A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
A. César C. França
cesarfranca@gmail.com
Fabio Queda B. da Silva
fabio@cin.ufpe.br
06/03/2009
International Symposium on E...
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2009 ESEM - An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors

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An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors
A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva

Abstract-This article describes a survey which aims to identify the relative importance of a set of factors that affect the motivation of software engineers at work. The conceptual underpinnings of human motivation used in the research are the Expectancy Theory and the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. In the study, a survey was conducted involving 176 software engineers from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collected with the survey received statistical treatment to test correlation among the motivational factors, and the existing correlations were used to create a partial order relation that reflects relative importance, or systemic influence, among motivational factors. This is an important result for the definition of motivational programs in software organizations. The findings of this study contribute to the construction of empirically based methods for building and developing effective software engineering teams.

Paper presented at Third International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, Lake Buena Vista, 2009.


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2009 ESEM - An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors

  1. 1. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL
  2. 2. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Outline Introduction Background Method Findings Discussion 2
  3. 3. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Context • Economic impacts of behavior management – organizational climate where employees can feel respect and valorization – motivated people have better performance and greater alignment with organizational goals • Human Resources represents 70% of a software engineering project costs 3 [Bowditch and Buono, 2007] [SEI] Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion Research Objective Assess a set of motivational factors Towards an ordered importance relation that accurately represents the level of motivational and dissatisfaction forces exerted by these factors on software engineers
  4. 4. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL What is Motivation? • Expectancy Theory – Individual + Context – Valency, Expectancy and Instrumentality • Motivation Hygiene Theory – Motivacional Factors: drive individual behavior – Hygienic Factors: repulse action 4 Motivation Dissatisfaction Satisfaction “I Want” (Valency) Performance “I Will” (Expectancy) Effort “I Can” (Instrumentality) Motivation [Latham, 2006] [Salgado, 2005] Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  5. 5. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Software Engineer Characteristics Outcomes Contextual Result in Mediate Influence effectiveness of Influence strength of Orientate towards Motivators Inherent in Software Engineering Specific organization/job factors Intrinsic Extrinsic Personality Motivation on Software Engineering 5 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion [Badoo et al, 2007] Work with people Balance between professional Development processes and personal life Project Life cycle Technical development Change Exercise broadly personal skills Challenging work Feedback Problems resolution Rewards and Financial Incentives Experimentation Career development Creativity Empowerment Meaningful products Identification with task Decision Making Autonomy Physical Conditions Working in a Successful Company Technological conditions Competitive Salaries Benefits Good Management Equity People Retention Project Delivery Time Productivity Budgets Low Absenteeism Project Success
  6. 6. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Method • Ad hoc literature review • Field Study – Set of Motivators (Motivational Factors) – Questionnaire – 176 Software Engineers • 6,23% (3.000) • Random Sample • Printed version  74,9% response rate – Dec/2008 – Recife, Brazil 6 [Porto Digital] Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  7. 7. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Independent Variables 7 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  8. 8. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Independent Variables 8 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion Valency Is this factor (Fx) important for you? Instrumentality Does your organization allow you to perform this factor (Fx)? Expectancy Do you perform this factor (Fx)? Motivational Force (Fm)
  9. 9. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Independent Variables 9 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion Valency Is this factor (Fx) important for you? Instrumentality Does your organization allow you to perform this factor (Fx)? Expectancy Do you perform this factor (Fx)? Dissatisfaction Are you satisfacted with (Hx) ...? Actual Motivation (Mr) 0 < Mr ≤ 1
  10. 10. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Independent Variables 10 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion Valency Is this factor (Fx) important for you? Instrumentality Does your organization allow you to perform this factor (Fx)? Expectancy Do you perform this factor (Fx)? Dissatisfaction Are you satisfacted with (Hx) ...? Actual Motivation (Mr) 0 < Mr ≤ 1
  11. 11. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL • Systemic Relevance (W) – Number of statistical correlation between one factor and all others – Chi-squared test, significance level 0,001 (0,1%) Dependent Variables 11 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  12. 12. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL 12 Findings Dissatisfaction Force 12 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  13. 13. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL 13 Findings Dissatisfaction Force Systemic Influence 13 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion Impact of Dissatisfaction Force (Fm - Mr = ~ 20%) ~20%
  14. 14. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL Discussion • Limitations – Sample restrictions (not generalizable) • Main contributions – Dissatisfaction Force (Fm - Mr) ~ 20% – Innovative approach (Systemic Influence) – Motivation measurement tool – Classification order of motivational factors • Current/Future research – Motivational programs for different project types – Individual motivation  Team motivation – Motivation x Performance – Replication in a distinct environment 14 Introduction – Background – Method – Findings – Discussion
  15. 15. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors Thanks!! International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL
  16. 16. A. César C. França cesarfranca@gmail.com Fabio Queda B. da Silva fabio@cin.ufpe.br 06/03/2009 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Lake Buena Vista, FL An Empirical Study on Software Engineers Motivational Factors by A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at the Third International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, Lake Buena Vista, 2009. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.haseresearch.com

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