Optical Fibre & Introduction to TDM & DWDM

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Optical Fibre & Introduction to TDM & DWDM

  1. 1. MINI PROJECT PRESENTATION Prepared By: Hasna Heng Kamal Koh 0911796 Hasna Heng
  2. 2. DENSE WAVELENGTHDIVISION MULTIPLEXING (DWDM) An Evolution of Optical Fiber Transmission System Hasna Heng
  3. 3. Objectives To have a basic understanding on optical fiber transmission system  To understand the basic principle of the DWDM technology  Hasna Heng
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER Hasna Heng
  5. 5. OPTICAL FIBER Fine threads of glass in layers  Diameter ≈ human hair  Core & Cladding + protection layers (polymers)  2 types of fiber profiles  Hasna Heng
  6. 6. STEPPED-INDEX FIBER  Multimode Fiber Larger core (50-200µm)  Simultaneously transmit numerous mode of light  1st generation system (1975-1980)   Single-mode Fiber Small core (<10µm)  Carries single mode of light  Eliminate intermodal dispersion  Hasna Heng
  7. 7. GRADED-INDEX FIBER Multimode Fiber  Average velocity of all light rays approximately same  Light bent  parabolic light wave  Higher bandwidth  Better compensation with dispersion  Hasna Heng
  8. 8. OPTICAL CARRIER Optical Carrier Line Rate (Mb/s) OC-1 51.84 OC-3 155.52 OC-12 622.08 OC-48 2,488.32 OC-192 9.953.28 OC-768 Standardized set of specification of Tx bandwidth  digital signal carried on SONET/SDH use terms STS-n/STM-n  Optical signals: OC-n  39,813.12 Hasna Heng
  9. 9. WHY MOVE TO OPTICAL FIBER? Copper Wiring Optical Fiber Expensive material  High power consumption  Large and heavy  Weak signal due to power degradation  Low signal capacity  Stealing cases  Low cost on installation         Low cost material Lower power consumption Smaller size & lighter Minimize degradation of signal Large data capacity Expensive for construction and installation Less flexible  easily damaged Hasna Heng
  10. 10. RESOLVING THE BANDWIDTH DEMAND INTORDUCING TDM & WDM Hasna Heng
  11. 11. Statistical studies: Annual growth of the internet = 40% !!  Upsurge of emerging services: 3G, broadband, integrated multimedia services etc.  Network traffic became sophisticated  Increasing bandwidth demands Internet growth  2 solutions:    Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) 40%/year Hasna Heng
  12. 12. TDM  Increase the bit rate data Input data Arrange in sequence Output WDM  Increase the wavelength Input wavelength Combine & Split Wavelength Output Hasna Heng
  13. 13. TDM Input Signals Output Signals WDM Input Signals Output Signals Hasna Heng
  14. 14. WDM  Coarse WDM (CWDM) Wide channel spacing (20nm)  Up to 16 wavelengths  Low cost   Dense WDM (DWDM) Dense channel spacing (0.2nm)  Allows numerous wavelength transmission simultaneously – high capacity  Hasna Heng
  15. 15. DENSE WAVELENGTHDIVISION MULTIPLEXING DWDM Hasna Heng
  16. 16. DWDM TECHNOLOGY Multiplex multiple signals on single optical fiber using different wavelength  Channel signals carried by its wavelength  Using C-band (1550nm) or L-band (1625nm) (Early development)  Hasna Heng
  17. 17. Hasna Heng
  18. 18. MAIN COMPONENTS IN DWDM Terminal Multiplexer (MUX) Intermediate Line Repeater 1. 2.   3. 4. Optical Amplifier Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) Terminal De-multiplexer (DEMUX) Hasna Heng
  19. 19. 1. TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER (MUX)  Transponder O-E-O conversion  Each can convert one wavelength signal  Covert input signals into C-band laser   MUX  Combined multiple data streams into a single data channel to be transmitted Hasna Heng
  20. 20. 2. INTERMEDIATE LINE REPEATER Booster for transmission signals  To overcome the issue of attenuation on a longhaul network  Installed every 80-100km  Traditional amplifier need O-E conversion     Costly Signal noise Format restriction Hasna Heng
  21. 21. TYPICAL OPTICAL AMPLIFIER Don’t need electrical regeneration  Independence of data format  Speed increment  Eg: Raman effect amplifier, semiconductor optical/laser amplifier (SOA/SLA)  Hasna Heng
  22. 22. 16 fiber pairs + 128 generators  1 fiber pair + 16 Optical Amplifier  Hasna Heng
  23. 23. ERBIUMDOPED FIBER AMPLIFIER (EDFA)  Significant breakthrough for DWDM system (1995) Larger power output  Minimize noise factor  Operates on wide bandwidth network  No data format restriction  Hasna Heng
  24. 24. ENERGY-LEVEL DIAGRAM Hasna Heng
  25. 25. 3. OPTICAL ADD/DROP MULTIPLEXER (OADM) aka Intermediate optical terminal  Allows wavelength to be added/dropped from the signal as other wavelength passes through  Can substitute optical amplifier  Hasna Heng
  26. 26. ROADM  Disadvantages of OADM:  Inserting/replacing Wavelength-selective card manually Costly  Optical signal interrupted  Hence  Reconfigurable OADM (ROADM)  Switching wavelength configuration by remote  Efficient & cost-effective  More advanced OADM: the enhanced ROADM (eROADM)  Hasna Heng
  27. 27. 4. DEMUX   Inverse function of MUX Multiple-wavelengths signals  individual signals Hasna Heng
  28. 28. WHY MOVE TO DWDM? Capacity upgrade w/o adding fibers  Transparency – can carry any transmission format  Scalability – Install additional equipment as needed  Wavelength routing and switching – wavelength is used as another dimension to time and space  Hasna Heng
  29. 29. ISSUES IN DWDM Attenuation  Nonlinear inelastic scattering processes  Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)  Stimulated Brillion Scattering (SBS)   Nonlinear variations in the refractive index due to varying light intensity Self Phase Modulation (SPM)  Cross Phase Modulation (XPM)  Four Wave Mixing (FWM)  Hasna Heng
  30. 30. LATEST ACHIEVEMENTS HuaWei  Global leading ICT solution provider  Pioneer in 100G DWDM    16 commercials + 50 trials of 100G networks Recently: World’s first 400G long-haul DWDM system (super channels)   Capacity up to 20Tbps over C-band Transmission distance spanning 1000km w/o electrical regeneration Hasna Heng
  31. 31. CONCLUSION DWDM plays an essential role in high capacity optical networks  Theoretically, enormous capacity is possible  No communication system is as terrific as our communication with our Creator, Allah the Almighty.  No cost  No limitation  100% guaranteed !! Hasna Heng
  32. 32. BIBLIOGRAPHY           (n.d.). Retrieved from http://technologyinside.com/2007/03/30/making-sdh-dwdm-and-packetfriendy/ Ciena Corporation. (1997). Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Natick: The Applied Technologies Group. Cisco Systems Inc. (2001, June 4). Introduction to DWDM Technology. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/en/us/guest/products/ps2011/c2001/ccmigration_09186a00802 342cf.pdf EXFO Inc. (n.d.). EXFOTube. Retrieved from www.youtube.com: http://www.youtube.com/user/EXFOTube/ Fiber Optics For Sale Co. (n.d.). Retrieved from fiberoptics4sale: http://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/wordpress/ Kartalopoulos, S. V. (2003). Optical Components and Optics. Retrieved from Global Spec: http://beta.globalspec.com/reference/21551/160210/chapter-4-2-dwdm-network-topologies-review Radmer, H. (2007). Basic DWDM Components. Retrieved from http://www.nordu.net/development/fiber-workshop2007/Basic-DWDM-Components.pdf Rahman, A. (n.d.). A Review of DWDM - The Heart of Optical Networks. Retrieved from http://home.comcast.net/~dwdm2/DWDM_Review.PDF Senior, J. M. (2009). Optical Fiber Communications - Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Song, S. (2001). An Overview of DWDM Networks. IEEE Canadian Review. Hasna Heng
  33. 33. Hasna Heng

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