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  1. 3. Water Resources of the world
  2. 4. Water Resources of the world <ul><li>Over the last century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human population has increased 3x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global water withdrawal has increased 7x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita water withdrawal has increased 4x </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. About one-sixth of the world’s people don't have easy access to safe water Most water resources are owned by Government and are managed as publicly owned resources
  4. 6. Use of Water Resources in Pakistan <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic </li></ul>Agriculture Industry Public
  5. 7. Principal source of drinking water
  6. 8. GROUND WATER Most of the rural areas and many major cities rely on it, although some cities such as Islamabad, Karachi, Hyderabad etc, get water from a number of other sources
  7. 9. About 80% of Punjab has fresh Groundwater
  8. 10. In Sindh, less than 30% of groundwater is fresh
  9. 11. In Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, increasing abstraction has resulted in wells now reaching into saline layers
  10. 12. Balochistan also has saline groundwater
  11. 13. Ground Water cycle Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation Stream Infiltration Water table Infiltration Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifer Lake Well requiring a pump Flowing artesian well Runoff Precipitation Confined Recharge Area Aquifer Less permeable material such as clay Confirming permeable rock layer
  12. 14. Problems Using Groundwater
  13. 15. Water Table Lowering
  14. 16. Depletion
  15. 17. SALTWATER INTRUSION is the movement of saline water into fresh water aquifers
  16. 18. Reduced Stream Flow
  17. 19. The drying up of wells Groundwater in the sub basin of Quetta would be exhausted by 2016
  18. 20. In Islamabad, the drop has been 50 feet between 1986 and 2001
  19. 21. In Lahore, the drop has been about 20 feet between 1993 and 2001 .
  20. 22. Rural Water Supply in Pakistan Punjab has the best rural water supply The vast majority of the rural population has either piped water or water from a hand pump or motor pump.
  21. 23. Only 7 % of the rural population depends on a dug well or a river, canal or stream.
  22. 24. Sindh is considerably worse: some 24% of the rural population depend on these sources
  23. 25. Situation in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa is worse still 46%
  24. 26. In Balochistan, 72% of the rural population depend on dug well or from a river/canal/stream .
  25. 27. Human Water Needs <ul><li>A person needs about </li></ul><ul><li>1 gallon water/day </li></ul><ul><li>for hydration </li></ul>
  26. 28. In the Pakistan each person uses about 188 gallons/day An additional 657 gallons/person/day are used for irrigation, industrial use
  27. 29. If world’s water supply were 100 liters, the usable supply would be about 0.5 tsp
  28. 30. US has highest per capita water withdrawal, followed by Canada, Australia, Russia, Japan
  29. 31. Water Condition in Pakistan
  30. 32. Pakistan has decreased from 5,000 in 1951 to 1000 cubic meter per Annum in 2010
  31. 33. 2010 and 2025 have reached 173 million and 267 million respectively
  32. 34. The situation could get worse in areas where it is already below 1000m 3 per head
  34. 36. Per Capita Water Availability 2700 65 1971 659 267 2025 850 207 2013 1200 148 2000 1600 115 1991 2100 84 1981 3950 46 1961 5000 34 1951 Per Capita Availability (m 3 ) Population (million) Years
  36. 38. The water Shortage The water shortage in the agriculture sector is another serious issue. 29% for the year 2010 and 33% for 2025.
  37. 39. Today groundwater contributes a merely 48% of the water available
  38. 40. The hike in the cost of electricity in 1990s and the development of new technologies have led to a considerable increase of diesel pumps whose numbers have grown 6 times over the last 30 years. (SOE 2005)
  40. 42. WATER QUALITY IN PAKISTAN <ul><li>Domestic and Industrial waste are discharged directly or indirectly in fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3 waste treatment plants are present in Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Only some 8% of urban wastewater is treated in municipal treatment plants. </li></ul><ul><li>In Sindh 95% of shallow groundwater supplies are bacteriologically contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>In Punjab, approximately 36% of the population is exposed Arsenic (10ppb) </li></ul>
  41. 43. Pakistan
  42. 44. Pakistan <ul><li>Rapid increase in Population </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Development </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Extended Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Non development of </li></ul><ul><li>Water resources </li></ul>
  44. 46. Sources of water pollution <ul><li>Municipal Sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture Water Pollution </li></ul>Sources of water pollution
  45. 47. Municipal Sewage It has been estimated that around 2,000 million gallons of sewage is being discharged to surface water bodies every day in Pakistan (Pak-SCEA 2006)
  46. 48. NCS states that 40% of death are related to water born diseases
  47. 49. Drinking Water Supply Lines Conditions in Pakistan <ul><li>Water is contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>with </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>PCBs </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanides </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma Waste </li></ul>
  48. 50. It is estimated that 50% Nationally (less than 20% in many rural areas), with only about 10% of collected sewage is effectively treated
  49. 51. Industrial Water Pollution
  50. 52. Most industries in the country are located in or around major cities and are recognized as key sources of increasing pollution in natural streams, rivers, as well as the Arabian Sea to which the toxic effluents are discharged
  51. 53. Major Industrial Contributors to Water Pollution in Pakistan Petrochemicals, Paper and pulp, Food processing, Sugar, Textile, Cement and fertilizer produce more than 80% of the total industrial effluents
  52. 54. Sugarcane Based Industry <ul><li>A major cause of </li></ul><ul><li>industrial water pollution due to discharge of wastewater containing high pollutant </li></ul><ul><li>concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Several hundred thousand tons of wastewater is generated per day </li></ul>
  53. 55. In Pakistan, only 1% of wastewater is treated by industries before being discharged directly into rivers and drains
  54. 56. Tanneries It may take hundreds or even thousands of years for pollutants such as toxic metals from the tanneries to be flushed out of a contaminated aquifer
  55. 57. In K.P, 80,000 m 3 of industrial effluents containing a very high level of pollutants are discharged every day into the river Kabul
  56. 58. In Karachi, Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) and Korangi Industrial and Trading Estate (KITE), two of the biggest industrial estates in Pakistan, there is no effluent treatment plant and the waste containing hazardous materials, heavy metals, oil etc. is discharged into rivers.
  57. 59. In Multan, a fertilizer factory discharges its waste untreated to cultivated land causing death of livestock and increasing health risk to humans. (WB-CWRAS Paper 8, 2005)
  58. 60. In Lahore, only 3 out of some 100 industries using hazardous chemicals treat their wastewater. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) levels in water courses receiving these wastes are as high as 800mg/l and Mercury levels over 5 mg/l
  59. 61. In Faisalabad, one of the biggest industrial cities, there is little segregation of domestic and industrial wastes
  60. 62. Agriculture Water Pollution
  61. 63. According NWP, the irrigation network of Pakistan is the largest infrastructural approximately $ 300 billion of investment, 25% to the country's GDP. provides 90 % of food and fiber The remaining 10 % arid.
  62. 64. xcv animal manure erosion and dust from cultivation, pesticide drift and volatilization This includes runoff and leaching Fertilizers
  63. 65. The study revealed that in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan and all drains were carrying saline and sodic waters due to high values of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and all of them also had very high values for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD).
  64. 66. The contribution of agricultural drainage to the overall contamination of the water resources exists but is marginal compared to the industrial and domestic pollution. For example, in Sindh, the pollution of water due to irrigation is only 3.21% of the total Pollution (SOE 2005)
  65. 67. Source of contamination of Water Pollution <ul><li>Point sources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpoint sources </li></ul>
  66. 68. Point and Non point NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES
  67. 69. <ul><li>Inorganic Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Water Pollution </li></ul>Classification of the Cause of Water Pollution
  68. 70. Inorganic Pollutants <ul><li>Pre-production industrial raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals including acid mine drainage </li></ul>
  69. 71. Inorganic Pollutants <ul><li>Chemical waste as industrial by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Acidity due to industrial discharges like sulphur dioxide </li></ul>
  70. 72. Fertilizers in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates
  71. 73. Phosphates and Nitrates <ul><li>Phosphates—mostly a result of sewage </li></ul><ul><li>outflow and from Fertilizer, phosphate detergents </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates—sewage and fertilizers </li></ul>
  72. 74. <ul><li>gdg </li></ul><ul><li>The combustion of coal leads to the release of </li></ul><ul><li>mercury in the atmosphere. This enters the rivers, </li></ul><ul><li>lakes and groundwater. This is very hazardous </li></ul><ul><li>for pregnant women and infants </li></ul>
  73. 75. Arsenic Toxicity <ul><ul><li>Investigations revealed the presence of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive arsenic in many cities of Punjab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Multan, Sheikhupura, Lahore, Kasur, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gujranwala & Bahawalpur) Sindh (Dadu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& Khairpur) provinces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concentration of arsenic was found to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be 50ppb five times higher that the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prescribed limit of 10 ppb by WHO. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PCRWR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arsenic contamination is also becoming a serious problem. </li></ul><ul><li>In Sindh and the Punjab, approximately 36% of the population is exposed to a level of contamination higher than 10ppb </li></ul><ul><li>16% is exposed to contamination of 50ppb. (SOE 2005) </li></ul>
  74. 76. Organic water pollution
  75. 77. <ul><li>Bacteria from sewage or livestock </li></ul><ul><li>operation </li></ul><ul><li>Food processing waste,which can </li></ul><ul><li>include oxygen demand substance like fat </li></ul>
  76. 78. Petroleum hydrocarbons like Diesel, Gasoline, Jet fuel, Motor oil, Detergents
  77. 79. Disinfection by products found in chemically Disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform
  78. 80. Pesticides <ul><li>Chlorinated hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>DDT,—2-15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Organophosphates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>— 1-2weeks </li></ul></ul>some commonly used pesticides <ul><ul><li>Carbamates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>---days to weeks </li></ul></ul>
  79. 82. Scale of Pesticide Use in Pakistan <ul><li>Since 1950 to 1990: 50-fold increase in pesticide use </li></ul><ul><li>Most present pesticides are 10-100 x more toxic than those used in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>As there has been a four-fold increase in the use of Pesticide per year from 1990 to 2000 </li></ul>
  80. 83. Each Year in the Pakistan <ul><li>About 45 thousands tones of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>are used </li></ul><ul><li>About 2500 commercial pesticide products </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pesticides is increasing at the rate </li></ul><ul><li>of 25% per year </li></ul>
  81. 84. Case Study <ul><li>In 107 samples of groundwater collected from across the country between 1988 and 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>31 samples were found to have contamination of pesticides beyond FAO/WHO safety limits. </li></ul><ul><li>A pilot project was undertaken in 1990-91 in Samundari, Faisalabad </li></ul><ul><li>In an analysis of 10 groundwater samples drawn from a depth of 10-15 m </li></ul><ul><li>Seven were contaminated with one or more pesticides (PCRWR, 1991) </li></ul>
  82. 85. Herbicides <ul><li>Triazines, </li></ul><ul><li>(interfere with photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenoxy compounds, N compounds (create excess growth hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Dalapon (kill soil microorganisms) </li></ul>Some Common Pesticides and Their Effects
  83. 87. Pollution of Lakes
  84. 88. Eutrophication Results
  85. 89. Ocean Pollution
  86. 90. Oil Spills Pollution Sources of pollution: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks
  87. 91. Effects <ul><li>Death of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of animal insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of animal buoyancy </li></ul>
  89. 93. <ul><li>As per USAID report, an estimated 250,000 child deaths occur each year in Pakistan due to water-borne disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The WHO reports that 25-30% of all hospital admissions are connected to water borne bacterial and parasitic conditions, with 60% of infant deaths caused by water infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Small rural areas in Sindh do not receive adequately-treated water </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, major cities, like Karachi, get contaminated water. </li></ul>Health Impacts
  90. 94. Health Impacts of Water Pollution
  91. 95. Water Related Deaths
  92. 96.   Deposited in organs like the kidney, pancreas, liver, intestinal mucosa, etc. Cadmium poisoning causes headache, vomiting, bronchial pneumonia, kidney necrosis, etc.   Cadmium industries, Fertilizers   Cadmium   Absorbed into blood and affects PBCs, liver, kidney, bone, brain and the peripheral nervous system. Lead poisoning can even lead to coma.   Industrial wastes   Lead   Minamata disease - causes numbness of limbs, lips and tongue, blurred vision, deafness and mental derangement.   Industrial wastes   Metals-Mercury   Oxygen depletion Spread of diseases/ epidemics   Sewerage of rural and urban areas.   Sewage that includes domestic wastes, hospital wastes, excreta, etc.   Effect   Source/Cause Pollutant
  93. 97. cause cancers of colon, rectum and bladder Decaying Plant Material Trihalomethane(Trihalomethanes are a group of organic chemicals formed in water when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter (such as humic acids from decaying vegetation). Humic acids are present in all natural water used as sources of drinking water) Blue Baby Syndrome Pesticides Nitrates/Nitrogen Damage Kidney Mining and Smelting Industries Wastes   Accumulates in the bodies of fishes, birds, mammals including man. Adversely affects the nervous system, fertility. Causes thinning of egg shells in birds.   Pesticides   Agrochemicals like DDT   Arsenic poisoning causes renal failure and death, It can cause nerve disorder, kidney and liver disorders, muscular atrophy, etc.   Fertilizers   Arsenic
  95. 99. Solutions: Nonpoint Sources Point Sources <ul><li>Reduce runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer zone vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan’s Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Protection Act </li></ul><ul><li>National Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Water Policy </li></ul>
  97. 101. <ul><li>As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries ways natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, ground water etc </li></ul>Runoff Water Pollution
  98. 102. <ul><li>Infiltration trenches, which are rock-filled trenches in which stormwater is stored in the voids of the stones, and then slowly filters back into groundwater; </li></ul><ul><li>Downspout diversion programs (i.e., allowing domestic gutters to discharge to lawns or other unpaved areas instead of being connected to the sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable or porous pavements for roads and parking lots </li></ul><ul><li>Swales (i.e., grass depressions that catch runoff from impermeable surfaces and slowly filter it back into groundwater) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide filter or buffer strips of natural vegetation: grass or woodland, usually located between paved areas and the watercourse to slow flows and remove pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration basins that hold surface water, allowing it to infiltrate the soil gradually; and retention ponds or permanently wet ponds that retain surface runoff </li></ul>How to Reduce Runoff Water Pollution
  99. 103. <ul><li>The Buffer Zone is that strip of vegetation located between developed land and a lake, stream </li></ul><ul><li>Function as filters by reducing nitrogen from agricultural runoff by 68% </li></ul><ul><li>Function to filter approx 80-85% phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Function to enhance infilteration of surface runoff </li></ul>Buffer Zone Vegetation
  100. 104. <ul><li>Increased level of nitrogen and phosphorus, along with higher sediment loads, are the leading contributors to reduce water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion can be controlled by using management practices like Conservation tillage, residue management, grassed waterways, terraces, conservation buffers, crop rotation and contour farming </li></ul>Reduce Soil Erosion
  102. 106. <ul><li>Pakistan Enviornmental Protection Act (PEPA) describes the functions of Enviornmental Protection Agency (EPA) </li></ul><ul><li>PEPA advises EPA to “establish standards for discharge and emission of ambient water, coordinate enviornmental policies and programmes, nationally and internationally, designate laboratories for conducting tests and analysis for monitoring, measurement, examination, investigation, research, inspection and audits to prevent and control pollution </li></ul>Pakistan Enviornmental Protection Act (PEPA)
  103. 107. <ul><li>It provides a framework for addressing the key issues and challenges facing Pakistan in the provision of safe drinking water to the people </li></ul><ul><li>Its targets include </li></ul><ul><li>To provide safe drinking water to 93% of the population in 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>To provide at least one hand pump for every 250 persons </li></ul><ul><li>To establish water treatment plants in all urban areas by the year 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure water quality standards </li></ul>National Drinking Water Policy
  105. 109. OVERVIEW
  106. 110. <ul><li>Physical and biological treatment </li></ul>Fig. 22-16 p. 511 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT
  107. 111. Tertiary Treatment
  108. 112. <ul><li>Uses physical and chemical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Removes nitrate and phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Not widely used </li></ul>Advanced Sewage Treatment
  109. 113. <ul><li>Measure Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator Species </li></ul>Monitoring Water Quality
  110. 114. <ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen exist in very low concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>If dissolved oxygen concentrations drop below 5ppm, fish will be unable to live for very long </li></ul><ul><li>All clean water species such as trout or salmon will die well above this level and even low oxygen fish such as catfish and carp will be at risk below 5ppm </li></ul>Measure Biological Oxygen Demand
  111. 115. <ul><li>Conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul>Chemical Analysis
  112. 116. <ul><li>Conductivity is linked directly to the total dissolved solids (T.D.S) </li></ul><ul><li>High quality deionized water has a conductivity of about 5.5 µS/m </li></ul><ul><li>Typical drinking water in the range of 5-50mS/m </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater has conductivity about 5S/m </li></ul>Conductivity
  113. 117. <ul><li>It is the relative measure of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water </li></ul><ul><li>In freshwater, under atmospheric pressure at 20C, O 2 saturation is 9.1mg/L </li></ul>Dissolved Oxygen
  114. 118. <ul><li>In freshwater close to land, nitrate can reach high levels that can cause death of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Levels over 30ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system in aquatic species </li></ul>Nitrates
  115. 119. <ul><li>Phosphate availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Which result in Eutrophication and the collapse of populations of some organisms at the expense of others </li></ul>Phosphates
  116. 120. <ul><li>Pesticides surface runoff into rivers and streams can be highly lethal to aquatic life </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides kill zooplankton, the main source of food for young fish </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides kill off plants on which fish depend for their habitat </li></ul>Pesticides
  117. 121. <ul><li>Water pollution can be measured without using expensive equipment by simply counting the number of animals living in a stream </li></ul><ul><li>If, all of a sudden, all the fish leave a stream then it might be a sign that there is some pollution in water </li></ul><ul><li>Mayfly are a very good indicator of water quality. They can only survive in the cleanest conditions </li></ul><ul><li>If a site has population of “sewage worms” or tubificids, this suggests that water quality has been degraded by input of sewage </li></ul>Indicator Species
  119. 123. Solutions Water Pollution <ul><li>Prevent groundwater contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Find substitutes for toxic pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Work with nature to treat sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce resource waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Soil Erosion </li></ul>
  120. 126. Questions ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  121. 127. We thanks to all those teachers who encourage us but Our sincere thanks to: Mam RAZIA for there guidance, Mam SAIMA GUL , who gave a lot of time for correction without them this was difficult task for us