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Activity Definition<br />Activity List<br />Resource Plan<br />Activity sequencing<br />Activity Resource<br />Estimating<...
Making a Schedule that “Works”<br />Identify schedule “problems”<br />Incorrect activity definition:  work packages vs act...
Activities vs. Work Packages<br />Activities describe the processes performed to complete all the “work” in the Work Packa...
Activities vs Work Packages<br />Example:<br />Work Package = Qualification Test Report<br />Activities:<br />Collate Test...
The “reality check”<br />Once the links are entered, they should form a complete network<br />Everything ties in to “somet...
Resource Levelling<br />When the “ideal” schedule is viewed to check the “resource usage”, many resources maybe “overutili...
Options for dealing for overutilized resources<br />Negotiate increased resources with functional manager<br />Increase “p...
“Rolling Wave” Schedule Definition<br />Some projects can be scheduled in detail at the beginning:<br />Repeat of previous...
“Rolling Wave” Definition<br />Near term/known events scheduled and resource loaded in detail to “activity” level<br />Lon...
Techniques for Shortening a Project Schedule<br />Focus on the Critical Path<br />Crashing: shortening the “calendar” dura...
Shortening Project Schedules<br />Original <br />schedule<br />Crashing<br />Shortenedduration<br />Fast tracking<br />Ove...
Milestones<br />Milestones = zero duration tasks inserted into the schedule to provide visibility to key dates<br />May be...
Application of Milestones<br />Flow “down” key commitments from the contract/program plan (eg. First shipment; inputs to c...
Schedule Reports<br />the “schedule” is actually a database that integrates task cost, time and logic – often called: <br ...
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3 pm3 t_4%20-%20schedule%20development

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3 pm3 t_4%20-%20schedule%20development

  1. 1. Activity Definition<br />Activity List<br />Resource Plan<br />Activity sequencing<br />Activity Resource<br />Estimating<br />Activity Duration <br />Estimating<br />Duration Estimate<br />Network Diagram<br />Schedule<br />Development<br />Integrated Schedule<br />
  2. 2. Making a Schedule that “Works”<br />Identify schedule “problems”<br />Incorrect activity definition: work packages vs activities<br />Incorrect sequencing: Unhealthy networks<br />Over-allocated resources: resource levelling<br />Making the schedule “useful”<br />“Just in time” scheduling: The Rolling Wave<br />Getting done on time<br />Making status visible: Reports and Milestones<br />The final product is the Time Management Plan called the “Integrated Schedule”<br />
  3. 3. Activities vs. Work Packages<br />Activities describe the processes performed to complete all the “work” in the Work Package <br />
  4. 4. Activities vs Work Packages<br />Example:<br />Work Package = Qualification Test Report<br />Activities:<br />Collate Test Results<br />Provide Data Package to Publications<br />Prepare Report<br />Check Report<br />Project Manager Review<br />Submit through Data Management<br />
  5. 5. The “reality check”<br />Once the links are entered, they should form a complete network<br />Everything ties in to “something”<br />As much as possible, all the “loose ends” tie back together at the end<br />
  6. 6. Resource Levelling<br />When the “ideal” schedule is viewed to check the “resource usage”, many resources maybe “overutilized”<br />Example:<br />If you have only one carpenter, you can’t have “Saw table legs” happen at the same time as “Assemble chair back”<br />This is usually showed via a “histogram” that plots resource demand over time vs. the defined team size<br />
  7. 7. Options for dealing for overutilized resources<br />Negotiate increased resources with functional manager<br />Increase “productivity” through overtime, or procurement of enabling technology <br />Consider options for work re-allocation:<br />Outsourcing<br />Work segmentation to allow partial performance by another under-utilized function (eg. Getting an Admin Assistant to perform “clerical” tasks of writing a technical report)<br />“Resource levelling” = re-arranging existing program resources and task sequence to minimize impacts to the “critical path” – delay “non-critical” tasks with conflicting resources <br />
  8. 8. “Rolling Wave” Schedule Definition<br />Some projects can be scheduled in detail at the beginning:<br />Repeat of previous projects (eg. Building a house)<br />Technology well understood, with little chance for environmental impact (eg. Database design)<br />For many projects, however, only near term tasks are scheduled in detail:<br />Technology not well developed or developed during project (eg.cold fusion reactor)<br />Project involves significant “trade studies” or selection of alternative approaches (eg. Project to “develop corporate network” – Client/server vs. stand-alone? Mac vs. PC? Wireless vs broadband?)<br /> Project is lengthy and act of activity definition is a significant cost driver<br />Latter using “Rolling Wave” scheduling<br />
  9. 9. “Rolling Wave” Definition<br />Near term/known events scheduled and resource loaded in detail to “activity” level<br />Longer term activities scheduled at increasingly reduced levels of detail<br />Depending on risk reduction philosophy, these may either have no budget/ resources allocated, or may be “lumped” as “Planning Packages”<br />
  10. 10. Techniques for Shortening a Project Schedule<br />Focus on the Critical Path<br />Crashing: shortening the “calendar” duration of a task<br />Apply more resources<br />Apply overtime<br />Introduce enabling technologies, eg. Automation<br />“re-design” the work (eg. Current process requires 4 approvals – change process to require 2)<br />Fast tracking: doing tasks - normally done in sequence - in parallel<br />Eg. you eat breakfast, then drive to work eat breakfast while driving<br />Eg. Test product, then ship it perform “minimum”/safety-critical tests and ship while completing remainder<br />Remember the “Constraint Triangle”, any schedule reduction means:<br />Cost, scope or quality trade-off<br />Risk impact – especially when fast-tracking<br />
  11. 11. Shortening Project Schedules<br />Original <br />schedule<br />Crashing<br />Shortenedduration<br />Fast tracking<br />Overlapped<br />tasks<br />
  12. 12. Milestones<br />Milestones = zero duration tasks inserted into the schedule to provide visibility to key dates<br />May be mandated by contract or management, at PM discretion or both<br />Location:<br />“Milestone” section at the top of the project<br />Provides immediate summary of program goals and status<br />Easy access for changing and “What-if” analyses<br />“Embedded” in the related task path if needed to clarify inputs critical to that path<br />Definition methods:<br />“Hard dates”: <br />Typed in as a “date”<br />no “driving” dependencies<br />Used to flow information “into” the schedule<br />“Status Dates”:<br />Hooked on to the end of a task network leading up to the state to be tracked<br />Used to flow information “out of” the schedule<br />
  13. 13. Application of Milestones<br />Flow “down” key commitments from the contract/program plan (eg. First shipment; inputs to customer activities)<br />“Hard” dates in the “milestone” section<br />Flow “up” estimated completion dates (eg. Design complete; Foundation complete)<br />“Status” dates usually embedded in schedule <br />Indicate “external” inputs to the program from other schedules or program entities (eg. Parts available from supplier; test equipment available in shared facility)<br />“Hard” dates embedded or at the top<br />Measurement of performance – discussed in integration section<br />Estimated vs committed<br />“Burndown”<br />Earned Value recognition<br />Contractual basis for invoicing progress payments<br />Usually attached to the “key commitments” <br />
  14. 14. Schedule Reports<br />the “schedule” is actually a database that integrates task cost, time and logic – often called: <br />integrated schedule<br />Integrated master schedule<br />Cost/budget<br />Can be used to generate various views and reports:<br />WBS (sometimes)<br />Network diagram (PERT chart)<br />“Schedule” (GANTT chart)<br />Resource/cost profiles<br />

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