Psychoactive Drugs


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  • DiscPsy p.153
  • Psychoactive Drugs

    1. 1. Psychoactive Drugs
    2. 2. Psychoactivity and Dependence
    3. 3. Psychoactive Drug <ul><li>A chemical substance that alters perceptions, mood, or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Three common psychoactive drugs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Induce an altered state of consciousness </li></ul>
    4. 4. Common Properties of Addiction <ul><li>Physical dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Drug rebound effect </li></ul>
    5. 5. Drug Abuse <ul><li>Recurrent drug use that results in disruption of academic, social, or occupational functioning or in legal or psychological problems </li></ul>
    6. 6. Dependence <ul><li>A state of physiological and/or psychological need to take more of a substance after continued use. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal follows if the drug is discontinued </li></ul>
    7. 7. Tolerance <ul><li>Reduced responsiveness to a drug, prompting the user to increase the dosage to achieve effects previously obtained by lower doses of the drug </li></ul>
    8. 8. Tolerance
    9. 9. Withdrawal <ul><li>The discomfort and distress that follow when a person who is dependent on a drug discontinues the use of the drug </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the drug’s effects – Drug Rebound Effect </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why do people abuse drugs? Biopsychosocial Theory
    11. 11. Drugs and Neurotransmission
    12. 12. Neurotransmission <ul><li>The process whereby neurons communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmission, especially in the brain and spinal cord, helps explain the effects of psychoactive drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neurotransmission. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons </li></ul><ul><li>When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, setting up the next link in the chain of communication. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Synapse <ul><li>The junction between the tip of the sending neuron and the receptor sites on the receiving neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Call the synaptic gap or cleft </li></ul>
    15. 15. Neural Activity
    16. 16. Neurotransmitters and the Synapse
    17. 17. Reuptake <ul><li>Process where the unused neurotransmitter chemical is reabsorbed by the sending neuron </li></ul>
    18. 18. Reuptake
    19. 19. Psychoactive Drugs and Synapses <ul><li>Psychoactive drugs affect synapses and neurotransmitters in three ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding with receptor sites (mimics)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking receptor site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking neurotransmitters’ reuptake* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Increase the likelihood of the receiving neuron firing </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Drug Classifications
    21. 22. Four Psychoactive Drug Categories <ul><li>Four different categories we will study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressants – depress, inhibit brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opiates – Similar to morphine, produce feelings of euphoria & reduce pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulants – excite brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychedelic/Hallucinogens/Marijuana – distort sensory perceptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer “Club” Drugs – “fifth category” that includes variety of psychoactive drugs. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Drug Classifications: Depressants
    23. 24. Depressants <ul><li>Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Includes alcohol and sedatives </li></ul>
    24. 25. Depressants <ul><li>Alcohol—CNS depressant </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates—induce sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquilizers—relieve anxiety </li></ul>
    25. 26. Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) <ul><li>Found in beer, wine, and liquor </li></ul><ul><li>The second most used psychoactive drug (caffeine first) </li></ul><ul><li>Slows thinking, and impairs physical activity </li></ul>
    26. 27. Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) <ul><li>A measure of how much alcohol is in a person’s bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>BAC of .08 considered legal intoxication in most states </li></ul>
    27. 29. What do we mean by “one drink?” One 12-ounce can of beer has about the same amount of alcohol as 4 ounces of wine or 1 ounce of whiskey
    28. 30. Euphoric Affects of Alcohol <ul><li>Alcohol impairs the parts of the brain responsible for controlling inhibitions and making judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Results in less self-control and sometimes more aggressive behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Also depends on environment and expectations. </li></ul>
    29. 31. Alcohol, Memory, and Sleep <ul><li>Studies have shown that alcohol impairs memory by suppressing the processing of events into long term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol impairs REM sleep, further disrupting memory storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Also impairs speech and physical functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Death can occur if the brain’s respiratory center can no longer function. </li></ul>
    30. 32. Alcohol’s Affect on the Brain Alcoholism shrinks the brain
    31. 35. Sedatives <ul><li>Drugs that reduce anxiety or induce sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Also called tranquilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Include barbiturates and benzodiazepines </li></ul>
    32. 36. Barbiturates <ul><li>Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system and thereby reduce anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Can be lethal in overdose and interact with other drugs, especially alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Impair both memory and judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Can create tolerance and physical & mental dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal can cause REM rebound nightmares, hallucinations, disorientation and even life-threatening convulsions. </li></ul>
    33. 37. Benzodiazepines/Tranquilizers <ul><li>Drugs that depress that activity of the central nervous system without most of the side effects associated with barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Help to reduce anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Include Valium and Xanax </li></ul><ul><li>Can create dependency </li></ul>
    34. 38. Inhalants <ul><li>Chemicals that are inhaled to alter consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Paint, glue, gasoline, nitrous oxide & aerosol sprays. </li></ul><ul><li>Low doses may relax and reduce inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>High doses can cause hallucinations and loss of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic to the liver and other organs. </li></ul>
    35. 39. Addiction and Depressants <ul><li>How does withdrawal occur? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s happening to the neurons of an addict? </li></ul><ul><li>How are these drugs suppressing the nervous system? </li></ul>
    36. 40. Drug Classifications: Opiates
    37. 41. Opiates/Narcotics <ul><li>Drugs that depress neural activity, temporarily lessen pain and anxiety and produce feelings of euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Include: opium, morphine, and heroin </li></ul>
    38. 42. Endorphins <ul><li>Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Body’s natural pain killers </li></ul>
    39. 43. Morphine <ul><li>Strong sedative and pain-relieving drug derived from opium </li></ul><ul><li>Works by preventing pain neurons from firing or releasing pain-signaling neurotransmitters (Substance P) into the synapse </li></ul>
    40. 44. Other Opiates <ul><li>Chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic the brain’s endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin, methadone </li></ul><ul><li>Percodan, Demerol </li></ul>
    41. 45. Drug Classifications: Stimulants
    42. 46. Stimulants <ul><li>Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions </li></ul><ul><li>Include: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>All are at least mildly addictive. </li></ul>
    43. 47. Caffeine <ul><li>Stimulant found in coffee, chocolate, tea, and some soft drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Provides user with a sense of increased energy, mental alertness, and forced wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks neurological receptor sites that if activated, sedate the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms are sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, insomnia, increased heart rate. </li></ul>
    44. 48. Nicotine <ul><li>Stimulant found in tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Effects similar to those of caffeine – reduces fatigue & drowsiness and increases mental alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Affects various areas in the brain affecting mood, attention & arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Very addictive and does not stay in the body very long </li></ul><ul><li>See video clip on nicotine addiction. </li></ul>
    45. 49. Cocaine <ul><li>Stimulant derived from leaves of the coca plant </li></ul><ul><li>Crack – cocaine crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency is quick and severe; places extreme strain on cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause cocaine psychosis – schizophrenia-like symptoms including auditory hallucinations & paranoia, “cocaine bugs” or tactile hallucinations </li></ul>
    46. 50. How Cocaine Works
    47. 51. Amphetamines <ul><li>Drugs that stimulate neural activity, speeding up body functions, with associated energy and mood changes </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: speed, uppers, and methamphetamines, Shabu (MHC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause irreversible changes in mood & function by reducing dopamine receptors & transporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal causes fatigue, deep sleep, intense depression, increase in appetite. </li></ul>
    48. 52. Drug Classifications: Hallucinogens
    49. 53. Hallucinogens/Psychedelic Drugs <ul><li>Drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input </li></ul><ul><li>Include: LSD, Mescaline and Marijuana </li></ul>
    50. 54. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) <ul><li>Powerful hallucinogenic drug </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “acid” </li></ul><ul><li>The effects vary from person to person </li></ul><ul><li>Users can be dangerous to themselves and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to neurotransmitter, serotonin. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks, psychotic reactions can occur. </li></ul>
    51. 55. Hallucinogen Affect <ul><li>Hallucination - like patterns Geometric forms, similar to those experienced by drug users during drug - induced hallucinations, can be seen in the embroidery of the Huichol. These Mexican Indians used peyote, from which the hallucinogen mescaline derives. </li></ul>
    52. 56. Marijuana <ul><li>Leaves, stems, resin, and flowers form the hemp plant </li></ul><ul><li>When smoked, lower inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and mild euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient. Receptors in the brain for anandamide also accept THC </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts memory; lung damage from smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal may cause insomnia, tremors and decreased appetite. </li></ul><ul><li>Is helpful in decreasing nausea and reducing effects of glaucoma. </li></ul>
    53. 57. “ Club” Drugs <ul><li>Ecstasy (MDMA)—feelings of euphoria, increased well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects—dehydration, hyperthermia, tremor, rapid heartbeat </li></ul>
    54. 58. Ecstasy <ul><li>Hallucinogenic drug that produces lower inhibitions, pleasant feelings, and greater acceptance of others </li></ul><ul><li>Also called MDMA </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks serotonin reuptake prolonging its “good” feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Even moderate users may experience permanent brain damage to serotonin nerve endings & even memory and verbal reasoning problems up to a year later. </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration, rapid heartbeat, tremors, muscle tension, teeth clenching & high body temp can result. </li></ul>
    55. 59. Other “Club” Drugs: Dissociative Anesthetics <ul><li>Dissociative anesthetics—include PCP and Ketamine. </li></ul><ul><li>Deaden pain, produce stupor or coma, may induce hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Create feelings of dissociation & depersonalization </li></ul><ul><li>PCP or angel dust, ketamine </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of “trips” differ for each person </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in hyperthermia (high body temp), convulsions & death. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects neurotransmitter glutamate causing a release of more dopamine in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly addictive. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term effects can be memory loss and depression. </li></ul>
    56. 61. Prevention
    57. 62. Treatment <ul><li>What become “triggers” for addicts? </li></ul><ul><li>How do addicts’ bodies react to “triggers?” </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how this treatment works. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what withdrawal/addiction is like? </li></ul><ul><li>What do brain scans show about addicts’ brains? </li></ul>