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A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS                                                           ...
stomatitis require frequent prophylaxis;                and continued for 5 days posttreatment.                           ...
Diet                                            exert its effects over a 24- to 48-hour                      masking halit...
Senior Pets and Joint Health                                                         Erin Paster, DVM                     ...
Nutraceuticals                                  weekly.31 Reduced-calorie treats can be            function,35,36 it is di...
Weight management in dogs is the                            Pitman Medical Publishing, 1980.                       in dogs...
Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Chief Scientific Officer                  and Corporate Vice President at The Hartz Mo...
Animal Health Institute SelectsHartz for Membership          The Hartz Mountain Corporation has a long history of         ...
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Hartz Companion Animal - Home Care for the Veterinary Dental Patient


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As we all know, pet dental health goes
beyond bad breath. Plaque and tartar
buildup can lead to more serious health
concerns ranging from tooth loss to
organ failure.1 Studies have shown dental
problems to be the most common problem
in dogs and cats.2 Dental problems can be
very painful, although our patients usually
mask their pain.When our pets receive
good dental care, they undoubtedly live
longer and better lives.

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Hartz Companion Animal - Home Care for the Veterinary Dental Patient

  1. 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS DECEMBER 2003 VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2 Home Care for the Veterinary Dental Patient Daniel T. Carmichael DVM, FAVD, DAVDC Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery The Center for Specialized Veterinary Care Westbury, New York As we all know, pet dental health goes • Systemic health. Professional dental treatment,beyond bad breath. Plaque and tartar • Preexisting advanced periodontitis. performed when needed and under generalbuildup can lead to more serious health The goal of dental home care is to (inhalant) anesthesia, is the cornerstone ofconcerns ranging from tooth loss to control the accumulation of plaque and preventive dental health. On average, dogsorgan failure.1 Studies have shown dental calculus. Plaque bacteria can colonize on and cats benefit from an annualproblems to be the most common problem teeth in a period of 24 to 36 hours— prophylaxis starting at the age of 3, butin dogs and cats.2 Dental problems can be within a few days following your each patient needs to have its dentalvery painful, although our patients usually professional dental cleaning, the teeth are program individualized. For example, somemask their pain. When our pets receive already starting to accumulate the feline patients will present at 8 months ofgood dental care, they undoubtedly live bacteria that will again cause periodontal age with severe gingivitis and early signs oflonger and better lives. inflammation and disease. If nothing is periodontitis (gingival recession, furcation In the vast majority of cases, the cause done to prevent or retard the accumula- exposure). These cats, with their juvenile-of periodontal disease can be traced to tion of plaque, the periodontal disease onset gingivitis/ periodontitis,3 are alreadythe colonization of plaque bacteria on the process will continue. candidates for dental prophylaxis. Dogstooth surface. There are several factors (especially Maltese) with ulcerativethat can influence the tendency to Home Care: Where to Startaccumulate plaque: Dental home care for the veterinary IN THIS ISSUE: patient starts at the veterinary office.• Size. Smaller dogs are more at risk. Patients must be evaluated for the Home Care for the Veterinary• Age. Older pets are more at risk. presence of dental disease and treated, Dental Patient ............................ 1• Masticatory habits. Pets that chew if necessary, prior to beginning a home Senior Pets and Joint Health ..... 4 and/or consume hard food are less care program. The fact is that 85% of Ask the Vet ................................ 7 at risk. dogs over the age of 3 and at least 50% of Animal Health Institute Selects• Breed. Certain breeds are more prone cats have significant periodontal disease Hartz for Membership ............... 8 to developing periodontal disease. that requires professional treatment.
  2. 2. stomatitis require frequent prophylaxis; and continued for 5 days posttreatment. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS they have an exaggerated inflammatory Antirobe® (Pfizer) is a good choice for DECEMBER 2003 VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2 response to minimal amounts of dental treatment of oral infections, especially plaque and require professional cleanings when bone involvement is suspected. Consulting Editors every 3 to 4 months. Another somewhat controversial use of Albert Ahn, DVM Annual (or as-needed) dental cleanings antibiotics is “pulse therapy,” where an Corporate Vice President under anesthesia offer opportunities to antibiotic is administered intermittently Chief Scientific Officer perform a good oral examination. Make on a chronic basis. Pulse therapy should The Hartz Mountain Corporation sure you and your clients are prepared for not be thought of as part of a routine Bruce Truman the advanced treatments or extractions home care program but as a tool that Divisional Vice President that may be required. can be used when treating advanced Animal Health and Nutrition When patients are discharged periodontal disease or stomatitis cases. A The Hartz Mountain Corporation following professional dental cleanings, common dosing schedule is Antirobe (5 a home care program needs to be part of mg/lb) once a day for 5 days every month. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM is produced for The Hartz Mountain the take-home instruction sheet. Analgesics can be administered before, Corporation by Veterinary Learning Ideally, dental home care programs during, and after dental procedures where Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., should be started with the puppy or pain is an issue. Regional and local Yardley, PA 19067. kitten. If your patient is already at an age anesthesia can be administered and will Copyright © 2003 The Hartz Mountain where dental pathology has set in, it still afford the patient postoperative pain relief Corporation. All rights reserved. is “never too late to start.” as well as reduce the amount of inhalant Hartz® and other marks are owned by The Hartz necessary to maintain a surgical plane of Mountain Corporation. Home Care: What to Do anesthesia. It is best to use a long-acting Printed in U.S.A. No part of this publication may Antibiotics and Analgesics agent such as bupivacaine HCl. Narcotics be reproduced in any form without the express Antibiotics are used for systemic and/or NSAIDs should also be routinely written permission of the publisher. prophylaxis from bacteremia and/or as prescribed for 2 to 3 days following oral Inset photo on page 1 © Daniel T. Carmichael, primary treatment for oral infections. surgery or other potentially painful DVM. Used with permission. Every animal that receives professional procedures. Patients that receive proper For more information on The Hartz Mountain dental care does not automatically need pain management regain their appetites Corporation, visit antibiotics. Antibiotics can be used for more rapidly and feel better faster. systemic protection from oral-induced bacteremia. Patients with advanced Toothbrushing discourage the use of human toothpaste. periodontal disease and concurrent Daily toothbrushing is the best thing To start, advise the client to place a disease conditions or immunosuppression pet owners can do to promote good oral small amount of toothpaste on the finger are candidates for systemic prophylaxis hygiene. Owners should be taught how to and let the pet sniff and then lick it. Next, with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. brush their pets’ teeth. The first thing to they should gently rub the toothpaste on Therapy depends on the route of stress to a neophyte pet toothbrusher is to the teeth. If things are not going well, tell administration, the goal being to achieve go slow and make it fun. Advise your them to wait a few hours before trying adequate blood concentrations at the time client to start with canned food or baby again. When the pet has accepted the of the procedure. Clavamox® (Pfizer) is a food on the finger. Let the pet smell it toothpaste by finger, it is time for the good choice as a broad-spectrum and then try rubbing it on the outsides of brush. A conventional toothbrush antibiotic that treats oral infections and the teeth. They should concentrate on the (children’s soft bristle) works well, or provide systemic prophylaxis. buccal (toward the lip) surfaces of the perhaps a finger brush. The toothbrush When considering the treatment of teeth. The lingual surfaces (toward the should be held at a 45-degree angle to the oral infections, antibiotic therapy alone is tongue) and palatal surfaces are kept tooth surface, with the bristles pointing rarely successful. The antibiotics must be clean for the most part by the tongue. toward the gingival margin. This allows combined with appropriate dental therapy Once the pet has accepted this, it is time the cleaning of the gingival sulcus during (extraction, root canal, surgery, etc.). to introduce the toothpaste. Pet the toothbrushing process. The tooth- Antibiotics can be used prior to oral toothpastes are available in a variety of brush should be worked in a circular surgery to improve tissue quality and flavors such as chicken, beef, and motion, concentrating around the canine make oral surgical procedures more malt. They are made to be swallowed tooth and upper fourth premolar tooth. successful. Ideally, antibiotics should be and do not foam up in the mouth. Advise them to try for 30 seconds on each instituted 5 days prior to dental treatment Always recommend pet toothpaste and side of the mouth.2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • DECEMBER 2003 • VOL. 1, NO. 2
  3. 3. Diet exert its effects over a 24- to 48-hour masking halitosis may not be addressing There are several commercial diets that period. Chlorhexidine kills the bacterial the primary source of oral pathology.have been scientifically tested and shown pathogens that contribute to periodontalto significantly reduce plaque and tartar disease, halitosis, and plaque accumulation. Referencesas compared to “regular” dry food diets. Chlorhexidine is supplied as a liquid or gel 1. Wiggs RB, Lobprise HB: Veterinary Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, Lippincott Raven, 1997, ppThis is not marketing hype—studies that can be rubbed on the gums or gently 186–187.document significant reduction in the brushed onto the teeth. In chronic cases 2. Harvey CE, Emily PP: Small Animal Dentistry. St.plaque index for the foods tested. Louis, Mosby, 1993, p 89. of gingivitis, instruct owners to use 3. Williams CA, Aller MS: Gingivitis/stomatitis inSpecifically, these foods are Iams Daily chlorhexidine twice a week and regular cats, in Harvey CE (ed): The Veterinary Clinics ofDental Care™, Hill’s Prescription Diet® North America Small Animal Practice. Philadelphia, toothbrushing on the other days. WB Saunders, 1992, p 1371.t/d™, Science Diet® Oral Care, and (only Other oral rinses, containing zinc 4. Lage A, Lausen N, Tracy R, Allred E: Effect offor cats) Friskies® Dental Diet. With the ascorbate or chlorine dioxide, work well chewing rawhide and cereal biscuits on removal of dental calculus in dogs. JAVMA 197(2):213–219,incidence of periodontal disease so high for combating halitosis with their dogs and cats, there are few reasons neutralizing effect on malodorous sulfur 5. Stookey G, Warrick J, Miler L: HMP significantly reduced the rate of calculus formation in dogs. Procwhy anyone would not want to provide compounds. It is important to realize that Vet Dent 94 World Vet Dent Congr:80, 1994.a diet that promotes good oral health.Chew Toys Rawhide treats for dogs are readilyavailable to pet owners and are effective in ® L™ A D VA N C E D C A R E ™the control and removal of plaque and Hartz® Advanced Care™tartar from dogs’ teeth.4 Rawhide is highly Hartz® Dental™ Enteric-Coated Aspirindigestible and has not been observed Brush n Clean™ For Dogs ● Fluoride free. ● For the temporary relief ofto cause the digestive problems that ● everyday aches and pains and Beef flavored.conventional wisdom ascribes to them in ● Helps to remove tartar, inflammation associatednumerous scientific studies. It has also been plaque and debris from with arthritis. ● Specifically formulated toshown that coating rawhide treats with your pets teeth and gums. reduce stomach upset,calcium-sequestering substances such as a common side effectsodium hexametaphosphate can further Hartz® Dental™ of aspirin. Breath-Strips™enhance plaque and tartar reduction.5 For DogsVarious types and designs of compressed ● Sugar free, alcohol free.rawhide are also beneficial for promoting ● Easy to use dispenser.good oral health. ● Dissolves quickly to There are chew toy-type products that leave breath smelling freshare not recommended due to their and clean.tendency to cause tooth fracture. 100% Hartz® Pet Shoppe™ Dental™nylon bones are too hard and often are Flavor Infused™associated with slab fracture of the Chew-Dent™carnassial teeth. It is recommended that ● Reduces thepets not chew on tennis balls manufac- accumulation of plaque Hartz® Advanced Care™tured for human sport, because they are and tartar up to 54%. Joint Maintenance ● Preferred over thenotorious for causing attrition (mechanical leading competitor ● Vitamin enriched.wearing of the tooth surface). 3 to 1. ● Specially formulated with Glucosamine to help support healthy joint function.Other Products ● Highly palatable. Oral rinses, sprays, and other such ● Available for both dogs and cats.products also have a role in home dentalcare. When pets refuse brushing, theseproducts may be the only kind of homecare possible. Chlorhexidine gluconate is an excellent AD-168oral disinfectant. The chlorhexidine will If you would like to receive a copy of the Hartz Veterinary Catalog, please call (800) 999-3000 x 5118.actually bind to gingival tissue and can
  4. 4. Senior Pets and Joint Health Erin Paster, DVM Amy Kapatkin, DVM, DACVS School of Veterinary Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, depression, lameness, poor grooming Evidence-Based Treatment debilitating disease of older animals that habits, and inappropriate elimination It is important to emphasize that the results in discomfort, impaired outside the litter box.9 radiographic severity of OA does not ambulation, and diminished quality of life always correlate to the degree of symp- in some patients. OA is defined as an Evidence-Based Diagnosis toms and thus the need for treatment.15 insidious progressive, noninflammatory Diagnosis of OA is primarily based on Treatment of OA is palliative with the degenerative joint disease characterized clinical features, physical examination, goal of restoring comfortable function by synovial membrane changes, peri- and radiographic evidence.2 Synovial and is classified as medical or surgical.16 articular osteophyte production, and fluid analysis and synovial biopsy may degeneration of articular cartilage.1–2 rule out other causes of joint disease.2,9 Pharmacologic Agents Although the etiopathogenesis is not Specific radiographic methodologies are Medical treatment consists of a entirely understood, OA is a lifelong recommended to screen for predisposing combination of pharmacologic agents, disease. Clinical signs may surface at conditions such as hip dysplasia. The weight management, and controlled different times depending on genetic and PennHIP methodology has been exercise.16–18 Pharmacologic agents include environmental factors. Despite the scientifically proven to predict suscepti- NSAIDs and glucocorticoids.16–19 Most assumption that OA is an idiopathic, bility to hip dysplasia at 16 weeks of age but not all NSAIDs have analgesic and geriatric change, other hypotheses exist; by measurement of passive hip laxity (the antiinflammatory properties, inhibiting manifestations of OA may be caused by a greatest risk factor for the development the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway.17,18,20 humoral substance or systemic disease,3–6 of OA)10 as compared to other The development of newer veterinary which may explain the presence of methods.3,11,12 This is supported by a NSAIDs (Rimadyl® [Pfizer], EtoGesic® multiple joint OA in mature dogs.3,6,7 lifelong study of 48 Labrador retrievers [Fort Dodge], meloxicam, and Deramaxx™ OA is highly prevalent in dogs in the that revealed a 55% false-negative result [Novartis]) that are more selective for the hip joint, representing 93% of the cases in when using OFA-type scoring to COX-2 isoform has resulted in fewer one study, although the elbow, shoulder, diagnose hip dysplasia and thus predict adverse effects.17,21 Zubrin™ (Schering- stifle, and lumbar vertebral joints are also the development of OA.3 The PennHIP Plough) is another NSAID purported affected.6,7 Hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, method was accurate in predicting that to inhibit both the COX and osteochondritis dissecans, and cruciate these 48 dogs were susceptible to lipoxygenase pathways. The most ligament rupture are common predispos- developing degenerative joint disease. common adverse effects in dogs are ing conditions. Clinical signs in dogs Radiographic evaluation of elbows by an gastrointestinal signs,17,20 although renal include stiffness, reluctance or inability to orthopedic surgeon or radiologist is and hepatic abnormalities can develop jump or use stairs, and lameness, recommended to examine for elbow infrequently.20,22 In vitro studies have especially after inactivity or prolonged or dysplasia and requires specific views for demonstrated that NSAIDs are capable high-impact activity.2 Despite the well- observation of evidence of osteochon- of decreasing cartilage metabolism.20 characterized clinical signs and dritis dissecans, fragmented coronoid Steroids are potent antiinflammatory manifestations of OA in dogs, cats process, or ununited anconeal process. agents that prevent prostaglandin and frequently harbor OA and remain However, unless there are radiographic leukotriene synthesis.20 Due to the high asymptomatic, contributing to infrequent signs of OA, only about 9% of elbow frequency of adverse systemic effects and diagnosis.2,8 In one study of 100 cats, 90% dysplasia conditions will be evident on the potential for promoting cartilage had radiographic evidence of OA even radiographs.13 Both CT and MRI scans damage with long-term use,20 some though all cases were subclinical and are significantly better at identifying surgeons have reserved oral steroids for diagnosed as incidental findings.8 Clinical these conditions, even in joints lacking short-term use in dogs exhibiting acute, signs in cats include weight loss, anorexia, radiographic evidence.13,14 severe exacerbations of discomfort.234 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • DECEMBER 2003 • VOL. 1, NO. 2
  5. 5. Nutraceuticals weekly.31 Reduced-calorie treats can be function,35,36 it is difficult to determine if Nutraceuticals, such as glucosamine substituted for table scraps, and calorie purported therapeutic procedures wouldand chondroitin, have grown in intake can be reduced with prescription have resulted in a better outcome. Surgicalpopularity despite the lack of scientific diets or limiting the regular food corrections of predisposing causes of OAevidence to support their use. Glucosa- offered.17 Unsuccessful attempts at weight such as cranial cruciate rupture, however,mine and chondroitin are purported to be reduction may be confounded by are recommended.chondroprotective by providing cartilage endocrinopathies such as hyperadreno-precursors, increasing cartilage corticism or hypothyroidism, thus Salvage Proceduresmetabolism, and depressing collagenolytic necessitating further diagnostic Surgical treatments in older animalsenzymes.24,25 Although Cochrane reviews evaluation.17 A controlled exercise with OA are primarily salvage proceduresof randomized, placebo-controlled, regimen of regular, low-impact activities and should be recommended whendouble-blind studies have shown can be a benefit by maintaining muscle medical therapy is unsuccessful or if theglucosamine and chondroitin to relieve tone, joint structural integrity, and range dog’s lifestyle is severely limited.23 Thediscomfort and improve function in of motion while contributing to weight femoral head and neck osteotomy (FHO)human OA patients,26,27 none exist in control.17,18,23 Trial and error is necessary and total hip replacement (THR) aredogs. Anecdotal evidence in companion to arrive at an exercise schedule that standard orthopedic treatment optionsanimals appears promising, but further allows comfortable function without for end-stage hip OA.16 Pain relief isstudies are needed to prove efficacy. It exacerbation of lameness.17,18 A study achieved by the creation of a false jointalso remains undetermined in human using force-plate analysis in dogs without and the replacement of diseased tissuesstudies whether different preparations a cranial cruciate ligament in one limb with synthetic implants. Arthrodesis isaffect efficacy or if glucosamine is safe for showed improved weight-bearing in also an option for eliminating discomfortlong-term use.27 Clients should be those with exercise instituted daily as of some joints, such as the carpus andadvised that individual patients will compared to dogs with limited activity.32 tarsus, although gait is compromised.23respond differently to an agent, and trial The regularly exercised dogs also had less Elbow replacement surgery is currentlyand error may be necessary to find the gross and radiographic evidence of OA.32 under investigation for clinicalproduct best suited for symptom control. application in veterinary medicine.23 Knee Alternative Therapies replacement has not been clinicallyWeight Reduction and Scientific evidence regarding alterna- developed for dogs.Controlled Exercise tive therapies, including acupuncture, Weight control and exercise massage, hot and cold therapy, electro- Treatment for Felinesmodification are imperative to the therapy, and ultrasonography for OA, is Limited information is available forsuccess of medical management limited. A double-blind, controlled management of feline OA. Bufferedand must be continued study involving force-plate aspirin administration every 72 hours,throughout life.18 Obesity analysis of dogs with cox- butorphanol, meloxicam, and nutritionalhas been shown to be a ofemoral OA treated with supplements have been used for chronicrisk factor in OA gold bead implantation OA in cats.9 Alternatively, cats appear todevelopment in dogs, acupuncture failed to show maintain comfortable function and bettermost likely due to the significant clinical improve- long-term outcomes with surgicalincreased biomechanical ment over the placebo group.33 treatments such as FHO, probably dueforces sustained by the Additional studies are needed. to their small size.37joints.3,7,28 This is evidenced by a5-year longitudinal study of Labrador Therapeutic/Preventive Procedures Osteoarthritis Preventionretrievers, revealing a significant increase There are currently no surgical Management of OA is best achievedin prevalence and severity, and earlier treatment modalities in animals scienti- through prevention.34 It is theonset of coxofemoral OA in free-fed dogs fically proven to reverse or prevent OA veterinarian’s responsibility to educateas compared to paired littermates fed 25% development. Many procedures involving clients about OA prevention as early asless.3,28 Weight reduction alone can result the coxofemoral joint are the focus of the puppy stage. Purchasing puppies fromin clinical improvement of lameness and considerable debate, and evidence-based reputable breeders that can verify thegait as evidenced by studies using obese studies are needed to support these parents’ history is important. As the pupdogs clinical for coxofemoral OA.29,30 claims.34 With long-term studies reporting matures, appropriate evidence-basedEffective weight reduction should result that >75% of dogs treated with medical screening tests should be instituted forin the loss of 1% to 2% body weight management will retain pet-quality detection of elbow and hip dysplasia. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • DECEMBER 2003 • VOL. 1, NO. 2 5
  6. 6. Weight management in dogs is the Pitman Medical Publishing, 1980. in dogs. Am J Vet Res 61(7):802–810, 2000. 5. Westacott CI, Webb GR, Warnock MG, et 22. MacPhail CM, Lappin MR, Meyer DJ, et al: only proven method, surgical or non- al: Alteration of cartilage metabolism by cells Hepatocellular toxicosis associated with surgical, to slow or even prevent OA. from osteoarthritic bone. Arthritis Rheum administration of carprofen in 21 dogs. This evidence comes from the previously 40(7):1282–1291, 1997. JAVMA 212(12):1895–1901, 1998. 6. Olsewski JM, Lust G, Rendano VT, Summers 23. Medical therapy of osteoarthritis in dogs. Vet mentioned studies comparing free-fed BA: Degenerative joint disease: Multiple joint Exchange:5–7, 9–11, 16–19, 1995. (mean body condition score of 6) and involvement in young and mature dogs. Am J 24. Anderson M: Glucosamine and chondroitin Vet Res 44(7):1300–1308, 1983. limit-fed (mean body condition score of sulfate in the prevention and management of 7. Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, et al: osteoarthritis. Purina Nutr Forum:36–41, 2001. 4) Labrador retrievers.3,7,28,38 These Evaluation of the effect of limited food 25. Anderson MA: Management of osteoarthritis studies revealed significant reduction consumption on radiographic evidence of with nutraceuticals. Purina Nutr Forum:79–86, osteoarthritis in dogs. JAVMA 217(11): in prevalence and severity of OA in 1678–1680, 2000. 2001. multiple joints at 8 years of age,7 and 26. McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, 8. Hardie EM, Roe SC, Martin FR: Felson DT: Glucosamine and chondroitin for hip coxofemoral joint alone at 5 years of Radiographic evidence of degenerative joint treatment of osteoarthritis: A systematic disease in geriatric cats: 100 cases (1994– age,28 in limit-fed dogs as compared to 1997). JAVMA 220(2):628–632, 2002. quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 283(11):1469–1475, 2000. those that were free-fed. Additionally, 9. Hardie EM: Management of osteoarthritis in 27. Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et the thinner (limit-fed) dogs also cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract al: Glucosamine therapy for treating 27(4):945–953, 1997. required NSAIDs for symptom control osteoarthritis [review]. The Cochrane Library; 10. Smith GK, Popovitch CA, Gregor TP, Shofer The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews:1, significantly less frequently and later FS: Evaluation of risk factors for degenerative 2003. than the obese (free-fed) ones.38 It is joint disease associated with hip dysplasia in 28. Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, et al: dogs. JAVMA 206(5):642–647, 1995. recommended to maintain dogs at a Five-year longitudinal study on limited food 11. Fordyce HH, Gregor TP, Smith GK: consumption and development of osteoarthritis body condition score at or below 5 (on a Correlation of OFA hip scoring to passive hip in coxofemoral joints of dogs. JAVMA laxity derived from the hip extended and scale of 1 to 9).38 distraction radiographs. Vet Orthop Soc Annu 210(2):222–225, 1997. 29. Impellizeri JA, Tetrick MA, Muir P: Effect of Meet:2000. weight reduction on clinical signs of lameness Summary 12. Smith GK, Gregor TP, Rhodes H, Biery DN: in dogs with hip osteoarthritis. JAVMA Coxofemoral joint laxity from distraction OA is a disease that is well described radiography and its contemporaneous and 216(7):1089–1091, 2000. 30. Burkholder WJ, Taylor L, Hulse DA: Weight in dogs and underdiagnosed in cats. prospective correlation with laxity, subjective loss to optimal body condition increases score, and evidence of degenerative joint Evidence-based treatment options disease from conventional hip-extended ground reactive force in dogs with include medical management consisting radiography in dogs. Am J Vet Res 54(7):1021– osteoarthritis. Purina Nutr Forum:74, 2000. 1042, 1993. 31. LaFlamme DP, Kuhlman G, Lawler DF, et of pharmacologic agents, controlled al: Obesity management in dogs. Vet Clin Nutr 13. Snaps FR, Balligand MH, Saunders JH, et al: exercise and weight reduction, and Comparison of radiography, magnetic 1:59–65, 1994. surgical management, which mainly resonance imaging, and surgical findings in 32. Baird DK, Kincaid SA, Rumph PF: dogs with elbow dysplasia. Am J Vet Res Unpublished data. consists of salvage procedures. Using 58(12):1367–1370, 1997. 33. Bolliger C, DeCamp CE, Stajich M, et al: evidence-based diagnostic tests to screen 14. Reichle JK, Snaps F: The elbow. Clin Tech Gait analysis of dogs with hip dysplasia treated for disease risk and keeping dogs thin are Small Anim Pract 14(3):177–186, 1999. with gold bead implantation acupuncture. Vet 15. Whittick WG: Canine Orthopedics. Philadelphia, Comp Orthop Traumatol 15:116–122, 2002. the best preventive measures. Lea & Febiger, 1974, pp 348–368. 34. Smith C: Treatments for hip dysplasia spark 16. Clark DM: Current concepts in the treatment controversy. JAVMA 201(2):205–209, 1992. References of degenerative joint disease. Compend Contin 35. Barr ARS, Denny HR, Gibbs C: Clinical hip 1. Lepine AJ: A morphologic and physiologic Educ Pract Vet 13(9):1439–1446, 1991. dysplasia in growing dogs: The long-term review of articular cartilage. Vet Orthop Soc 17. Martinez SA: Medical management of results of conservative management. J Small Annu Meet:6–13, 2000. osteoarthritis in companion animals. Vet Anim Pract 28:243–252, 1987. 2. Taylor SM: Disorders of the joints, Orthop Soc Annu Meet:24–29, 2000. 36. Smith GK, Fordyce HH, Gregor TP: noninflammatory joint diseases, in Nelson 18. Tomlinson J, McLaughlin Jr R: Medically Nonsurgical management of severe hip RW, Couto CG (eds): Small Animal Internal managing canine hip dysplasia. Vet Med dysplasia: Long-term results. Vet Orthop Soc Medicine, 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1998, pp 6:48–53, 1996. Annu Meet:1999. 1076–1078. 19. Fox SM, Burns J, Burt J: Treating the dysplastic 37. Tacke S, Schimke E, Kramer M, et al: 3. Smith GK, Biery DN, Kealy RD, et al: Effects hip: The first steps to follow. Vet Med :701– Excision arthroplasty of the hip joint in dogs of restricted feeding on onset, incidence and 708, 1987. and cats. Long-term results of the veterinary severity of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in 20. Johnston SA, Fox SM: Mechanisms of action surgery clinic at the Justus Liebig University of dogs: Diagnostic, therapeutic and genetic of anti-inflammatory medications used for the Giessen. Tierarztl Prax 25:373–378, 1997. ramifications. Purina Pet Institute Symp: treatment of osteoarthritis. JAVMA 210(10): 38. Smith GK, Biery DN, Kealy RD, et al: Advancing Life Through Diet Restriction:21–26, 1486–1492, 1997. Clinical significance of osteoarthritis and hip 2002. 21. Kay-Mugford P, Benn SJ, LaMarre J, Conlon dysplasia findings in the restricted feeding 4. Sokoloff L: The Pathology of Osteoarthritis and P: In vitro effects of nonsteroidal anti- trial. Purina Pet Institute Symp: Advancing Life the Role of Aging. Tunbridge Wells, UK, inflammatory drugs on cyclooxygenase activity Through Diet Restriction:27–28, 2002.6 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • DECEMBER 2003 • VOL. 1, NO. 2
  7. 7. Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Chief Scientific Officer and Corporate Vice President at The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQWhich Hartz® products can be helpful formedical management of osteoarthritis? coagulation and pulmonary artery disease secondary to heartworm infestation in dogs. Also, low doses of aspirin have been shown to be helpfulAOsteoarthritis is defined as chronicinflammation of the joint that is usuallyaccompanied by pain and discomfort. as an adjunctive treatment of glomerular disease. • Glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide nutrient and is classified as a chondroprotective agent. Chondroprotective agents are thought to aid inOsteoarthritis may develop from skeletaldiseases such as hip dysplasia or can be the healing of cartilage, may stimulate cartilagesecondary to immune joint diseases or matrix synthesis, and may reduce enzymatictrauma. This condition usually involves degradation of cartilage. Glucosamine is apathologic changes of both the articular precursor to the disaccharide unit ofcartilage and periarticular soft tissues. Pain glycoaminoglycans, which comprise theassociated with osteoarthritis is often due to proteoglycan ground substance of articularirritation of exposed nerves that is a result of cartilage. Glucosamine acts by providing thecartilage and tissue damage. regulatory stimulus and raw materials for The following products manufactured synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in Hartz may help in reducing your pet’s Qdiscomfort associated with osteoarthritis:• Aspirin is commonly used to treat osteoarthritis What are the dental benefits of rawhide? in dogs. Aspirin is an NSAID with analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antiplatelet properties. It inhibits cyclooxygenase, which in turn reduces the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. It is relatively inexpensive and A Rawhide dog treats have been used for many years to satisfy dog’s natural chewing needs. Rawhide is high in protein and low in fat and can provide the chewing satisfaction that dogs readily available. The use of buffered or enteric- crave. Studies show that when rawhide is used coated aspirin is recommended as it decreases the daily, it can effectively remove plaque. The likelihood of gastrointestinal irritation. The abrasive action of rawhide chewing helps recommended dose of aspirin for treatment of reduce plaque, calculus, and gingivitis. osteoarthritis in dogs is 10 to 25 mg/kg. In Rawhide also provides the necessary chewing addition, aspirin is used therapeutically in the exercise to strengthen gums and is a great way treatment of disseminated intravascular to relieve boredom, frustration, or anxiety. We want to hear from you! • Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartz staff veterinarian or email us at • To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-999-3000 x5118 or email us at HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • DECEMBER 2003 • VOL. 1, NO. 2 7
  8. 8. Animal Health Institute SelectsHartz for Membership The Hartz Mountain Corporation has a long history of interacts with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the protecting and caring for America’s pets. They have been U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Environmental innovators in animal health, particularly in the area of flea and Protection Agency, the federal agencies responsible for tick protection, and manufacture scientifically proven products. regulating animal health products. Hartz was recently selected as the newest member of the Hartz, along with all AHI member companies, shares a Animal Health Institute (AHI). deep commitment to providing high-quality products aimed at The Animal Health Institute is the U.S. trade association helping pets lead longer, healthier lives. For more information that represents manufacturers of animal health care products— on the Animal Health Institute, and for a complete list of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and veterinary medicines. AHI member companies, visit Come Visit Hartz at These Upcoming Conferences! North American Veterinary Conference Western Veterinary Conference Orlando, Florida Las Vegas, Nevada January 17–21, 2004 February 16–19, 2004 Booth 511 Booth 249Veterinary Learning Systems PRESORTED STANDARD780 Township Line Road U.S. POSTAGEYardley, PA 19067 PAID BENSALEM, PA PERMIT #118 400045