Collective Identity» ‘A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiders who may still enforce it, but depends on some acceptance by those to whom it is applied. Collective identities are expressed in cultural materials – names, narratives, symbols, verbal styles, rituals, clothing.’ Francesca Poletta, James M Jasper, Collective Identity and Social Movements» ‘Although there is no consensual definition of collective identity, discussions of the concept invariably suggest that its essence resides in a shared sense of ‘one-ness’ or ‘we-ness’ anchored in real or imagined shared attributes and experiences among those who comprise the collectivity and in relation or contrast to one or more actual imagined sets of ‘others’. David Snow, Collective Identity and Expressive Form
Self-Identity and SocialIdentity» Self-identity refers to how we define ourselves. Self-identity forms the basis of our self-esteem. In adolescence, the way we see ourselves changes in response to peers, family, and school, among other social environments. Our self-identities shape our perceptions of belonging. » Social identity is constructed by others, and may differ from self-identity. Typically, people categorize individuals according to broad, socially-defined labels. For example, if you have dark skin, you may be labelled "black" by others even though you may not have adopted that identity for yourself.» A positive self-identity is correlated with positive self-esteem [5, 6]. All identities are not equally valued by society, so some adolescents may especially need reinforcement to help them construct a positive sense of self.
Tafjal & TurnerConcept» Social Identity TheoryExplanation» In the Social Identity Theory, a person has not one, “personal self”, but rather several selves that correspond to widening circles of group membership. Different social contexts may trigger an individual to think, feel and act on basis of his personal, family or national “level of self”» Apart from the “level of self”, an individual has multiple “social identities”. Social identity is the individual’s self- concept derived from perceived membership of social groups
How is Youth IdentityConstructed? Shared Experiences: Shared attributes: » Adolescence – physically and emotionally maturing » Innocence » School/ Education » Frustration » Finding work - Choosing a career » Enthusiasm » Finding love/friendship/acceptance » Awkwardness » Creating an identity that isn’t created by » Hope school/parents/authority » Anger Powerlessness » Experimentation – drugs, culture, crime » Stress » Leaving home CAN YOU ADD TO THE LIST? CAN YOU ADD TO THE LIST?
Identity ConstructionQuotes» Sheldon Stryker We interact with others to create an identity, this is called identity negotiation. This develops a consistent set of behaviours that reinforce the identity of the person or group. This behaviour then become social expectations. This is particularly relevant for collective identities (especially sub-cultures) that develop a specific way of relating to each other (attitude, language, ideas) that goes some way to helping construct our identity.» Mikhail Bakhtin The Russian philosopher Bakhtin believed that individual people cannot be finalized, completely understood, known or labeled. He saw identity as the unfinalised self meaning a person is never fully revealed or known. This ties in with the idea that identity is a fluid concept, a life-long project that is never complete.
Identity ConstructionQuotes» Quotes from David Gauntlett (Media, Gender and Identity)» It is the case that the construction of identity has become a known requirement. Modern Western societies does not leave individuals in any doubt that they need to make choices of identity and lifestyle - even if their preferred options are rather obvious and conventional ones, or are limited due to lack of financial (or cultural) resources. As the sociologist Ulrich Beck has noted - everyone wants to live their own life, but this is, at the same time an experimental life.» Today were bombarded with ideas about - being yourself, standing out or finding your place - were encourage to define our existence in terms of what buy, do, earn money from or enjoy. Obviously finding an identity is problematic especially when so many existing identities and roles are uncertain - think gender roles, career stability, upward mobility in class. So Beck is saying that we experiment with identities to see what fits, works and is comfortable. And Guantlett continues:
How is Youth IdentityConstructed?» ‘A period of ‘storm and stress’ characterised by intergenerational conflicts, mood swings and an enthusiasm for risky behaviour.’ G. Stanley Hall (1906)
Henry GirouxConcepts» Youth as empty category» ExplanationGirouxs theory addresses the medias influenceon youths. He believes that youths act as a sortvessel open to influences of adult culture and howthe media chooses to represent them, thereforeshaping the youths cultural contexts.
Henry GirouxConcepts» Youth as empty category» ExplanationThe media chooses the way they represent race, class, gender,ethnicity, sexuality, occupation, age and so on, therefore leaving aninfluence on the youths that are not necessarily true. The media actsupon what its audience wants. When appealing to a adult audience,the media will reflect fears and anxieties that adults may findentertaining, therefore giving an unrealistic view on youths.Giroux suggests that the media influences them in a certain way asyouths are so impressionable, for example, if they are represented asloud and abusive in films, they will act on this because they are beingtold to act in such a way.
Henry GirouxConcepts» Youth as empty category» Quote“Youth as a complex, shifting, and contradictory category israrely narrated in the dominant public sphere through thediverse voices of the young. Prohibited from speaking as moraland political agents, youth become an empty category inhabitedby the desires, fantasies, and interests of the adult world. This isnot to suggest that youth dont speak, they are simply restrictedfrom speaking in those spheres where public conversationshapes social policy and refused the power to make knowledgeconsequential with respect to their own individual and collectiveneeds.” (Giroux, 1998)
» ‘A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiders who may still enforce it, but depends on some acceptance by those to whom it is applied.’» The adult dominant culture (or hegemony) that no longer sees ‘Youth’ as children but has yet to recognise them as adults.» Marketers/Mass Media who realise that the teen market is a lucrative one to exploit/sell to.
Antonio GramsciConcepts» Cultural hegemonyExplanation» Gramsci developed the idea of "cultural hegemony". As I mentioned before, this is the idea that one social class within a culture dominates society, therefore making their views and values acceptable and "normal" behaviour.» Gramsci believes hegemony is constantly causing problems within societies arguing what is actually a "normal" way of life. For example, this arguing is shown through negative and positive representation of youths from different classes, most commonly underclass
Antonio GramsciConcepts» Cultural hegemonyQuote» So one could say that each one of us changes himself, modifies himself to the extent that he changes the complex relations of which he is the hub... If ones own individuality means to acquire consciousness of them and to modify ones own personality means to modify the ensemble of these relations. (Gramsci)