Solar Energy• An inexhaustible resources. Sun produces renewable solar energy Converted into heat and electricity long lasting, sustainable, environmental friendly
Pollution Effects of Non- renewable Energy (fossil fuels) Global Acid Rainwarming
Benefits Enable the world to improve the of quality of life throughout thesolar energy planet earth, flora and fauna.
Solar Cell• A device to convert sun to electricity. Generate electricity Solar Energy -> using Sunlight Copper sheet system
Theory of Solar Cell Solar Cell = Cuprous oxide (display photoelectric effect)
• Photoelectric effect - Phenomenon when electromagnetic radiation (light) is incident upon metal surface to cause electrons emitted from the surface.• Electromagnetic radiation - Consist of stream of photons.
• Photons in sunlight hit the solar cell and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon or copper.1. • Electrons knocked loose from atom causing electric potential difference. Current start to flow to cancel the potential and the electricity is captured. The electrons2. moved in a single direction due to special composition of solar cells. • Ray of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.3.
Processes……1. Copper sheet is burned on the hot plate/oven.2. Cuprous oxide formed in the burning process and act as a semiconductor.3. When sunlight hits cuprous oxide, some of electrons gain enough energy from the sunlight and become free electrons to conduct electricity.
Continue….4. Free electrons move into : saltwater clean copper plate wire Cuprous oxide plate through meter5. Electrons move through meter, perform work needed to move the needle. When a shadow falls on solar cells, fewer electrons move through the meter and needle dips back down.
PROCEDUREPreparing of copper sheeting with layer of cuprous Oxide1. Wear a glove before start the process.2. Wash the Copper sheeting with soap/cleanser.3. Dry the copper sheet under the fan or with clean dry cloth.4. Cut the copper plate into two pieces at equal or different size using blade/scissors. a. 20cm x 15 cm b. 20cm x 8.5 cm5. Clean the copper sheeting with sandpaper to remove any layer of oxide and light corrosion.
6. The larger piece is placed into oven for heating process. (400 ̊C – 900 ̊C).7. A beautiful and colorful oxidation patterns (oranges, purples and red) shown as the copper sheeting started to heat up.8. As the copper got hotter, the colors replaced by a black coating of cupric oxide.9. The black coating copper is heat again for almost half an hour to thickened the cupric oxide.
10. Oven is turn off. The copper sheeting is left in the oven to cool it down.11. As the copper sheeting is cooled, the black cupric oxide flakes off easily. This is because both the copper sheeting and black cupric oxide shrank at different rates.12. Remove the remaining black cupric oxide by a light scrubbing with the hands under running water.13. The copper sheeting is left to dry up.
Preparing the frame of solar cell…1. A frame of rectangular shape is made by Perspex glass for the solar cell.2. Measured the Perspex glass. The size of the frame depend on the size of the copper sheeting that used. 30.5 cm x 25.5cm x 2.1cm3. The Perspex glass is cut with the hand used machine after the design on the Perspex glass is done.
4. The Perspex glasses are glued together by using chloroform. The top cover is not glued because we need to attach the copper sheeting to the base of the frame first.5. Left the Perspex for an hour before we check for any leaking on it. If there is a leaking, it will be covered with Perspex dust. The Perspex dust is put at the leaking side and chloroform is dropped on the dust to melt it. The melting solution entered the leaking hole and will covered it when it dried.
Building of the Solar Cell model..1. As the 5 sides of the frame being attached to one another, the copper sheeting is glued to the base of the frame.2. A wire is glued to each of the copper sheeting.3. The top cover is drilled 4 holes. 2 small and 2 big holes for the flow of salt water in and air to come out after sealed the frame. The big holes is covered by the battery caps.
4. The top cover is glued to the frame using the same method to glue the other sides of the frame. Before the sealing process, 2 wires that attached to each copper is put out from the 2 small holes. The Perspex dust is used to seal the gluing side of the top cover to prevent any leaking.5. Frame is completely sealed and formed a rectangular shape glass box. The 2 battery cap are opened.6. Through the big hole, salt water using distilled water and sodium chloride is made and poured into the box.7. Solar cell is made and ready for testing process.
!!Precautions !!• Using gloves when handling the experiment.• Make sure the hot copper is cool down slowly. The black cupric oxide will stay stuck to the copper if the cooling process occurs too fast.• Use sandpaper/ brush to clean the copper sheeting, sulphide/ other light corrosion.• Make sure the wire attached to the copper sheeting will not get wet by gluing it nicely.
Take a LOOk ^^,.. Testing the solar cell under sunlightConnecting the wire to the multimeter toget the reading of voltage produced.
Testing solar cell underFOCUS…… #.# sunlight with the help of mirrorFOCUS...... (reflection of sunlight to the solar cell) Haa…Last, at HOME!!! ^.^ He….He…… AGAIN...^^ Under table lamp…