Project Management Toolkit - Presentation


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  • Just like the project itself, project team is also temporary. Most often project teams are established for the sole purpose of the project. Unique outcome means that the project is designed to produce a new product or a new capability - for example, establishing of TQM to improve service standards. Similarly, a project could also be designed to produce research work.Progressive elaboration means that the project is constantly changing work in progress. The initially identified scope hardly ever remains the same as the project reaches its maturity. It also means that any project starts off with a simpler plan or idea which continues to become more and more elaborated as the work continues.
  • Examples of projects include but are not limited to: Developing a new product or service Resulting a change in culture, staffing or style of an organzation Acquiring a new system or set of processes Establishing or constructing a new facility Organizing an event Running a campaign Implementing a new business process Preparing to design a sales proposal / business development effort
  • PMs often talk abt the ‘Triple Constraint” - Project scope, cost and time. Project quality is affected by balancing these three factors. High quality projects deliver the project as per the planned scope, time and cost.
  • Pros of being a project managerSteppingstone to recognition and promotion Lots of variety - no two days are alike Gives a strong sense of accomplishment - IF the project is successfully completed These is significant freedom of choice - as you are in charge of making decisions and setting policies that other will follow It is a great leadership opportunityCons of being a PMRequires significant people skills - might have to deal with lots of politics Requires tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty - since the project is constantly experiencing changes There is a lot of responsibility - but not enough authorit with respect to changing scope, time or cost of the project If you are a techie, you may feel disconnected from your main line of expertise You may be perceived by some as not having a “read job” :)
  • Exercise: Let’s suppose you are in charge of establishing a new territorial sales office / branch for your organization. Who all can be stakeholders in this project?Who all can be stakeholders?
  • Show a different presentation on how to use CPM
  • Project Management Toolkit - Presentation

    1. 1. Manage Projects Professionally<br />Project Management Toolkit<br />
    2. 2. Important Stuff<br />Setting Standards<br />What setting you want today?<br />Formal or Informal?<br />What learning environment would you prefer?<br />Lecture-based or interactive?<br />Would you like others to talk on the phone during the program?<br />Would you like to receive rewards for good performance?<br />
    3. 3. Important Stuff<br />Setting Standards<br />Not a training program<br />This is an EXPERIENCE – Learning Experience for ALL of us<br />Be ready to give and receive constructive criticism<br />
    4. 4. Learning Contract<br />A contract between YOU and YOURSELF<br />Write ONLY what you want to remember later<br />Not more than 10 points<br />“The Only Barrier to Learning the Truth is to Assume You Already Know It”<br />Confucius<br />
    5. 5. Why perform Project Management<br />Preparation<br />
    6. 6. Understanding the Expectation Game<br />Project Intro<br />
    7. 7. What is a Project<br />Project Definition : "A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result"<br />Features<br />Temporary: Has a finite duration, project ceases when its objective is achieved. Does not mean short duration. Normally, the product/service will outlive the project<br />Unique : Doing something that has not been done earlier<br />Progressive Elaboration: "Developing in steps, and continuing in increments". Development of details progressively<br />Environment<br />Constantly changing<br />Building and Dismantling<br />Precedes Operations<br />
    8. 8. What is a Project<br />Projects and Operations<br />Similarities:<br />Performed by people<br />Constrained by limited resources<br />Planned, executed and controlled<br />Differences:<br />Operations: Ongoing, repetitive, necessary for sustaining the business<br />Projects: Temporary, unique.<br />Projects and Strategic Planning<br />Projects are used to achieve strategic plans<br />In response to market demands, customer requests, organizational needs, technological advances, legal requirements.<br />
    9. 9. What is Project Management<br />Application of<br />Knowledge (e.g. Domain areas - Pharmaceutical, construction, etc.)<br />Skills (Managing)<br />Tools & Techniques (Software)<br />Project activities (e.g Time Management, Cost Management, etc.)<br />The GOAL<br />Project objectives<br />PM is accomplished through processes <br />Prepare – Plan – Execute - Close<br />Project work typically involves<br />Identifying requirements<br />Defining objectives<br />Balancing the competing demands for Scope, Time, Cost, and Quality<br />Managing stakeholders <br />
    10. 10. Why Project Management?<br />To enhance the probability of project success<br />To focus on objectives - Scope, Time, Cost, Quality & Risk<br />For effective response to rapid changes<br />To manage effective utilization of resources<br />To address stakeholders interests<br />To manage risks effectively<br />Achieve Financial Efficiency<br />Project Cost<br />Project Time<br />Project Quality<br />Lessons Learnt<br />Create re-usable data and information for future use<br />
    11. 11. Project Lifecycle<br />No ‘ideal’ project lifecyle<br />It defines<br />What work to do in each phase<br />What deliverables to be generated<br />Who all are involved in each phase<br />How to manage each phase<br />
    12. 12. Project Lifecycle<br />Common characteristics<br />Phases are generally sequential<br />Cost and staffing are low at the start, peak in the middle and are low again<br />Risk is high at the start and slowly declines<br />Influence of stakeholders is highest at the start and declines slowly<br />
    13. 13. Project Phases<br />Preparaing<br />Defines and authorizes the project or a project phase<br />Panning<br />Defines and refines objectives, and plans the course of actions required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address<br />Executing<br />Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project<br />Regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives<br />Closing<br />Formalizes the acceptance of the product, service or result, and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end<br />
    14. 14. Project Charter<br />The document that formally authorizes the project<br />Authorizes Project Manager to apply organizational resources<br />PM should be assigned at the earliest feasible, but should always be assigned before start of the planning phase, or during charter development<br />The Initiator or Sponsor is external to the project organization at a level appropriate to funding the project<br />
    15. 15. Project Charter<br />Project Charter should address the following<br />Requirements of the customers, sponsors and other stakeholders<br />Business needs, project justification, strategic plan<br />Assigned PM and authority (some other resources may also be pre-assigned)<br />Product description/deliverables<br />Summary milestone schedule<br />Stakeholder influences<br />Functional organization and its participation<br />Constraints and assumptions relating to organization, environment and external factorsSummary budget<br />Any change in the Project Charter should question the continuance of the project<br />
    16. 16. Well planned is almost done<br />Planning<br />
    17. 17. Project Activity Planning<br />
    18. 18. The Columbus Disease<br />
    19. 19. Project Planning<br />Planning is a process – not an outcome<br />Planning should address <br />Setting the boundaries | Scope statement<br />Activity planning<br />Activity schedule development<br />Cost planning<br />Risk planning<br />
    20. 20. Scope Statement<br />Project scope statement should address the following areas:<br />Project and product objectives<br />Product/service requirements and characteristics<br />Product acceptance criteria<br />Project boundaries – What is included and what is not<br />Project requirements and deliverables<br />Project constraints<br />Project assumptions<br />Initial project organization<br />Initial defined risks<br />Schedule milestones<br />Initial Work Breakdown Structure<br />
    21. 21. Project Activity Planning<br />Steps to develop project activity schedule<br />Specify the individual activities (WBS)<br />Determine the sequence of these activities (Activity Table)<br />Draw a sequence diagram (AON or AOA)<br />Estimate the completion time for each activity (Activity Estimates)<br />Identify the critical path (Using CPM)<br />Create a schedule of activities<br />Update the schedule / diagram as the project progresses<br />
    22. 22. Activity Identification Tool - WBS<br />Deliverable-oriented hierarchical decompositions of project work <br />Creates the required deliverables<br />WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project<br />Subdivides the project work into smaller, more manageable pieces of work<br />Has descending levels with increasingly detailed definition of the project work<br />Lowest level WBS components are called work packages; they can be scheduled, cost-estimated, monitored and controlled <br />
    23. 23. WBS<br />Characteristics<br />Manageable (specific authority/responsibility assigned)<br />Independent (with respect to other elements o( projects)<br />Integrateable {so that the total package can be seen)<br />Measurable (each deliverable)<br />Purpose<br />To simplify a complex project - it is a summation of elements<br />Planning can be better performed<br />Duration, cost and budget can be established<br />Time, expenditure, and performance can be tracked<br />Network and Control Planning can be initiated<br />Responsibilities and Resources can be assigned<br />Omission/duplication of tasks can be avoided<br />Provide a common structure and coding system<br />
    24. 24. Creating WBS<br />Templates<br />Decomposition<br />Subdivision of project deliverables into smaller chunks<br />Goal : create work packages<br />May not be possible for deliverables that are far into the future<br />Different deliverables may have different levels<br />
    25. 25. Sample WBS<br />
    26. 26. Sample WBS<br />
    27. 27. Task Sequencing<br />Identification of logical sequencing among schedule activities<br />Allows for a smooth flow of project activities<br />Helps to identify the most efficient way to reach project milestones<br />
    28. 28. Task Sequencing Tool - PDM<br />Precedence Diagram Method<br />Helps to develop project schedule<br />Identifies dependencies of different activities to establish the fastest path to task completion<br />Most useful for complex projects<br />Visual display helps to communicate activity execution<br />Identifies missing activities<br />Also known as AON<br />
    29. 29. PDM<br />Terms to remember<br />Events<br />Activity<br />Dependency<br />Four types of dependencies<br />Finish to Start (most common)<br />Start to Start<br />Finish to Finish<br />Start to Finish (rarely used)<br />Practice<br />
    30. 30. Building a PDM<br />
    31. 31. Task Sequencing Tool - ADM<br />Arrow Diagram Method<br />Another way to create a schedule network diagram<br />AOA – Activity on Arrow<br />Difference<br />Activities are identified on arrows<br />Activities connect on nodes to show dependencies<br />Only has Finish to Start dependency<br />Can also have dummy nodes<br />Less commonly used in project planning<br />Sample ADM<br />
    32. 32. Practice<br />Perform Task Sequencing through<br />PDM<br />ADM<br />Sample Project Activities<br />
    33. 33. Duration Estimate Tools<br />Parametric Estimate<br />Determined by multiplying the quantity of work by the productivity rate<br />Construction work – per square foot<br />Design work – labor hour per design<br />Drilling – time taken per cubic inch<br />Three-point Estimate<br />Helps to consider the amount of risk in the initial estimate<br />Considers 3 types of estimates<br />Most likely<br />Optimistic<br />Pessimistic<br />
    34. 34. Schedule Development<br />Outlines the proposed timelines for the project activities<br />Is an iterative process<br />Is typically completed AFTER activity duration estimate<br />Serves as the baseline against which project progress can be tracked<br />
    35. 35. Schedule Development Tool - CPM<br />Dupont developed the concept in 1957 – to address the shutting of plants for maintenance<br />Helps to identify the path of activities where any delay WILL cause a delay in the project timeline<br />For activities outside the Critical Path, there is tolerance for<br />Late start<br />Late finish<br />Early start<br />Used to be carried out by hand – now there are software available<br />MS Project<br />Primavera<br />Schedule activities on the Critical Path are called Critical Activities<br />
    36. 36. More on CPM<br />Calculated by estimating the following 4 parameters for each activity<br />ES - Earliest start time<br />Earliest time at which the activity can start given that its precedent activities must be completed first<br />EF - Earliest finish time<br />Equal to the earliest start time for the activity plus the time required to complete the activity<br />LS - Latest start time<br />Equal to the latest finish time minus the time required to complete the activity<br />LF - Latest finish time<br />Latest time at which the activity can be completed without delaying the project<br />Slack Time<br />Time between its earliest and latest start time<br />Amount of time that you can delay an activity without delaying the project schedule<br />Critical Path <br />A path in which all activities have ES = LS and EF = LF<br />
    37. 37. Why CPM<br />CPM helps to identify<br />Different activities that MUST be completed on time for the project to stay on schedule<br />Which activities can be delayed and their resources can be reallocated<br />Minimum duration of the project <br />Early start and late start time for each activity in the schedule<br />
    38. 38. Schedule Compression Tools<br />Schedule Compression<br />Helps to shorten project schedule WITHOUT changing the project scope<br />Compression techniques<br />Crashing<br />Cost and Time tradeoffs are analyzed to determine the greatest amount of project compression<br />Often results in increased cost<br />Fast Tracking<br />Sequenced activities are performed in parallel<br />E.g. – foundation work is started before detailed architecture drawings are complete<br />Increases project risks<br />
    39. 39. Project Cost Planning<br />
    40. 40. Why Perform Cost Planning<br />Helps to manage the cost of the resources needed to complete schedule activities<br />Projects cash outflows at different stages of the project<br />Helps to highlight the risk of major cost over-runs<br />Establishes a baseline to compare with the actual project cost<br />Helps the sponsors to decide whether to continue or shut the project<br />
    41. 41. Cost Planning Tools<br />Bottom-up Estimating<br />Starts from Work Packages – from bottom level activities<br />Add up their costs and work upwards<br />Aggregate the costs to reach a final figure<br />Pros and Cons<br />Upside – is more accurate, cost changes can be recorded easily<br />Downside – takes more time, requires detailed knowledge<br />Parametric Estimating (discussed earlier)<br />
    42. 42. Cost Planning Tools<br />Top-down Estimating (Analogous Estimating)<br />Takes cost inspiration from similar projects, tasks<br />Starts from the top and work downwards<br />Divide the cost figures among different sub-projects or tasks<br />Pros and Cons<br />Upside – quick and easy to use, good for early-stage planning<br />Downside – often is very inaccurate, can mislead if used at a later stage<br />Reserve Analysis<br />Contingency factor – what-if scenario<br />Downside – can over-state the cost estimate of schedule activity<br />Remedy – aggregate reserves for a group of activity and assign it to a dummy task<br />
    43. 43. Inputs for Cost Planning<br />Enterprise Environment Factors<br />Organizational Process Assets<br />Project Scope Statement<br />Work Breakdown Structure<br />WBS Dictionary<br />Project Management Plan<br />Schedule Management Plan<br />Staffing Management Plan<br />Risk Register<br />
    44. 44. Project Risk Planning<br />
    45. 45. What is Project Risk<br />Probability of an uncertain event or condition with a positive or negative effect on any one of the following project objectives<br />Scope<br />Cost<br />Time<br />Quality<br />Examples<br />Probability of delay in acquiring a permit from the government for an aspect of the project<br />Probability of unavailability of adequate resources assigned for a particular task<br />Probability of increase in resource cost<br />
    46. 46. Understand Risk<br />Types of risks<br />Known risks – something we can plan for<br />Unknown risks – we are caught off guard<br />Risks – threats or opportunities?<br />Taking risk against profitable gain<br />Using Fast Tracking to shorten project timeline<br />Risks that offer opportunities<br />Lowering of taxes on project resources, brining cost down<br />Attitude toward risk?<br />Fear and avoid<br />Accept and face<br />
    47. 47. Risk Planning Process<br />
    48. 48. Risk Identification<br />Documenting which risks might affect the project<br />Is an iterative process<br />PM should decide the frequency of review<br />Leads commonly to qualitative analysis <br />Grouping of risks with respect<br />How they relate to each other<br />How they impact the project objectives<br />Their probability <br />Risk Register<br />A collection of all types of risks and their characteristics<br />This is the output of the process<br />
    49. 49. Risk Identification Tools<br />Brainstorming<br />Gather with different stakeholders in separate groups<br />Collect the risks they identify<br />Consolidate<br />Delphi Technique<br />Asks a group of experts anonymously a set of questions about potential risks<br />Consolidate data<br />Send it to the experts again and seek comment<br />Repeat 3-5 times<br />SWOT Analysis<br />Strengths<br />Weaknesses<br />Opportunities<br />Threats (these are your risks)<br />Checklist Analysis<br />Historical data<br />Risk Register from another project<br />Use the data gathered to prepare a checklist<br />
    50. 50. Sample Risk Register<br />
    51. 51. Risk Impact Scales<br />
    52. 52. Qualitative Risk Analysis<br />Helps to prioritize project risks<br />Sets you up for the next step<br />Either quantitative risk analysis<br />Or risk response planning<br />Main ingredients<br />Risk probability<br />Risk impact<br />Risk tolerance for Scope, Cost, Quality and Time<br />Advantages<br />Easy and simple to use<br />Gives a ballpark figure of risk impact value<br />Disadvantages<br />Too simple for complex projects<br />May be inaccurate<br />
    53. 53. Tool | Risk Matrix<br />Helps you to <br />Visualize the effect of different risks<br />Gives you the ‘big’ picture<br />Charts risks <br />X-axis – Risk Impact<br />Y-axis – Risk Probability<br />Risk Matrix<br />
    54. 54. Tool | Probability-Impact Matrix<br />Risk probability<br />Likelihood that a certain probability will occur<br />Risk impact<br />Potential effect of a certain risk on any of the four project objectives: scope, time, quality and cost<br />Assesses both positive as well as negative risk<br />Positive risk – opportunities<br />Negative risk – threats<br />Risk Factor<br />Result of multiplying risk probability with risk impact<br />Gives the final impact of a certain risk<br />Risk data quality<br />Ask experts – avoid bias – look at historical data<br />
    55. 55. Sample | Probability-Impact Matrix<br />Project Objective<br />To establish a new territorial office<br />Potential Risks<br />Inflation higher than estimated<br />Project team members leaving before project completion<br />Changes in project scope<br />Security situation of the area<br />
    56. 56. Qualitative Risk Analysis | Output<br />Qualitative analysis results in<br />Ranking of different risks<br />Grouping of risks<br />List of risks requiring response in the near-term / long-term<br />List of risks for additional analysis<br />
    57. 57. Risk Response Planning<br />Process of developing responses to<br />Enhance opportunities<br />Reduce threats<br />Should address risks based on their Risk Factor or priority<br />Helps to create some cushion by <br />Allocating extra budget<br />Allocating extra time<br />
    58. 58. Tools | Risk Response Strategies<br />Responding to Threats<br />Avoid<br />Change the PM plan to avoid a risk<br />Transfer<br />Shifting the impact and ownership of risk to third party (insurance policy)<br />Mitigate<br />Work to reduce the probability or impact of a risk (test marketing, prototyping)<br />Proactive Vs Reactive<br />Responding to Opportunities<br />Exploit<br />Seek to face the risk head on (assigning better talent to a task)<br />Share<br />Sharing the ownership with a third party (JVs)<br />Enhance<br />Seek to increase the probability or impact of the positive risk<br />
    59. 59. Executing to Perfection<br />Executing<br />
    60. 60. Communicating What Needs Execution<br />Project Communication Management<br />
    61. 61. Communications Management<br />Objective<br />To ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information<br />Processes for communication management<br />Information distribution<br />Performance reporting<br />Stakeholder communication management<br />
    62. 62. Information Distribution<br />Broad Strategy<br />Need-to-know basis<br />Restricts access – Keeps security intact – Maintains strong lines of separation – Keeps the focus of the members intact<br />Want-to-know basis<br />Opens access – Risks information proliferation – Allows for involvement – May increase distraction<br />
    63. 63. Information Distribution | Tools<br />Distribution Triggers<br />Time-based reports / meetings<br />Frequency<br />Event-based reports / meetings<br />Event significance identification<br />Style<br />Formal<br />Standard templates<br />Informal <br />No specific formats<br />Methods<br />Isolated meetings<br />Project team meetings<br />E-sharing thru project management systems<br />E-mails and file sharing systems<br />Content<br />High-level <br />Less details<br />Focuses on output / deliverable<br />Low-level<br />More details<br />Focuses on processes<br />
    64. 64. Performance Reporting<br />Purpose<br />To continuously assess current project performance against project estimated baselines related to<br />Scope<br />Quality<br />Time<br />Cost <br />
    65. 65. Performance Reporting | Tool<br />KPI – Key Performance Indicator<br />Why<br />“Numbers don’t lie”<br />Helps to measure performance objectively<br />Remember that KPIs should<br />Connect with either one of the four project objectives (SCTQ)<br />Measure live project performance<br />Should be designed so they result in numbers or %<br />Will measure the performance result against baseline estimates<br />
    66. 66. Stakeholder Communication Management<br />Purpose<br />To satisfy the needs of and resolve issues with project stakeholders<br />Suggested Strategy<br />“Need to know basis” – well-defined lines of communication separation<br />Active engagement – answer before they question<br />
    67. 67. Communicating What Needs Execution<br />Risk Management<br />
    68. 68. Risk Management<br />Objective<br />Executing the risk plans and reassessing them to meet project objectives <br />Risk Monitoring and Control<br />Assess the assumption of earlier identified risks<br />Monitor the progress of risk response execution<br />Identify and analyze new risks<br />
    69. 69. Risk Management | Tool<br />Risk Audit<br />Examines and documents the risk responses and compares it against the established baselines<br />Subjective activity – helps to see the trend and reassess the risk responses<br />Variance Analysis<br />Identifies how much the actual progress has deviated from the baseline estimates<br />Statistical method<br />Provides an objective analysis<br />Reserve Analysis<br />Risks will occur – your reserves will get consumed, but how much?<br />Analyze the use of reserves consumption<br />
    70. 70. Quality Management<br />
    71. 71. Quality Management<br />Quality<br />Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics meet requirements<br />Purpose<br />To ensure the baseline quality targets are met through <br />Achieved through<br />Quality Assurance<br />To ensure that processes are being followed as planned and proposed<br />Quality Control<br />To ensure specific project deliverables meet the quality standard that was planned and proposed<br />
    72. 72. Quality Assurance<br />Application of planned and systematic activities to ensure that processes are in line to meet the project objectives<br />Negates “Don’t fix it if it isn’t broken” philosophy<br />Setup<br />A separate designated team<br />Quality Circles<br />Members from within the team are assigned and rotated to perform QA<br />Benefits<br />Checks deviations before they result in bad quality deliverable<br />Paves way for Continuous Improvement (Kaizen?)<br />Helps to develop stronger standards for processes<br />
    73. 73. QA | Tools<br />Quality Audits<br />Structured review activity to check whether project processes comply with organizational / project policies and procedures<br />Shouldn’t be announced – best when done without prior notice<br />Conducted by trained in-house personnel<br />Process Analysis<br />A scheduled activity to systematically review processes in view of the deliverables and project objectives<br />Feedback from project members<br />
    74. 74. Quality Control<br />Monitoring of specific project deliverables to check whether they comply with planned / proposed quality standards<br />Setup<br />An independent team performs quality checks<br />Done through sampling<br />Statistical analysis – to identify patterns and then identify root cause<br />Benefits<br />Keeps poor quality deliverables from reaching in the hands of the customer or sponsor<br />Helps to identify poor inputs into activities<br />Arrests trends that could lead to further deterioration in quality of the deliverables<br />
    75. 75. Change Management<br />
    76. 76. Change Management<br />Purpose<br />To assess, record and incorporate any changes to the project objectives mainly T-Q-S-C<br />Is performed from inception to completion<br />Is important as projects seldom get executed exactly as planned<br />Is often a result of a risk being materialized<br />Positive risk – positive change<br />Negative risk – negative change<br />
    77. 77. Change Management<br />Steps to perform control and manage changes<br />Identify the need for a change in the project objectives<br />Review request for changes<br />Assessing the effects of proposed changes to SCTQ <br />Inform and review the proposed changes with stakeholders<br />If approved, document and update all SCTQ baselines<br />
    78. 78. The Destination<br />Closing<br />
    79. 79. Closing Project<br />
    80. 80. Closing Project<br />Structured process<br />Ensure that deliverables are handed over to project sponsors or customers<br />Document and archive project records for future projects<br />Ensure project deliverables are accepted by sponsors / customers<br />Perform comparative analysis of initial baseline estimates and final output<br />
    81. 81. Documentation<br />Purpose<br />To ensure that all important activities, policies, processes and deliverables are documented for review<br />Benefit<br />Facilitates project performance analysis<br />Allows for comparative analysis between projected and actual<br />Makes templates available for future projects<br />Some policies and processes can be utilized by other departments in organizations<br />Provides important data for operations<br />
    82. 82. Thanks<br />