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Fat soluble vitamins

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Vitamins

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Fat soluble vitamins

  1. 1. THE FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
  2. 2. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS  Fat soluble vitamins have long nonpolar hydrocarbon chains or rings.  Common fat soluble vitamins include • A • D • E • K 2 Vitamin D Vitamin K
  3. 3. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS  Fat soluble vitamins usually accumulate in tissues and are not leached out quickly.  Unlike water soluble vitamins, an excess of a fat soluble vitamin can be just as harmful as a deficiency. 3
  4. 4. 1. VITAMIN A (RETINOL)  Foods from animal source provide various retinoids that are easily converted to retinol in the body  Foods from plant source provide carotenoids  Over 500 carotenoids found in nature  Less than 10% with provitamin A activity  -carotene highest activity  Must be acted upon in the gut or by the liver to form retinol
  5. 5. VITAMIN A - SOURCES  Animal sources  Liver  Milk  Egg yolk  Plant sources  Carrots  Green leafy vegetables  Orange coloured fruits, e.g. mango and apricots
  6. 6. 6 •RDA (retinol): • 1000 μg of retinol, or 3,500 IU, for males • 800 μg of retinol, or 2,500 IU, for females •one glass of milk provides 10% of the RDA •one medium carrot provides 200% of the RDA •a serving of liver provides 900% of RDA
  7. 7. THE RETINOIDS  3 forms of vitamin A important for health  Retinol (key player; can be converted to other forms)  Retinal  Retinoic acid  β-carotene  potent provitamin A
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE AND STORAGE  β-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the intestinal mucosa  90% is stored in liver, mainly as the ester, retinyl palmitate (~ 6 months storage)  Small amounts in adipose and blood  Transport  Retinol binding protein(RBP) acts to transport vitamin A from the liver and in the blood.  Excretion  Small amount in urine
  10. 10. MAJOR FUNCTION IN THE BODY  vital to good vision  prevents night blindness  antioxidant (β-carotene)  necessary for healthy skin, hair growth  keeps mucous membranes healthy  promotes bone development  Support immunity (retinoic acid and carotenoids) 10
  11. 11. Role of vitamin A in vision
  12. 12. RHODOPSIN CYCLE OR WALD’S VISUAL CYCLE •Rhodopsin: combination of a protein part (opsin) and 11-cis retinal (only cis form can bind with opsin). •When light energy is absorbed by rhodopsin, the rhodopsin decompose: converts 11-cis retinal into all-trans retinal. •In order to maintain the ability to detect light, the rods must reconvert the all-trans retinal into 11-cis retinal. •This process only occurs under the dark environment. •Dark adaptation time
  13. 13. VITAMIN A - DEFICIENCY  More obvious deficiency symptoms than other vitamins  Night blindness  Leading cause of blindness in third world countries  Cell keratinization  Dry skin  Xerophthalmia (dryness of cornea & conjunctiva)  Reproductive failure  Abnormal skeletal development/maintenance  Immune dysfunction
  14. 14. VITAMIN A TOXICITY  Not readily excreted  Hypervitaminosis A in humans  Self-medication and overprescription  symptom  Skeletal malformations, spontaneous fractures  Birth defects and miscarriage  Decalcification, joint pain, fragility  Dry itchy skin  Hair loss  Liver damage  Overconsumption of beta carotene from food sources may cause skin to turn yellow but is not harmful
  15. 15. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF Β- CAROTENE  Antioxidant role of β-carotene  Increased consumption of β-carotene is associated with decreased incidence of heart attacks, skin and lung cancers.  High doses of carotene for long periods are not toxic.
  16. 16. 2. VITAMIN D: SUNSHINE VITAMIN  Body can make it if exposed to enough sunlight  Made from cholesterol in the skin
  17. 17. VITAMIN D - SOURCES  Synthesized in body  Plants (ergosterol)  Sun-cured forages  Fluid milk products are fortified with vitamin D  Oily fish  Egg yolk  Butter  Liver  Daily Value  10 micrograms
  18. 18. VITAMIN D (CALCIFEROL)  There are 2 major precursor forms: 7-dehydrocholesterol Ergosterol  Vitamin D2 = ergocalciferol  Completely synthetic form produced by the irradiation of the plant steroid ergosterol  Vitamin D3 = cholecalciferol  Produced photochemically by the action of sunlight or ultraviolet light from the precursor sterol 7- dehydrocholesterol
  19. 19. FORMATION OF VITAMIN D  Skin (UV light) 7-dehydro cholesterol  vitamin D3  Liver OH-group added 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 Storage form of vitamin (~3 months storage in liver)  Kidney OH-group added by 1-hydroxylase 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (or 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol, 1,25-DHCC) Active form of vitamin D, a “steroid hormone” OH-group added by 24-hydroxylase 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 Inactive form of vitamin D, ready for excretion
  20. 20. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol, 1,25 DHCC)
  21. 21. Chemical name Abbreviation Generic name Vitamin D2 D2 Ergocalciferol Vitamin D3 D3 Cholecalciferol 25-hydroxy Vitamin D3 25(OH)D3 Calciferol 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 1,25-(OH)2D3 Calcitriol 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 24,25- (OH)2D3 Secalcifediol
  22. 22. 23 FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D  Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis  Calcium and Phosphorus absorption (small intestine)  Calcium resorption (bone and kidney)  Maintain blood calcium levels  Bone formation  Stimulate calcium uptake for deposition as calcium phosphate (Osteoblasts: bone-forming cells)  Hormone  Regulation of gene expression  Cell growth
  23. 23. 24 PTH:Parathyroid Hormone
  24. 24. VITAMIN D (ANTIRACHITIC VITAMIN)- DEFICIENCY  Less common  Young animals  Rickets (meaning: twist)  Failure of bones to grow properly  Results in “bowed” legs or knock-knees, outward bowed chest and knobs on ribs  Older animals  Osteomalacia(Greek: osteon-bone, malakia-softness):  Adult form of rickets  Osteoporosis (porous bones):  Loss of vitamin D activity with advancing age  Associated with fractures  very serious for geriatrics
  25. 25. OSTEOPOROSIS progressive loss of bone density, thinning of bone tissue and increased vulnerability to fractures in the elderly people of both sexes.
  26. 26. VITAMIN D TOXICITY  Hypervitaminosis D  Among the vitamins, vitamin D is the most toxic in overdoses(10-100 times RDA)  Calcification of soft tissue  Lungs, heart, blood vessels  Hardening of arteries, stone formation in kidneys  Does not occur from sunlight or dietary sources  Does occur with supplementation  In general, vitamin D supplement are not recommended.  Upper limit: 50 micrograms a day
  27. 27. 3. VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL)  A naturally occurring antioxidant.  Essential for nomal reproduction in many animals. Tocopherol (Greek: tokos-child birth; pheros-bear; ol-alcohol), Anti-sterility vitamin.
  28. 28. VITAMIN E - SOURCES  Plant sources  Cereal grains  Especially in germ  Vegetable and seed oils  Animal sources  Meat,milk,butter,eggs  RDA: 10 mg for men, and 8 mg for women
  29. 29. VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL)  The term vitamin E refers to a family of 8 related compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols  The four major forms of vitamin E are designated a, , d, g, of which a -tocopherol is the most active. O CH3 H3C HO CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 ALPHA TOCOPHEROL
  30. 30. 32 ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT AND EXCRETION OF VITAMIN E  Absorption and Transportation  Micelles into chylomicrons  Transported via lipoproteins  Stored in adipose tissue  Excretion  Bile, urine and skin
  31. 31. MAJOR FUNCTION IN THE BODY  Antioxidant  Vitamin E is very unstable, easily oxidized  protect cells against oxidative damage by free radicals, for example oxidation of the lipids in the cell membranes  plays a role in aging, sexual performance, or prevention of cancer and/or heart disease 33
  32. 32. VITAMIN E - DEFICIENCY  Rare  Erythrocyte hemolysis and hemolytic anemia  disruption of red blood cell membranes, perhaps due to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) oxidation  Sterility: reproductive failure
  33. 33. VITAMIN E TOXICITY  Toxicity rare: wide range of safe intake compared to other fat soluble vitamins - Vitamin E is one of the most popular nutrient supplements. There are many health claims for supplementation – slowing of the aging process or an improvement in sexual potency.
  34. 34. 4. VITAMIN K  The only fat soluble vitamin with a specific coenzyme function.  Required for the production of blood clotting factors, essential for coagulation. Named as antihemorrhagic vitamin.
  35. 35. VITAMIN K - SOURCES  Plant sources  Green leafy vegetables  Some oils  Broccoli  Animal sources  Liver  Milk  Also made by bacteria in the gut  RDA: 80 μg for men, 65 μg for women
  36. 36. FORMS OF VITAMIN K  K1, phylloquinone  Chloroplasts in plants  K2, menaquinone  Bacterial synthesis  K3, menadione  Synthetic, Complexed to improve stability Vitamin K2
  37. 37. ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT AND EXCRETION OF VITAMIN K 42  Absorption and Transportation  Absorbed in small intestine, via chylomicrons in lymphatic system.  Transported via lipoproteins and stored in the liver  Excretion  Primarily bile, small amount urine
  38. 38. FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K  Essential for clotting of blood.  Clotting factors are synthesized in the liver as inactive precursors - vitamin K converts them to their active forms  Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, an active enzyme  Formation of fibrinogen to fibrin, leading to clot formation  Stimulates bone formation and decreases bone resorption.
  39. 39. Gamma carboxylation of clotting factors II,VII,IX and X produces calcium binding sites
  40. 40.  Deficiency: increased bleeding and hemorrhage - rare, they may occur in some individuals when antibiotic medications kill the intestinal bacteria that produce the vitamin.  Hypervitaminosis K: thrombosis, hemolytic anaemia and jaundice, particularly in infants. The toxic effect is due to increased breakdown of RBC. 46

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