ….Guidelines in Research Report writing• Select a structure for the report, arrange in group the data, documents, bibliography, etc• Prepare an outline of sub-points in detail.• Prepare a rough point-by – point skeleton for each chapter.• Do not hesitate to discuss the skeleton with somebody who is well –versed in research and writhing Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 8 2010
  9. 9. ….Guidelines in Research Report writing• In the event of any doubt, get it cleared by reading, thinking, recollecting and discussing, before going farther• Avoid easy-going and short cut methods and don’t hesitate to write an entire first draft.• Put the complete rough draft away for several days until you can be a fresh mind to bear up on it.• Revise the draft thoroughly before the report is submitted. Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 9 2010
  10. 10. 8.3. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT Prefatories/Preliminaries i) Title page  Title of the Research  (A Case Study of ……..)  Purpose why the Research is conducted  Name and Address of the investigator  Advisor/Reader  Month and Place where the research is written ii) Abstract  Objectives/rationale or problem  Methods used  Key findings  Key recommendations Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 10 2010
  11. 11. iii) Acknowledgementiv) Acronyms (if any, abbreviations alphabetically arranged)v) Table of Contentsvi) List of Tablesvii)List of Figures
  12. 12. Components continued CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION1.1. Background of the study –Deductive order Definitions and Concepts Related to the topic Global issues and trends about the topic Situations in Less Developed Countries or in an industry National level Firm/Regional level Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 12 2010
  13. 13. Components continued1.2 . Statement of the Problem or (Justification of the study) Facts that motivated the investigator to conduct the research Exactly specifying and measuring the gap Hard facts or quantitative data about the topic for some previous years, for example three years 1.3 Research Questions, Research Objectives, and Research Hypothesis (optional)1.3.1. Research Questions Questions to be answered to resolve the research problem or produce implications for the hypothesis Often one main question and several specific questions Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 13 2010
  14. 14. 1.3.2. Research Objectives – Ends met by conducting the research What the investigator analyzed and how; what comparisons are made and at what levelGeneral objective often one statement directly related to the topic or title of the researchSpecific Objectives- often 4-7 what the researcher wanted to achieve about s/he collected data; what was analyzed and compare what the researcher wanted to achieve1.3.3. Research Hypothesis ( Optional) - tentative propositions to be tested in the research Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 14 2010
  15. 15. Components continued1.4. Significance of the study- Benefit of the study (Who may use the findings) Contribution to literature User organizations Other researchers The society or the community Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 15 2010
  16. 16. 1.5. Scope and Limitation of the study Scope provides the boundary or framework Theoretical/Conceptual Methodological Geographic Limitation is the implication or effect of the scope- does not mean weakness or problems to be faced  By and enlarge reflection of the scope Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 16 2010
  17. 17. Limitation of the Study• No proposed research project is without limitations; there is no such thing as a perfectly designed study.• As Patton (1990:162; cited in Marshall and Rossman, 1999) notes, "There are no perfect research designs.• There are always trade-offs".• A discussion of the studys limitations demonstrates that the researcher understands this reality that she will make no overweening claims about generalizability or conclusiveness relative to what she has learned.
  18. 18. Limitation ….• Limitations derive from the conceptual framework and the studys design.• A discussion of these limitations reminds the reader what the study is and is not-its boundaries-and how its results can and cannot contribute to understanding.• Framing the study in specific research and theoretical traditions places limits the research.• Limitation reminds the reader that the study is bounded and situated in a specific context.
  19. 19. 1.6 Definition of key Terminologies and Concepts (Optional)Conceptual definitions – general and related to dictionary meaningOperational – in the context of the research paper and in measurable terms
  20. 20. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. Deductive Order (General to specific) Concepts and definitions of terminologies directly related to the topic. Global issue and trends Regional or continental or industrial facts Best experiences, if relevant Problems and challenges related to the topic Important points in the literature Adequacy- Sufficient to address the statement of the problem and the specific objectives in detail Logical flow and organization of the contents Adequate citations The variety of issues and ideas gathered from many authors Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 20 2010
  21. 21. CHAPTER IIITHEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWQORK. Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 21 2010
  22. 22. CHAPTER IV Research Methods and Data Collection4.1. Description of the Study Area (Use only data relevant to your study)4.2. Data Type and Source (Decide one of them or both by giving justifications) Qualitative V/s Quantitative ( Give reasons) Primary Sources (Specifying who were the sources of the primary data) Respondents Interviewees Key informants Focus group participants, etc. Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 22 2010
  23. 23. Components continuedSecondary Sources (Who and Which sources were used by stating justifiable reasons) and exactly state the sources from which you got the data Reports, manuals, Internal publications, data base systems Journals and Publications for assessing existing findings and Internet Books for assessing theories and principles related to the topic etc. Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 23 2010
  24. 24. 4.3. Research Designs and Strategies Qualitative vs Quantitative Strategies  Stating appropriate reasons for your choice/decisions  Choice among the basic designs of the research techniques Census Vs Survey (which one was used and why) Survey design ( which survey designs were used by clearly stating the reasons for your decision Sample Size( Use appropriate sample size determination formula and or the commonly used sample size used by other researchers in the area of your topic, with due regard to the target population and the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the population characteristics Sampling Design( Show how and why you used the different techniques of probability and/or nonprobability sampling techniques Sampling Procedure( clearly state the steps you followed in actually taking the samples) Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 24 2010
  25. 25. Steps in Sampling Design Determine the universe/target population Determine the sampling unit Determine source list/sampling frame Determine size of sample (( Use the sample size determination formula as a base and make adjustments with due regard to the target population and the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the population characteristics) Sampling procedure ( Show how and why you used the different techniques of probability and/or nonprobability sampling techniques) Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 25 2010
  26. 26. Components continued 4.4. Data collection 4.4.1. Data collection instruments State the data collection tool or tools were used with necessary justifications. – Interview, – Questionnaire, – Observation, – Focus group discussion, etc Questionnaire pretesting details if you had Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 26 2010
  27. 27. 4.4.2. Data Collection Procedures ( show in detail) How the Questionnaire was administered Who was involved? How many people were involved? When was data collected? Where was data collected? How Data collection was administered? How other methods were applied in combination (Triangulation) Focus Group discussions Interviews Observation Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 27 2010
  28. 28. 4.5. Data Processing and Analysis.4.5.1. Data processing• Coding• Editing• Data entry4.5.2. Data analysis• Methods used• Descriptive analysis• Inferential statistics.• SPSS/ SAS/STATA/SYSTAT Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 28 2010
  29. 29. CHAPTER V FINDINGS or RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.• Shows which data deserve further illustration and explanation• Show appropriately those data that are highly relevant to the research problem, research objectives and research questions• Show the relationship between variables, that may have implications to the problem and its solutions• It is not advisable to include your own interpretations at this level, for it may lead to premature conclusions• Use cross tabulations asMekelle University, Sep. Tesfay Aregawi, much as possible 29 2010
  30. 30. CHAPTER VISUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS6.1. Summary – Provides basic facts that are having implications or likely conclusions – It is directly taken from the analysis but focuses on the most important data – You can include your own interpretations for each basic fact but you can also have a separate topic for conclusion Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 30 2010
  31. 31. 6.2. Conclusion/Interpretation• Deals with the implication of the data for the problem or solution• Basically the interpretation of the researcher and the relationship between the data and the real world and the respective principles are included here• The implication should be worked out in a way it leads to recommendations Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 31 2010
  32. 32. 6.3. Recommendation• The possible solutions to the problem• But these potential solutions should be made ready made solutions• They should not be assignments to the reader Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 32 2010
  33. 33. • References/Bibliography• Annexes/Appended parts • Questionnaire • Forms of data collection • Detailed calculations • General tables Tesfay Aregawi, Mekelle University, Sep. 33 2010

×