A2 g324 l4 blog


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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Who6fTHJ34
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  • A2 g324 l4 blog

    1. 1. A2 Media Studies G324: Advanced Production Portfolio
    2. 2. The History of Music Videos • In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". • Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances. This would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video.
    3. 3. The History of Music Videos • 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. • Shorts were typically six minutes in duration and played in cinemas before the feature film • Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a video for the song St. Louis Blues in 1929 which ran in cinemas until 1932
    4. 4. The History of Music Videos • Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", which is similar to a modern karaoke machine. The sing along concept is still used today, especially with younger audiences such as High School Musical. • Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and especially Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music. • The Warner Brothers cartoons, even today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were initially fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Brothers musical films
    5. 5. The History of Music Videos • Musical films were another important precursor to music video, and several well- known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1970s.
    6. 6. The History of Music Videos • Tony Bennett was filmed walking along The Serpentine in Hyde Park, London as his recording of "Stranger in Paradise" played; this film was distributed to and played by UK and US television stations. • Disk jockey-singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. • With the rise of television, as the format allowed for many new stars to be exposed that previously would have been passed over by Hollywood, which normally required proven acts in order to attract an audience to the box office.
    7. 7. The History of Music Videos • In 1964, The Beatles starred in their first feature film A Hard Day's Night, directed by Richard Lester. Shot in black- and-white and presented as a mock documentary, it was a loosely structured musical fantasia interspersing comedic and dialogue sequences with musical ones. • The musical sequences furnished basic templates on which countless subsequent music videos were modeled. It was the direct model for the successful US TV series The Monkees (1966–1968) which similarly consisted of film segments that were created to accompany various Monkees songs.
    8. 8. The History of Music Videos • The Beatles' second feature Help! (1965) was a much more lavish affair, filmed in colour in London and on international locations. • The title track sequence, filmed in black-and-white, is arguably one of the prime archetypes of the modern performance-style music video, employing rhythmic cross- cutting, contrasting long shots and close-ups, and unusual shots and camera angles, such as the shot near the end of the song, in which George Harrison's left hand and the neck of his guitar are seen in sharp focus in the foreground while the completely out-of-focus figure of John Lennon sings in the background
    9. 9. The History of Music Videos • In 1965, The Beatles began making promotional clips (then known as "filmed inserts") for distribution and broadcast in other countries— primarily the USA—so they could promote their record releases without having to make in-person appearances. Many clips were aired on "Top of the Pops" in the UK. • The colour promotional clips for "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", made in early 1967 and directed by Peter Goldman took the promotional film format to a new level. They used techniques borrowed from underground and avant garde film, including reversed film and slow motion, dramatic lighting, unusual camera angles and color filtering added in post-production. • Reflecting the fact that these studio masterpieces were impossible for the group to perform live, their psychedelic mini-films illustrated the songs in an artful, impressionistic manner rather than trying to simulate an idealised performance or depict a narrative or plot.
    10. 10. The History of Music Videos • The monochrome 1966 clip for Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" filmed by D. A. Pennebaker. • Eschewing any attempt to simulate performance or present a narrative, the clip shows Dylan standing in a city back alley, silently shuffling a series of large cue cards (bearing key words from the song's lyrics). • Many "song films"—often referred to as "filmed inserts" at that time—were produced by UK artists so they could be screened on TV when the bands were not available to appear live.
    11. 11. The History of Music Videos • The long-running British TV show Top of the Pops began playing music videos in the late 1970s, although the BBC placed strict limits on the number of 'outsourced' videos TOTP could use. Therefore a good video would increase a song's sales as viewers hoped to see it again the following week.
    12. 12. The History of Music Videos • On August 1, 1981, at 12:01 a.m., MTV launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll," spoken by John Lack, and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia (which took place earlier that year) and of the launch of Apollo 11. Those words were immediately followed by the original MTV theme song, playing over photos of the Apollo 11 moon landing, with the flag featuring MTV's logo changing various colors, textures, and designs. • MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a conceit, associating MTV with the most famous moment in world television history.
    13. 13. The History of Music Videos • In 1981, the U.S. video channel MTV launched, airing "Video Killed the Radio Star" and beginning an era of 24-hour-a-day music on television. • With this new outlet for material, the music video would, by the mid-1980s, grow to play a central role in popular music marketing. Many important acts of this period, most notably Duran Duran and Madonna, owed a great deal of their success to the skillful construction and seductive appeal of their videos.
    14. 14. The History of Music Videos • Two key innovations in the development of the modern music video were the development of relatively inexpensive and easy-to-use video recording and editing equipment, and the development of visual effects. • The advent of high-quality colour videotape recorders and portable video cameras enabled many pop acts to produce promotional videos quickly and cheaply, in comparison to the relatively high costs of using film. However, as the genre developed, music video directors increasingly turned to 35 mm film as the preferred medium, while others mixed film and video
    15. 15. The History of Music Videos • In 1983, the most successful and influential music video of all time was released — the nearly 14-minute-long video for Michael Jackson's song "Thriller". The video set new standards for production, having cost $500,000 to film. • That video, along with earlier videos by Jackson for his songs "Billie Jean" and "Beat It", also was instrumental in getting music videos by African American artists played on MTV. • Earlier, such videos had been rare: according to MTV, this was because it initially conceived itself as a rock-music-oriented channel, although musician Rick James was outspoken in his criticism of the cable channel, claiming in 1983 that MTV's refusal to air the music video for his song "Super Freak" and clips by other African-American performers was "blatant racism"
    16. 16. The History of Music Videos • In this period, directors and the acts they worked with began to explore and expand the form and style of the genre, using more sophisticated effects in their videos, mixing film and video, and adding a storyline or plot to the music video. • Occasionally videos were made in a non-representational form, in which the musical artist was not shown. Because music videos are mainly intended to promote the artist, such videos are comparatively rare; three early 1980s examples are David Mallet's video for David Bowie and Queen's "Under Pressure", and Ian Emes' video for Duran Duran's "The Chauffeur". • The video for George Michael's "Freedom 90" (1990), in which Michael himself refused to appear, forcing director David Fincher to substitute top fashion models in his place.
    17. 17. The History of Music Videos • The video for the 1985 Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing" made pioneering use of computer animation, and helped make the song an international hit. Ironically, the song itself was a wry comment on the music-video phenomenon, sung from the point of view of an appliance deliveryman both drawn to and repelled by the outlandish images and personalities that appeared on MTV. • In 1986, Peter Gabriel's song "Sledgehammer" used special effects and animation techniques developed by British studio Aardman Animation. The video for "Sledgehammer" would go on to be a phenomenal success and win nine MTV Video Music Awards.
    18. 18. The History of Music Videos • By the early 1990s, MTV was playing a combination of pop-friendly hard rock acts, chart-topping metal and hard rock acts such as Metallica, Nirvana and Guns N' Roses, pop singers such as Michael Jackson, Madonna and New Kids on the Block, and R&B quartets such as Bell Biv Devoe and Boyz II Men, while introducing hit rappers Vanilla Ice and MC Hammer. • To accompany the new sounds, a new form of music videos came about: more creative, funny, artistic, experimental, and technically accomplished than those in the 1980s. • Several noted film directors got their start creating music videos. After pressure from the MVPA (Music Video Producers Association – later changed to Music Video Production Association) MTV began listing the names of the videos' directors at the bottom of the credits by December 1992.
    19. 19. The History of Music Videos • The website iFilm, which hosted short videos, including music videos, launched in 1997. Napster, a peer-to-peer file sharing service which ran between 1999 and 2001, enabled users to share video files, including those for music videos. • By the mid-2000s, MTV and many of its sister channels had largely abandoned showing music videos in favour of reality television shows, which were more popular with its audiences,
    20. 20. The History of Music Videos • 2005 saw the launch of the website YouTube, which made the viewing of online video faster and easier; Google Videos, Facebook and MySpace's video functionality, which uses similar technology. • Such websites had a profound effect on the viewing of music videos; some artists began to see success as a result of videos seen mostly or entirely online. • The band OK Go! may exemplify this trend, having achieved fame through the videos for their songs especially"Here It Goes Again" in 2006, which first became well-known online. • Artists like Soulja Boy Tell 'Em also achieved some level of fame initially through videos released only online.
    21. 21. This History of Music Videos • In 2010, Lady Gaga's music video "Bad Romance" made headlines by becoming the most-viewed video on YouTube, music-related or otherwise, with 130 million views; it had over 350 million views by early 2011. • It in turn was beaten later in the year by the video for Justin Bieber's song "Baby", which had over 500 million views by early 2011.
    22. 22. Music Video Timeline • You are going to create an INTERACTIVE TIMELINE to post to your blog • Include lots of Key dates and figures – give me lots of good examples too! • Remember to go into detail on ALL your research – you get more marks if you use P.E.A for every piece of writing used!