CONNECT feedback 1. How many films were presented last week across the five cinemas that you looked at? 2. Who was the most prevalent production company? 3. Who was the most prevalent distribution company? 4. Did you find evidence of any independent production or distribution companies? 5. Is Warp Films or Warner Bros responsible for any of the current releases?
DISCOVER A reminder UK distribution KEY FOR THE EXAM • In the practice of Hollywood, the phases of production, distribution and exhibition operate most effectively when vertically integrated, where the three stages are seen as part of the same larger process, under the control of one company. • In the UK, distribution is very much focused on marketing and sustaining a global product in local markets.
DISCOVER YOU MUST BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE Independent DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BRITISH In the independent film sector, vertical AND AMERICAN CINEMA AND Integration does not operate so commonly. INDEPENDENT VS COMGLOMERATE Producers tend not to have long-term economic links with distributors, who likewise have no formal connections with exhibitors. Here, as the pig-in-the-middle, distribution is necessarily a collaborative process, requiring the materials and rights of the producer and the cooperation of the exhibitor to promote and show the film in the best way possible. In this sector, distribution can be divided into three stages – licensing, marketing and logistics.
DISCOVER • In groups, you are going to read through an area of distribution. • You will be responsible for teaching the rest of the class!
Logistics of distributionThe distributor will enter into an agreement with the cinema toscreen the film on certain play-dates.It is the responsibility of the distributor to arrange thetransportation of the film to the cinema, as part of its widercoordination of print use across the UK.Logistics represents the phase of distribution at its most basic -supplying and circulating copies of the film to theatres, of tapesand DVDs to shops and video rental stores, and managing theeffectiveness of the supply.Cinemas spend their money publicising film play-dates andtimes in local papers or through published programmes. Sotheres an imperative for the distributor to deliver the film ontime.Questions to discuss:• What factors effect the ‘play dates’?• If film play dates are being published in local papers – which target audience is more likely to see this?• What could go wrong at the logistics stage?
Single print logistics Main print warehouse DeliveryProjector van Assembly Cinema Bench
Distributor – Printing the filmThe distributor typically handles 35mm film prints. Each print cancost around £1,000 - or twice that if subtitled - so a degree ofcare is required of everyone involved in handling the print.In the UK, prints are generally broken down for ease of handlinginto smaller reels, each lasting around 18-20 mins when runthrough a projector at 24 frames per second. So a feature print,in its physical form, will usually be 5 or 6 reels, stored andsupplied in a single hard case, weighing in at 20-25kgs.Prints are hired by the exhibitor for the duration of their play-dates, and therefore each print is made for repeat use.Questions to discuss:• What issues do you foresee with the method of printing film reels?• What are the positives of printing on film reels?• Can you think of an alternative method of distributing to cinemas without printing on film?
Distribution – further Costing35mm theatrical prints invariably suffer cumulativedamage as they pass through different projectors, andthe hands of various projectionists.There are also overheads incurred by the distributor forthe storage of prints at the UKs central printwarehouse in West London.Each theatrical print has a finite lifespan. Distributorwill invest in sufficient prints to provide optimumcoverage through the first period of theatrical release,usually lasting up to 6 months.Questions to discuss:• What issues do you foresee with the method of printing film reels?• What are the positives of printing on film reels?• Can you think of an alternative method of distributing to cinemas without printing on film?
Digital distributionIn distribution terms, the advantages of digital technologyare even clearer, though perhaps longer term. Digitaltechnology is seen to offer a more cost effective andlogistics-light alternative to the tried and trusted, butunwieldy model of 35mm print distribution describedabove.It will, eventually, be cheaper and much less stressful tosend films as computer files to cinemas across the UK, thanto transport 20-25kg tins of film in the back of a van.Questions to discuss:• How does this impact on independent and conglomerates?• How might this benefit the audience?
DEVELOP Positives and negatives Traditional film print distribution Digital distribution • Projectionist could • Quicker distribution. Less people involved. Can get to cinemas lose job. (exhibitors) quicker -Film print quality • Quality may not be as good as deteriorates original print.• Who benefits? -Longer process to print • However will not deteriorate like film. and to physically •• Costing implications? distribute to the cinema Not damaged by handling in the same way as print film. • Cheaper (not initially) expensive• Negatives? -Distributor needs to transition – lots of new work out logistics of equipment.• Affect on audience? physical distribution. Can • Minimal travel/handeling costs. Better carbon footprint.• Affect on exhibitors? be affected by weather • Still potential exhibition issues and travel with computers• Affect on Producers? -Positive – provides a • Need training in new projection equipment skilled job to • Pos for audience – films viewed projectionist. quicker -Prevents increase in • Bigger profit?? (lower distribution costs vs same price for tickets??) piracy (to some degree). Digital distribution is more capable of being
DISCOVER How many different methods can you think of to market a film?
DEVELOP Marketing methods Traditional methods New methods • Trailers (Cinema, TV, • Website DVD and Youtube) • Email promotions • Premiers • TV interview • Social media page • Print campaign • Blog reviews (posters, billboards, • Product magazine/newspaper endorsement adverts) • Viral marketing • Music video campaign
DEVELOP Viral Marketing Defined • Viral marketing describes any strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creating the potential for exponential growth in the messages exposure and influence. Like viruses, such strategies take advantage of rapid multiplication to explode the message to thousands, to millions. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/nov/14/2 012-roland-emmerich-viral-marketing
DEVELOPLook at the list of people on the next slide. • Provide an example of a film or film genre that you feel would be marketed at them. • What marketing methods would be most effective for this target audience? • How would they consume a film? (would they visit a cinema or watch via another method?)
A single man in his 20’s. A retired couple in their A 15 year old girl studyingWorks as an estate agent 60’s. for her GCSE’s. She likes toand drives a company car. talk to her friends on facebook and often meets up with friends in town to go shopping at the weekend.A 19 year old male student A 40 year old female. She A married couple whomstudying Film studies and watches TV in the evening want to take their 6 yearliving away from home. to relax and is a big fan of old daughter to watch a Brad Pitt film.A tourist looking for A young professional A female film fan whom issomething to do of an couple that work long interested in subtitledevening whilst visiting hours. films.London.
Homework• Choose one film produced by Warp films ad one produced by Time Warner.• See if you can chart the advertising campaign used to market the film.• Can you find examples of film posters, trailers and any other methods of promotion?• Who is it aimed at? How can you tell?