Msd ch2 issues in multimedia


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Msd ch2 issues in multimedia

  1. 1. CGMB324: MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM DESIGN Chapter 2: Issues In Multimedia Authoring & Design
  2. 2. Objectives Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to:  Understand the theory and concept of multimedia authoring  Differentiate between the Multimedia Authoring Metaphors  Address the Content Design Issues  Understand the Visual Design Issues  Be aware of the Technical Design Issues  Foresee the Fundamental Design issues
  3. 3. Multimedia Authoring
  4. 4. Multimedia Authoring  MultimediaAuthoring the process of creating multimedia application.  During authoring, you might need to organize or edit the elements of your multimedia project, create user interface and designing interactivity.  This can be achieved through the use of authoring programs / tools.
  5. 5. Why would anyone want to use an authoring program?  Why it is more efficient and effective to use an authoring system:  Simplify the inherently complex task of creating interactive multimedia.  Reduce the time needed to develop the application  Increase productivity  Reusability of the content e.g. graphics, animations, audio, video clips.
  6. 6. Authoring Tools  Multimedia authoring tools are the central integrative tools use to combine all the media resources within a structured framework.  Important to select an authoring tool that best suits project needs.  There are a number of factors that will narrow the range of choice :  the hardware available for development and delivery  the nature of the multimedia project  price  the market penetration of the tool.
  7. 7. Authoring & The Metaphor Used  Authoringmetaphor== autho ring paradig m  for easier understanding of the methodology employed to create multimedia applications. a) Scripting-language metaphor b) Slide show metaphor c) Hierarchical metaphor d) Iconic/Flow-control metaphor e) Frames metaphor f) Card/Scripting metaphor g) Cast/Score metaphor
  8. 8. a) Scripting Language Metaphor  uses a special language to enable interactivity (button, mouse, etc), and to allow conditionals, jumps, loops, functions/macros  e.g., OpenScript in Toolbook by Asymetrix -- load an MPEG file extFileName of MediaPlayer “theMpegPath” = “c:windowsmediamedia.mpg”; -- play extPlayCount of MediaPlayer “theMpegPath” = 1; --if want to start and end at specific frames extSelectionStart of MediaPlayer “theMpegPath” = 103; Example of OpenScript
  9. 9. b) Slide Show Metaphor  by default a linear presentation  However, tools exist to perform jumps/hyperlink – seldom used  e.g., PowerPoint, ImageQ
  10. 10. c) Hierarchical Metaphor  User-controllable elements are organized into a tree structure.  Often used in menu-driven applications
  11. 11. d) Iconic/Flow-control Metaphor  graphical icons are available in a toolbox  Authoring proceeds by creating flow chart with icons attached.  e.g., Authorware by Macromedia
  12. 12. e) Frames metaphor  As in iconic/flow- control metaphor, but uses C language as the programming language  rather than represent the actual flow of the program, links between icons are more conceptual
  13. 13. f) Card/Scripting Metaphor  index-card structure, good for hypertext/hypermedia  e.g., SuperCard, HyperCard by Apple
  14. 14. g) Cast/Score/Scripting Metaphor  with cast members, music scores, and scripting language;  many synchronous horizontal "tracks" simultaneously shown in vertical columns;  e.g., Director by Macromedia (Uses Lingo = scripting language)
  15. 15. Content Design Issues
  16. 16. Content Design Issues  "In multimedia, there are five ways to format and deliver your message.  You can write it, illustrate it, wiggle it, hear it, and interact with it." -- D.E. Wolfgram (author of, ‘Creating Multimedia Presentations’)
  17. 17. Scripting A) Scripting (writing) Rules forgood writing: 1. Understand your audience and correctly address them. 2. Keep your writing as simple as possible. -- e.g., write out the full message(s) first, then shorten it. 3. Make sure technologies are used to complement each other.
  18. 18. Graphics B) Graphics (illustrating)  Make use of pictures to effectively deliver your messages. – as in the old adage, "A picture is worth a thousand words."  Create your own material (draw, scan, PhotoCD, ...), or keep "copy files" of art works.  Color Themes -- be consistent with the contents  pastels (pale or light colors)  earth tones  metallic colors
  19. 19. Animation C) Animation (wiggling) Types of Animation  Character Animation -- humanize an object e.g., a toothbrush, a car, a coke bottle, etc.
  20. 20. Animation  Factors in choosing a character  Emotion -- Is it happy, sad, funny, sloppy, ...?  Movement -- Is it fast, slow, bumpy, ...?  Visual style -- Is its color/texture consistent with the rest?  Copyright -- "Don't use Mickey Mouse before checking with Disney."  Adequacy -- e.g., Does it provide various poses? (can't make a broomstick sit!)
  21. 21. Animation (Effects & Transitions)  Highlights and Sparkles  e.g., to pop a word in/out of the screen, to sparkle a logo --> to draw attention  Moving Text  e.g., put up one character at a time like a typewriter OR "pulsing" -- the word grows/shrinks (or changes color) a few times – the typewriter effect can be used to create a suspense atmosphere as well of slowly revealed info.  Note: Do not slowly move entire line of text, they are not easily readable. Instead, for example, slide the bullets in and out.
  22. 22. Video  Video -- live video or digitized video +Advantages  more powerful than still images  often easier to obtain than graphics animation - Disadvantages  takes a lot of disk space  sometimes needs special hardware (depends on compression used) but more often, requires a codec to be installed to play the particular video
  23. 23. Audio D) Audio (hearing) Types of audio in multimedia applications  Music -- sets the mood of the presentation, enhances the emotion, illustrates points  Sound effects -- to make specific points, e.g., squeaky doors, explosions, wind, ...  Narration -- most direct message, often effective
  24. 24. Interactivity E) Interactivity (interaction)  Interactive multimedia systems are important  Studies have shown that people remember 70% of what they interact with (Edgar Dale – Cone Of Learning)
  25. 25. Interactivity Some Common Types of Interactive Multimedia Applications: Menu-driven programs and presentations Hypermedia Simulations/Performance-dependent Simulations e.g., Games -- SimCity, Flight Simulators Video-conferencing (NetMeeting, etc.)
  26. 26. Visual Design Issues
  27. 27. Visual Design Issues  There are a few issues with regard to visual design that must be considered :  Themes/Styles  Graphic Styles  Animation Styles  Pace & Running Length  Basic Layout/User Interface
  28. 28. Themes & Styles 1. Themes & Styles -- A multimedia presentation should have a consistent theme/style; it should not be disjointed and cluttered with multiple themes. The choice of the theme/style depends on the styles and emotions of your audience.
  29. 29. Various themes can be used for interface design Various themes can be used for interface design
  30. 30. Themes & Styles (Examples) Cartoon theme  interesting/entertaining  must be consistent with the character's personality  perhaps suitable for an audience of children Traditional theme  straightforward marketing pieces  simple, often informative  not as interesting
  31. 31. Themes & Styles (Examples) Hi-Tech theme  contemporary computer art work (morphing, texture mapping, metal texture, explosions, ...)  attractive, easy to animate Technical theme  include blueprints, 3D models of the product, ... e.g., start with a drawing, then transformed into a rendered image.  shows adequate technical information  gives impression of solid design and construction
  32. 32. Graphic Styles 2. Graphic Styles  Some colorschemes (e.g., natural and floral for outdoor scenes) and art styles (e.g., oil paints, watercolours, color pencils, pastels) are best combined with a certain theme/style.
  33. 33. Graphic Styles Color Principles and Guidelines  Do not use too many colors!  Be consistent with the use of color  Use colors to separate ideas and signal changes Fonts  Size: e.g., Use large fonts (e.g., 18 to 36 points), no more than 6-8 lines per screen – depends on the application.  Style: -- e.g., serif vs. sans serif
  34. 34. Animation Styles 3.When to Animate ? "A leaf doesn't flutter if the wind doesn't blow." Only animate when it has a specific purpose oris necessary forthe application
  35. 35. Using Animation  Enhance emotional impact e.g., dove softly flapping its wings --> peace e.g., air bag explosion + dummy movements --> car crash.  Make a point e.g., show insertion of a memory chip onto the motherboard (much better than a diagram)
  36. 36. Using Animation  Improve information delivery e.g., "pulsing" words (in and out of screen) adds emphasis  Indicate passage of time e.g., clock/hourglass --> program still running e.g., animated text --> to prompt for interaction/response
  37. 37. Animation Transitions  Some transitions  Wipes -- e.g., L-to-R, T-D, B-U, diagonal, iris round, centree to edge, etc.  Dissolve -- the current image distorts into an unrecognizable form before the next clear image appears, e.g., boxy dissolve, cross dissolve, etc.  Fade -- a metaphor for a complete change of scene  Cut -- immediate change to next image, e.g., for making story points using a close- up
  38. 38. Pace & Running Length 4. Pace and Running length A few guidelines:  Allow a block of text to be slowly read twice.  Transition time should be taken into account for the total running time
  39. 39. Pace & Running Length Running length (generally)  self running presentation: 2-3 minutes  limited interaction: 5-6 minutes  complete analytical, hands-on demo: < 15 minutes  with questions, discussions: > 30 minutes Youshouldimplement built inbreaks forlongpresentations
  40. 40. Basic Layout 5. Basic Layout  make sure that the information delivery path in the layout is smooth, not irregular or jumpy  chronological (what naturally comes first, should be placed first; e.g. 1980 before 1985)  use headlines/subtitles, additional shapes, buttons, fonts, backgrounds and textures to enhance the visual appearance.
  41. 41. Technical Design Issues
  42. 42. Technical Design Tech Issues: Technical parameters that affect the design and delivery of multimedia applications NormalVideoMode Video Mode Resolution Max # Colors CGA 320 x 200 4 EGA 640 x 350 16 VGA 640 x 480 16 or 320 x 200 256
  43. 43. Technical Design HighColorVideo Mode Video Mode Resolution Max # Colors SVGA 640 x 480 16.7 million * SVGA 800 x 600 16.7 million * SVGA 1,024 x 768 16.7 million * SVGA 1,152 x 864 16.7 million * SVGA 1,280 x 1,024 16.7 million * SVGA 1,600 x 1,200 16.7 million *
  44. 44. Note * The actual number of colors displayed may be smaller, it depends on the amount of video memory on the graphics card. •8-bit color  256 colors •16-bit color  65,536 colors •24-bit color  16.7 million colors
  45. 45. Technical Design 1. Video Mode & Computer Platform PC  Macintosh There are many "portable", "cross-platform" software and "run-time modules", but many of them lose quality/performance during the translation. 2. Memory & Disk Space Requirements Rapid progress in hardware alleviates the problem, but software is too "greedy", especially the multimedia ones.
  46. 46. Technical Design 3. Delivery • Live Presentation • Delivery by diskette • Small in size, slow to install • Delivery by CD-ROM/DVD-ROM • Largercapacity • Access time of CD-ROM/DVD-ROM drives is longerthan hard-diskdrives • Electronic Delivery (Netshow/Streaming-video, etc.) • depends on baud rate, network connection, and monthly bill
  47. 47. Overall Design Issues
  48. 48. Address The Needs  To ensure success the MM system must support multimedia applications that address the diverse needs of users or clients  Architecture and design of the overall systems should cater for these diverse requirements
  49. 49. System Design  Enterprise requirements  Technology assessment  Business model & related info  Examining current architecture and feasibility  Performance analysis  Performance analysis and monitoring  Impact of performance issue on design
  50. 50. System Design  Designing forperformance  Storage management  Access management and optimization of storage distribution  Maximizing network transportation  Managing system performance  Multimedia SystemDesign  Systems Design Methodology  Object Oriented Multimedia Systems
  51. 51. System Design  System Extensibility  Ease of upgrading / add-on / plug-in  Reusability  System Maintenance  Routine jobs to upkeep the operation
  52. 52. Networked MM Systems  Generally, networked multimedia systems have issues to address, some of which are:  Traffic analysis  Bufferdesign  Traffic shaping  Admission and congestion control  Scheduling  Standardization