Ch10 understanding work_teams


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Ch10 understanding work_teams

  1. 1. Understanding Work Teams 心碩一 賴柏瑞
  2. 2. Why have team become so popular ? <ul><li>More effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, and responsive to changing events more </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly assemble, deploy, defocus, and disband </li></ul><ul><li>Employee participation in operating decision </li></ul><ul><li>Increase employee motivation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Difference between groups and teams <ul><li>Work group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance is merely the summation of each group member’s individual contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance is greater than the sum of the individual inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate greater ouputs with no increase in inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive synergy , joint effort </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of teams-1 <ul><li>Problem-solving teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically composed of 5-12 employees from the same department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and work environment for a few hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggested actions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of teams-2 <ul><li>Self-managed work team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve in planning work , assigning tasks, making operating decisions, taking action on problems, working with customers, even select own members and evaluate each other’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes have higher absenteeism and turnover rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of these teams depends on the strength and make-up of team norms </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of teams-3 <ul><li>Cross-functional teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams made up of employees from the same hierarchical level but different work areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use this form of team to coordinate complex projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early stages of development are often time-consuming, as members learn to work with diversity and complexity. It takes time to build trust and teamwork among people from different backgrounds </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of teams-4 <ul><li>Virtual teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not face-to-face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use computer technology to tie together in order to achieve a common goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less social rapport and direct interaction among members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members tend to be more task oriented and exchange less social-emotional information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members report less satisfaction with the group interaction process </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of effective teams <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Work design </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>
  9. 9. Context <ul><li>Adequate resource </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Climate of trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the need to monitor each other’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a team to be willing to commit to its leader’s goals and decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation and reward systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward systems must reflect team performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce team effort and commitment </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Composition <ul><li>Abilities of members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving and decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality of members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agreeable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allocation of roles </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member believe others have more expertise, they will work to support them, leading to more effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most effective teams have 5-9 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess members  cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline  social loafing increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Member preferences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Work design <ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Work-design characteristics motivate because they increase members’ sense of responsibility and ownership of the work and because they make the work more interesting to perform </li></ul>
  12. 12. Process <ul><li>Common plan and purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful team put more time into discussing, shaping, and agreeing on a propose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexivity  reflect on and adjust their plan when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult goals have been found to raise team performance for which they’re set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to hold members accountable at both the individual and team level </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Turning individuals into team players <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to balance selfless contributions to the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intrinsic rewards from teams </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Teams aren’t always the answer <ul><li>Work can be done better by one person </li></ul><ul><li>Does the work set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals ? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether team fir the situation ? The members of the group are interdependent ? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Global implications <ul><li>Extent of teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32% US workers report their organization has a high level of teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual contributions is still a heavy role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-managed teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special care needs to be taken when introducing self-managed teams globally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team cultural diversity and team performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly formed culturally diverse teams underperform homogeneous team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need more time to learn how to work together </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Thx and next chap.