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Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

  1. 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD –PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL DENTAL RESEARCH UNIT LONDON
  2. 2. PNEUMOCOCCI • MORHOLOGY • Shape lancet shaped • Arrangement diplococci sometime short chains • Capsule encapsulated • Motility non motile • Spore non spore forming
  3. 3. PNEUMOCOCCI
  4. 4. PNEUMOCOCCI
  5. 5. PNEUMOCOCCI • Staining • Gram staining • Gram +ve staining • Violet coloured
  6. 6. PNEUMOCOCCI • Culture media • Blood agar and chocolate agar • Colonies • Small rounded colconies at first dome shaped later develop a central plateau with elevated rim • Alpha hemolysis on blood agar • Transformation • When uncapsulated pnemococci are cultured in the presence of DNA extracted from a capsulated pneumococcus encapsulated puneumococci of later type are formed this is called transformation.
  7. 7. PNEUMOCOCCI
  8. 8. PNEUMOCOCCI • Lysis of colonies • Pneumococcal colonies are sensitive to lysis by an autolytic enzymes L alanine muramyl amidase that cleaves bond linking L alanine peptide to muramic acid of peptidoglycan wall.
  9. 9. PNEUMOCOCCI • Growth characteristics • Oxygen requirements: aerobic and facultative anaerobes. • Peptostreptococci are obligate anaerobes • Energy source is ferment sugar produces lactic acid but not gas. Lactic acid limits the growth. • Temperature 37degree c • 5-10% co2 promotes growth.
  10. 10. PNEUMOCOCCI • Antigen • Capsular polysaccharide • A distinct for each of more than 80 serologic types. • B virulence is due to capsule which protect it from phagocytosis. • B cells response which provide type specific immunity. • M protein • Characteristics for each type. • C CHO • It is group specific common to all pnemococci.
  11. 11. PNEUMOCOCCI
  12. 12. PNEUMOCOCCI • Enzymes • IgA protease • It enhances organism ability to colonizes mucosa of upper respiratory tract. • Toxin • Pnemolysin • Binds to cholestrol in host cell membrane. • Inhibit antimicrobial properties of neutrophils and opsonic activity of serum.
  13. 13. PNEUMOCOCCI • Habitat and transmission • Habitat • Normal inhabitant of u.respiratory tract. • Transmission • Via respiratory droplets
  14. 14. PNEUMOCOCCI • Pathogenes and clinical finding • pnemococcal lobar pneumonia: • It is characterized by exudation of fibrinous edema fluid into alveoli following by RBC and leukocytes many pnemococci are also present in alveoli. This causes consloidation of portion of lung. • Clinical finding • A sudden onset of high fever with violent , shaking chills • B sharp pleutal pain and friction rub. • C cough at first dry or productive of thin watery sputum : later bloody or rusty sputum.
  15. 15. PNEUMOCOCCI
  16. 16. PNEUMOCOCCI • Bacteremia with its complication • From alveolar exudates organism reach bloodstream via lymphatics and causes bacteremia which have a traid of serious complication • Meningitis • Endocarditis • Septic arthritis • Sinusitis • Pericardiditis • Empyema • Otitis media
  17. 17. PNEUMOCOCCI • Meningitis • Pneumococcus is the second common bacterial pathogen that causes meningitis in adults. • Pathogenesis: • It may arises as a complication of pnemonia in which pneumococci reach the meninges by way of blood stream. • It results from a skull fracture ,permitting pnemococci from nasopharynx to enter the meninges. • Otitis media • Pnemococci is the etilogic agent of about 50% cases of otitis media in chidren.
  18. 18. Pericardium
  19. 19. PNEUMOCOCCI • Diagnostic laboratory test • Specimen blood pus sputum CSF • Microscopy gram +ve diplococci • Culture blood agar chocolate agar • Capsule swelling test quelling test • Omni antisera test • opotochin disk test • Animal inoculation test
  20. 20. PNEUMOCOCCI • Immunity • Type specific immunity to reinfection with pnemococci develops. It is due to type specfic anticapsular antibodies.
  21. 21. PNEUMOCOCCI • Treatment • Penicillin • Erythromycin • Cephaothin • Chloramphenical • Prevention and control • Immunization with polyvalent ( ploysaccharide vaccine) • Vaccine provides protection for 5 years.
  22. 22. PNEUMOCOCCI • Difference b/w lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia • Lobar pneumonia • Cased 90% by pneumococci few cases by klebsiella pnemoniae, staph aureus. • Occurs in otherwise healthy individual b/w 30-50 years • Onset is sudden with high grade fever, shaking chills and bloody or rust sputum • Conslidation of whole lobe. • Complication bacteremia, meningitis,endocarditis, septic arthritis.
  23. 23. PNEUMOCOCCI • Bronchopneumonia • Caused by staphylococci streptococci, H influenzae proteus and pseudomonas. • Occurs infants ,old and those suffering chronic debiliating illness or immunosuppression. • Onset is insiduous with low grade fever and cough productive of purulent sputum. • Patchy pneumonic consolidation. • Complications: fibrosis, bronchiectasis,lung abscess.
  24. 24. Difference b/w lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia
  25. 25. Difference b/w lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia
  26. 26. Difference b/w lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia
  27. 27. Time out Difference b/w lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia

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