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Kinesics        Understanding Body Language        Click to edit Master subtitle style12/10/2011
Knowing KinesicsMay lead to:Making sense of the body language of other•people as well as knowing how others may readyour o...
‘Kinesics’ was coined by the anthropologist Ray•Birdwhistell–   35% verbal component of communication–   65% non-verbal co...
Kinesics RootsCharles Darwin (1809-1882): father of the study•of body languageHe noted the similarity between humans and•a...
research methods•Self reports–   Doers–   Observers•Correlations•Field studies•ExperimentsIMPORTANT: Kinesics is NOT an ex...
Example: Impression managementIn sales, someone who’s working hard to winyou over to his proposal will:•Smile a lot•Use a ...
Basis of Kinesics•Intrinsic factorsSmiling expressions of children born deaf and blind–occur independently of learning or ...
Nature vs. nurtureSome body language is inherited and consistent•among all humans. Other body language is not.•The use and...
Cultural hand signals                 North America: OK                 Russia, Brazil, Turkey:                  An orific...
Most western countries: Two             Greece Go to Hell!                 Bali: Bad                 Japan: Woman         ...
Widespread use : OK, good, hitchhike             Many Europoean countries: one             Australia: sit on this! (a_s ho...
Kinesics: SectionsEmblems: cues that clearly represent a verbal•message e.g. thumbs up = okIllustrators: e.g. when we talk...
Sneering12/10/2011
‘Sneering’ involves baring the teeth and flaringnostrils usually signals anger and irritation. Among apes, baring the teet...
Universal facial expressions•Anger•Disgust•Fear•Surprise•Sadness•Joy12/10/2011
Ekmans work included isolated tribes-people•who could not have been influenced by Westernmedia and images, and essentially...
Neutral12/10/2011
Anger12/10/2011
Disgust12/10/2011
Fear12/10/2011
Surprise12/10/2011
Sadness12/10/2011
Real enjoyment/genuine smile12/10/2011
Feigned enjoyment/polite smile12/10/2011
Contempt12/10/2011
Shame12/10/2011
Rules for Better Reading•1) Read Gestures in ClusterEach gesture is like a single word and one word may–have several diffe...
ExampleCritical evaluation cluster: hand-to-face gesture (main signal)+ cross arms+ tightly cross legs+ head and chin down...
Rules for Better Reading•2) Look for congruenceWhen available, try to find validation in the verbal–messageStudies show th...
Examples of incongruenceYour BF or GF is saying all the ‘right words’ but•avoids your gazeYour subordinate says its alrigh...
Rules for Better Reading•3) Read gestures in context–Example: a person, chin down, crossing both legs andarms in a cold ni...
Hands•Hands out with palms upward–   “I’m a peace maker”–   Asking for help•Palms-in movement–Similar to palms upward but ...
•Palms down and Palms outDominating move; authority; holding others at bay–while you speak; may mean you already made up y...
•Fist–Newborns squalling usually curl their hands into a tightfist. This is observed even with deaf or blind babiesindicat...
A hand with open fingers generally displays•open-mindednessTightly close fingers indicate person is uptight•and rigid•The ...
Nervousness signs: wringing hands, pulling or•bending fingers, digging nails on the fist,drumming fingertips on table tops...
Boredom signs: finger tapping, facial rubbing,•supporting head with hand, knuckle cracking,any motion to rouse the person ...
Classic             gesture of             Boredom12/10/2011
Evaluation is shown by a             closed hand resting on the             chin or cheek, often with the             inde...
When the index             finger points vertically up             the cheek and the thumb             supports the chin, ...
Chin Stroke is the signal             that the listener is going             through the decision-             making proc...
Research found those who habitually rub the•back of the neck have a tendency to be negativeor critical, whereas those who ...
•   Politicians–The more powerful the politician the more controlledthe hand movements–   Many politicians rehearse their ...
Thumb squeezed against fingertips12/10/2011
HandshakesDominance: turning hand so that palm faces•slightly downSubmission: turning hand so that palm faces•slightly upE...
Other hand gesturesRubbing palms together – showing positive•expectancy–When done fast usually benefit is for the other pe...
Hands on the back- emotions attached to this•gesture is superiority, confidence and power•Thumb displays – in general, usu...
Hands clenched indicates             frustration even when smiling.12/10/2011
Steeple usually signal             confident attitude. It is             usually used in a superior-             subordina...
Face Platter: Used mainly by             women and gay men to             attract a man’s attention12/10/2011
Crossed-arms•We respond normally to external threats byhiding behind a barrier. As children we hidebehind something when w...
•In a study, students who were instructed totightly crossed their arms while listening to alecture had 38% less retention ...
Clenched fist arms-crossed show hostile•attitudeDouble arm grip crossed arms- showing feelings•of insecurity and not buyin...
Posture and Legs•Slouching•A subtle characteristic wherein others usually‘feel’ there is something wrong but can’t putthei...
•Slouching makes you appear smallerStraightening the spine (sitting or standing•straight) is one way to transform appearan...
•Body parts in the lower region are usually farfrom one’s awareness so most of the time lesscontrolled.•Legs and feet are ...
•A person may look composed in the upper body butwould show feet tapping or short air jabs of the feet asif indicating the...
•Experiments showed (using managers asrespondents) that when subjects lied theyincreased their foot movements. Most of the...
4 main legs positionAt AttentionThis is a formal position that shows a neutral•attitude with no commitment to stay or go.I...
Legs ApartThis is predominantly a male gesture and is like•a standing Crotch Display.The Crotch Displayer plants both feet...
•Foot-Forward•The body weight is shifted to one hip, whichleaves the front foot pointing forward.A clue to a persons immed...
Leg Cross (while standing)•Usually casual or indicating being reserved.In certain situations where a person is with•strang...
•Standing hands on hipPosturing for authority, sometimes associated•with aggressiveness. Standing two feet on theground ma...
Mouth•Compressing lips – classing sign of angerPuckered lips – (lip shape when one is about to•kiss) a sign of affection (...
Licking the lips – a gesture often misunderstood•especially by men. It can send a variety ofmessage depending on who is do...
•Smiling – happy.•A real smile is…–   Lips move or curl upward–   Nose may crinkle slightly–   Nostrils may flare–   Muscl...
EyesRaising eyebrows – a way of emphasizing what is said; can•also indicate confusion. It is also perceived as submissives...
Blinking – the average person blinks about 20•times a minute. More than the average usuallymeans excitement or anxiety.Squ...
•Dilating pupils – Excitement, mental activity(e.g. problem solving and fully dilates in findinga solution)•Contracting pu...
Studies show that people tend to read eye areas•well than any other body parts and women arebetter than men.•Autistic peop...
Body Angling                 The man on the right                 indicating he wants                 to leave12/10/2011
To avoid being seen as             aggressive, we stand with our             bodies angled at 45 degrees             to ea...
Open triangular position             encouraging the entry of a             third person.12/10/2011
Direct body pointing             in the Closed Position             to attempt to get a             captive audience.12/10...
If another person wants to join two             others standing in a Closed             Position, hell be invited when the...
Body Pointing is used to close off a         couple and exclude the man on the         right12/10/2011
Not only do the feet serve as             pointers indicating the             direction in which a persons             min...
Most common deceit signals        (Pease and Pease)•IMPORTANT: in applying these common deceitsignals, strictly enforce th...
Mouth cover(subconscious suppression of deceitful words)The mouth cover may involve the whole hand, afew fingers or the fi...
Nose touchSeveral quick rubs below the nose or one quick•nose touch.•Research show that when a person lies, certainchemica...
•Eye rubWhen a child doesn’t want to look at•something, he covers eyes. Among grown ups itbecomes more complex and turns i...
Ear grabThis the adult version of the ‘hands-over-both-•ears’ used by child.•It’s the symbolic attempt to block the wordsh...
Neck scratchindex finger — scratches the side of the neck•below the earlobeThis gesture is a signal of doubt or uncertaint...
Collar Pull - lies cause a                               tingling sensation in the facial                               an...
Deceit signals (Hagen)•Wide eyes•Flushed face•Self touches (nose touch, rubbing back neck)•Lack of eye contact•Excessive w...
•Excessive blinking•Angling body away from accuser•Hiding the hands•Biting the lips or covering mouth•Exaggerated movement...
Seating arrangements                       Corner position: For                       friendly and casual                 ...
The Co-operative Position: used             best when two people are thinking             alike or when working on a task ...
Competitive/Defensive                                Position: Sitting across the                                table fro...
Independent position:             This is taken by people             when they dont want             to interact with eac...
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Body language lecture guide - Mr. Glarino

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a guide to non-verbal communication by Mr. Glarino. Presented during the 2011 Mandatory Continuing Legal Education

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Body language lecture guide - Mr. Glarino

  1. 1. Kinesics Understanding Body Language Click to edit Master subtitle style12/10/2011
  2. 2. Knowing KinesicsMay lead to:Making sense of the body language of other•people as well as knowing how others may readyour own body language•Managing one’s own body language forimpression managementConveying your message intentionally through your–body language12/10/2011
  3. 3. ‘Kinesics’ was coined by the anthropologist Ray•Birdwhistell– 35% verbal component of communication– 65% non-verbal component•Women tend to be more perceptive of bodylanguage than men (female intuition)–Harvard research showed, while watching short filmswith the sound turned off, women read the messageaccurately 87% while men scored 42%12/10/2011
  4. 4. Kinesics RootsCharles Darwin (1809-1882): father of the study•of body languageHe noted the similarity between humans and•animals in emotional expression•Example: frightened chimpanzees freeze in place with wideopened eyes, flared nostrils (expanded nasal cavities) and mouthslightly opened which is similar to humans•Active Study of Kinesics started only in 1960’s•Popularized in the late 70’s12/10/2011
  5. 5. research methods•Self reports– Doers– Observers•Correlations•Field studies•ExperimentsIMPORTANT: Kinesics is NOT an exact science!!12/10/2011
  6. 6. Example: Impression managementIn sales, someone who’s working hard to winyou over to his proposal will:•Smile a lot•Use a firm handshake•Use eye contact well for you to notice•Tilt his head and lean forward to indicate hislistening when you talk Widen his eyes as you speak12/10/2011•
  7. 7. Basis of Kinesics•Intrinsic factorsSmiling expressions of children born deaf and blind–occur independently of learning or copying•Extrinsic factors– Cultural hand signals•Intrinsic-Extrinsic overlap12/10/2011
  8. 8. Nature vs. nurtureSome body language is inherited and consistent•among all humans. Other body language is not.•The use and recognition of certain fundamentalfacial expressions are now generally accepted tobe consistent and genetically determinedamong all humans regardless of culture.•However the use and recognition of lessfundamental physical gestures (handmovements for example, or the winking of an12/10/2011
  9. 9. Cultural hand signals North America: OK Russia, Brazil, Turkey: An orifice signal; sexual insult; gay man Tunisia, France, Belgium: Zero; worthless Japan: Money; coins Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Malta: Up yours! USA: Two Germany: Victory France: Peace12/10/2011
  10. 10. Most western countries: Two Greece Go to Hell! Bali: Bad Japan: Woman South America: Thin France: You cant fool me! Mediterranean: Small penis12/10/2011
  11. 11. Widespread use : OK, good, hitchhike Many Europoean countries: one Australia: sit on this! (a_s hole) Western countries: Number 5 Could also mean in many countries: Stop! Greece and Turkey: Go to hell!12/10/2011
  12. 12. Kinesics: SectionsEmblems: cues that clearly represent a verbal•message e.g. thumbs up = okIllustrators: e.g. when we talk while using hands•to underscore meaningAffect displays: facial gestures that convey•nonverbal messageRegulators: cues that indicate how well verbal•communication is going (nods, shakes)12/10/2011
  13. 13. Sneering12/10/2011
  14. 14. ‘Sneering’ involves baring the teeth and flaringnostrils usually signals anger and irritation. Among apes, baring the teeth signals animpending attack while flaring nostrils allowsmore oxygenated blood to flow. Humans stillcarry the expression as part of evolutionaryheritage.12/10/2011
  15. 15. Universal facial expressions•Anger•Disgust•Fear•Surprise•Sadness•Joy12/10/2011
  16. 16. Ekmans work included isolated tribes-people•who could not have been influenced by Westernmedia and images, and essentially proved thatDarwin was right - i.e., that the use andrecognition of facial expressions to conveycertain basic human emotions is part of humanevolved nature, genetically inherited, and notdependent on social learning or conditioning.12/10/2011
  17. 17. Neutral12/10/2011
  18. 18. Anger12/10/2011
  19. 19. Disgust12/10/2011
  20. 20. Fear12/10/2011
  21. 21. Surprise12/10/2011
  22. 22. Sadness12/10/2011
  23. 23. Real enjoyment/genuine smile12/10/2011
  24. 24. Feigned enjoyment/polite smile12/10/2011
  25. 25. Contempt12/10/2011
  26. 26. Shame12/10/2011
  27. 27. Rules for Better Reading•1) Read Gestures in ClusterEach gesture is like a single word and one word may–have several different meanings.– Gestures come in ‘sentences’ called “clusters”.–A body language cluster, just like a verbal sentence,needs around three words in it before one canapproximate what each ‘word’ means.12/10/2011
  28. 28. ExampleCritical evaluation cluster: hand-to-face gesture (main signal)+ cross arms+ tightly cross legs+ head and chin down12/10/2011
  29. 29. Rules for Better Reading•2) Look for congruenceWhen available, try to find validation in the verbal–messageStudies show that when verbal and non-verbal–message are incongruent, women tend to follow thenon-verbal cueA person saying something different from how he is–behaving non-verbally is usually less believable12/10/2011
  30. 30. Examples of incongruenceYour BF or GF is saying all the ‘right words’ but•avoids your gazeYour subordinate says its alright for him to do•overtime as you requested but you can see thesneer in his face12/10/2011
  31. 31. Rules for Better Reading•3) Read gestures in context–Example: a person, chin down, crossing both legs andarms in a cold night outside may not be actingdefensive but plainly feeling cold–But if the person was acting the same way in a settingwhich was not warm and did not act that way until youstarted blaming him for the failure of a businessengagement, may be acting defensively.12/10/2011
  32. 32. Hands•Hands out with palms upward– “I’m a peace maker”– Asking for help•Palms-in movement–Similar to palms upward but with drawing motion; alsomay be waving hands around as long as its facing thespeaker/actor–May indicate invitation or ‘sweet’ attempts at12/10/2011persuasion
  33. 33. •Palms down and Palms outDominating move; authority; holding others at bay–while you speak; may mean you already made up yourmind and not open to input; you are firm with yourmessage; sometimes viewed as hostility;–Notice two lovers holding hands while walking, maysometimes indicate who is on the ‘upper hand’.–Palms down, may usually change or combined with topalms out which basically means the same except the12/10/2011 more forcefullatter is
  34. 34. •Fist–Newborns squalling usually curl their hands into a tightfist. This is observed even with deaf or blind babiesindicating that it is not a learned gesture but an inbornresponse to anger or frustration–The difficulty nowadays is that it is used in many wayseven in jest12/10/2011
  35. 35. A hand with open fingers generally displays•open-mindednessTightly close fingers indicate person is uptight•and rigid•The best way to interpret open or close fingersis when seen together with palms down orpalms up position.•Ex. Palms down with fingers apart may mean: “Ifeel strongly about my position but I may also be12/10/2011
  36. 36. Nervousness signs: wringing hands, pulling or•bending fingers, digging nails on the fist,drumming fingertips on table tops usually showanxietySelf touches may also indicate that all is not well•since it is a way of self comfort– Rubbing the face (nose or chin)– Rubbing forearms12/10/2011– Crossing arms in a tight hug
  37. 37. Boredom signs: finger tapping, facial rubbing,•supporting head with hand, knuckle cracking,any motion to rouse the person (slapping ownself)Notice that some of these signs are also signs of•boredom thus one must be observant for othercues12/10/2011
  38. 38. Classic gesture of Boredom12/10/2011
  39. 39. Evaluation is shown by a closed hand resting on the chin or cheek, often with the index finger pointing upwards. When the person begins to lose interest but still wants to appear interested the position will alter so that the heel of the palm supports the head as boredom sets in.12/10/2011
  40. 40. When the index finger points vertically up the cheek and the thumb supports the chin, the listener is having negative or critical thoughts about the speaker or his subject.12/10/2011
  41. 41. Chin Stroke is the signal that the listener is going through the decision- making process12/10/2011
  42. 42. Research found those who habitually rub the•back of the neck have a tendency to be negativeor critical, whereas those who habitually rubtheir foreheads to non-verbalize an error tend tobe more open and easy-going.NOTE: hand-to-face gestures can easily be•misinterpreted12/10/2011
  43. 43. • Politicians–The more powerful the politician the more controlledthe hand movements– Many politicians rehearse their hand gestures•Bush showing his hand in the podium, “I have nothing to hide”•Marcos pounding his fist, “I intend to pursue the point”–Squeezing against the thumb against the fingertipsavoids intimidating the audience (Tony Blair style)•In astudy, subjects shown this gesture tend to interpret thedoer as someone who is ‘thoughtful’, ‘goal oriented’ and12/10/2011
  44. 44. Thumb squeezed against fingertips12/10/2011
  45. 45. HandshakesDominance: turning hand so that palm faces•slightly downSubmission: turning hand so that palm faces•slightly upEquality: both hands in vertical position. This•creates a feeling of equality and mutual respect.12/10/2011
  46. 46. Other hand gesturesRubbing palms together – showing positive•expectancy–When done fast usually benefit is for the other person,when slow usually the benefit is for the doer. Example:sales agent says “I found a house for you”Thumb and finger rub: usually done to signify•money•Hands clenched – usually shows frustration.Research has validated this with negotiators.12/10/2011
  47. 47. Hands on the back- emotions attached to this•gesture is superiority, confidence and power•Thumb displays – in general, usually indicateseveral things including dominance andassertiveness. It also shows confident andsometimes authoritative and aggressiveattitudes. To be understood, it needs to be readin a cluster.–People who wear high-status or prestige clothing12/10/2011usually display their thumbs.
  48. 48. Hands clenched indicates frustration even when smiling.12/10/2011
  49. 49. Steeple usually signal confident attitude. It is usually used in a superior- subordinate interaction.12/10/2011
  50. 50. Face Platter: Used mainly by women and gay men to attract a man’s attention12/10/2011
  51. 51. Crossed-arms•We respond normally to external threats byhiding behind a barrier. As children we hidebehind something when we are in threateningsituations. At the end of pre-school age (4-6) weusually learn to ‘create a barrier by folding ourarms tightly across our chest when we arethreatened. During teens, we make our crossedarms less obvious by relaxing it a little andcombining it perhaps with crossed-legs. Asadults we become more sophisticated in making12/10/2011
  52. 52. •In a study, students who were instructed totightly crossed their arms while listening to alecture had 38% less retention than those notclosing their arms, legs and were in a morerelaxed position.Studies also show that observer reaction to a•person crossing arms tended to be negativecompared to someone who did not cross arms12/10/2011
  53. 53. Clenched fist arms-crossed show hostile•attitudeDouble arm grip crossed arms- showing feelings•of insecurity and not buying what is being told.Crossed-arms with thumbs up – defensive but•wants to think he is still ok or cool12/10/2011
  54. 54. Posture and Legs•Slouching•A subtle characteristic wherein others usually‘feel’ there is something wrong but can’t puttheir finger on.Aside from creating possible physical aches it•also projects negative personality images:– Illness– Boredom12/10/2011
  55. 55. •Slouching makes you appear smallerStraightening the spine (sitting or standing•straight) is one way to transform appearance.– The person appears•Taller•More interested•More confident•May also indicate readiness for action12/10/2011
  56. 56. •Body parts in the lower region are usually farfrom one’s awareness so most of the time lesscontrolled.•Legs and feet are important sources ofinformation because people do not pay so muchawareness in them like they do with their facegestures and they usually do not consider fakingthem12/10/2011
  57. 57. •A person may look composed in the upper body butwould show feet tapping or short air jabs of the feet asif indicating the frustration at not being able to escapethe situation or feeling anxiousFeet jiggling is similar to the idea of getting•away from what is experience. It is usually a signof discomfort and nervousness.–To make use of this action fully, try to look forcongruence/incongruence in the verbal language12/10/2011
  58. 58. •Experiments showed (using managers asrespondents) that when subjects lied theyincreased their foot movements. Most of therespondents faked their facial gestures orcontrolled hand movements when lying but areusually unaware of the increased movements infoot or/and legs•Studies also showed that observers tend tocatch lies better when they see the entire body12/10/2011subject.of the
  59. 59. 4 main legs positionAt AttentionThis is a formal position that shows a neutral•attitude with no commitment to stay or go.In male—female encounters, it is used more by•women than men as it effectively keeps the legstogether like a No Comment signal.Used often by subordinates when talking with•superiors12/10/2011
  60. 60. Legs ApartThis is predominantly a male gesture and is like•a standing Crotch Display.The Crotch Displayer plants both feet firmly on•the ground, making a clear statement that hehas no intention of leaving.•It is used as a dominance signal by men becauseit highlights the genitals, giving the CrotchDisplayer a macho-looking attitude.12/10/2011
  61. 61. •Foot-Forward•The body weight is shifted to one hip, whichleaves the front foot pointing forward.A clue to a persons immediate intentions,•because we point our lead foot in the directionour mind would like to go.•In a group situation, we point our lead foot atthe most interesting or attractive person butwhen we want to leave, we point our feet at the12/10/2011
  62. 62. Leg Cross (while standing)•Usually casual or indicating being reserved.In certain situations where a person is with•strangers, the leg cross is done together with thearm cross and there is some distance betweenthe person and others.12/10/2011
  63. 63. •Standing hands on hipPosturing for authority, sometimes associated•with aggressiveness. Standing two feet on theground makes one look bigger, and this isexaggerated when hands are on hips.12/10/2011
  64. 64. Mouth•Compressing lips – classing sign of angerPuckered lips – (lip shape when one is about to•kiss) a sign of affection (e.g. love, sensuality orsexual harassment!)Purse lips – the shape is between compressed•and puckered lips. Usually indicates anger,confusion or disagreement on some level.•Pouting – sadness, anger or frustration. May12/10/2011 done as a playful gesture.also be
  65. 65. Licking the lips – a gesture often misunderstood•especially by men. It can send a variety ofmessage depending on who is doing the lickingand the setting.•Jaw drop – shocked, confusedJaw locked - lower jaw appear like it is set in•stone; anger, tension, sadness12/10/2011
  66. 66. •Smiling – happy.•A real smile is…– Lips move or curl upward– Nose may crinkle slightly– Nostrils may flare– Muscles around the eyes are fully engaged•A fake smile is…12/10/2011
  67. 67. EyesRaising eyebrows – a way of emphasizing what is said; can•also indicate confusion. It is also perceived as submissivesignal in both humans and apesthose not used to lying, this is good indicator of telling the•truth; for perennial liars, raising brows could mean that it’sa lie.•When someone raises brows while questioning, noticeother signs (open mouth or flared nostrils) then it wouldindicate that he has concerns of what you are saying.• Single eye brow raise- often means “I don’t believe you”.12/10/2011• Lowering brows is showing dominance and aggression
  68. 68. Blinking – the average person blinks about 20•times a minute. More than the average usuallymeans excitement or anxiety.Squinting – when you squint to someone who is•talking to you the impression is generally youare doubting what he or she is saying. Even ifthe real reason of your squint is you can’t seeclearly.•Half-closed eye – boredom and fatigue12/10/2011
  69. 69. •Dilating pupils – Excitement, mental activity(e.g. problem solving and fully dilates in findinga solution)•Contracting pupils – angry, negative mood•Eyebrow flash – eyebrows rise rapidly and dropsagain with the intention of drawing attention tothe face. This is usually used as a ‘hello’ signal orsocial greeting and is found to be present inapes and monkeys12/10/2011
  70. 70. Studies show that people tend to read eye areas•well than any other body parts and women arebetter than men.•Autistic people, in general have a deficiency inreading body language even if they have highIQs. Researchers suspect this as the reason fortheir poor social relations12/10/2011
  71. 71. Body Angling The man on the right indicating he wants to leave12/10/2011
  72. 72. To avoid being seen as aggressive, we stand with our bodies angled at 45 degrees to each other during friendly encounters to form an angle of 90 degrees.12/10/2011
  73. 73. Open triangular position encouraging the entry of a third person.12/10/2011
  74. 74. Direct body pointing in the Closed Position to attempt to get a captive audience.12/10/2011
  75. 75. If another person wants to join two others standing in a Closed Position, hell be invited when the other two angle their bodies to form the triangle. If not accepted, the others will hold the Closed Position and turn only their heads towards him as a sign of recognition and probably give tight-lipped smiles.12/10/2011
  76. 76. Body Pointing is used to close off a couple and exclude the man on the right12/10/2011
  77. 77. Not only do the feet serve as pointers indicating the direction in which a persons mind is going, they also point at people who we find the most interesting or attractive.12/10/2011
  78. 78. Most common deceit signals (Pease and Pease)•IMPORTANT: in applying these common deceitsignals, strictly enforce the three rules onreading body language: Clusters, Congruence orIncongruence and Context•The least dependable signs of lying are the onesover which a person has the most control, suchas words, because a person can rehearse theirlies.•The most reliable clues to lying are the gestures12/10/2011
  79. 79. Mouth cover(subconscious suppression of deceitful words)The mouth cover may involve the whole hand, afew fingers or the fist.•If a person covers mouth while talking, maybelying•If a person covers mouth while the other istalking may indicate disbelief12/10/2011
  80. 80. Nose touchSeveral quick rubs below the nose or one quick•nose touch.•Research show that when a person lies, certainchemicals are released causing tissue inside thenose to swell as well as increase in bloodpressure thus the human nose expands withblood during lying and is known as the“Pinocchio effect”, this cause the nose to tingle12/10/2011
  81. 81. •Eye rubWhen a child doesn’t want to look at•something, he covers eyes. Among grown ups itbecomes more complex and turns into the eyerub which could mean the blocking out ofdeceit, doubt or deceitful thing it sees or toavoid having to look at the face of the personbeing lied to.•Men usually do the eye rub more than women.12/10/2011
  82. 82. Ear grabThis the adult version of the ‘hands-over-both-•ears’ used by child.•It’s the symbolic attempt to block the wordsheard by putting hand around or over the ear ortugging the earlobe, rubbing the back of the earor ‘finger drill’ (finger is screwed back and forthin the ear It can also mean the person has heard enough12/10/2011•
  83. 83. Neck scratchindex finger — scratches the side of the neck•below the earlobeThis gesture is a signal of doubt or uncertainty•and is characteristic of the person who says, Imnot sure I agree.‘It is noticeable when verbal language•contradicts it (e.g. I understand what you mean)12/10/2011
  84. 84. Collar Pull - lies cause a tingling sensation in the facial and neck tissues making the scratch the part. This also explains the collar pull. Increased blood pressure from the deceit causes sweat to form on the neck when the deceiver feels that you suspect hes not telling Collar Pull could also mean the truth. anger and frustration.12/10/2011
  85. 85. Deceit signals (Hagen)•Wide eyes•Flushed face•Self touches (nose touch, rubbing back neck)•Lack of eye contact•Excessive won’t back down eye contact12/10/2011
  86. 86. •Excessive blinking•Angling body away from accuser•Hiding the hands•Biting the lips or covering mouth•Exaggerated movement of arms and legs12/10/2011
  87. 87. Seating arrangements Corner position: For friendly and casual conversation12/10/2011
  88. 88. The Co-operative Position: used best when two people are thinking alike or when working on a task together.12/10/2011
  89. 89. Competitive/Defensive Position: Sitting across the table from a person can create a defensive, competitive atmosphere and can lead to each party taking a firm stand on his point of view because the table becomes a solid Sitting directly opposite barrier between both each other creates bad parties. vibes.12/10/2011
  90. 90. Independent position: This is taken by people when they dont want to interact with each other.12/10/2011

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