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  1. 1. Y490 Politics of the Internet September 25, 2012
  2. 2. Internet Pioneers Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider : developed the idea of a universal network while working at DARPA Robert Taylor : succeeded Licklider at DARPA Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) He also was a big supporter of time-sharing vs. batch processing computers . Video
  3. 3. What Did Licklider Want? <ul><li>The Department of Defense operated computers or computer-like equipment for many different functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missiles and satellites, Strategic Air command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battleship control systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army field operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licklider wanted all of them to be able to communicate with each other </li></ul>
  4. 4. More Internet Pioneers L-R: Vint Cerf , Robert Kahn , Len Kleinrock , and Larry Roberts – Team members from Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) and the Lincoln Labs at MIT and later at UCLA who created the first IMP and connected the first two nodes.
  5. 5. Key Innovations <ul><li>TCP/IP Routers and Packet Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Networks (LANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Optics (big Internet pipes) </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX with TCP/IP kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of TCP/IP into all computers </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia standards and protocols </li></ul>
  6. 6. TCP/IP <ul><li>TCP = transfer control protocol </li></ul><ul><li>IP = Internet protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three Types of Switching <ul><li>Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Packet </li></ul>video on the difference between circuit and packet switching
  8. 8. What does a packet look like?
  9. 9. Advantages of Packet Switching over Message Switching <ul><li>Packets all have the same size </li></ul><ul><li>No waiting for entire message to end before sending next message </li></ul><ul><li>More options in routing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pioneers of Packet Switching <ul><li>Paul Baran </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Davies </li></ul>Baran was concerned about creating a network that could survive a nuclear attack. Davies was looking for a more efficient network that would work with time-sharing systems. Davies came up with the name; both given credit for the concept.
  11. 11. Ethernet <ul><li>Developed by Robert Metcalfe and others at Xerox PARC in 1973-75 </li></ul><ul><li>Connects computers locally and allows them to connect to the Internet from one shared node </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ethernet and the Internet <ul><li>Ethernet made it possible for offices to network computers locally (via Local Area Networks or LANs) without connecting them directly to large, mainframe computers </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks (WANs) did the same for organizations with multiple sites </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet was adapted for connecting LANs and WANs as well as larger computers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fiber Optics and the Internet Backbone <ul><li>In order to speed up first voice and later data communications on the public switched network, the US and other countries moved from satellite and copper cable networks to fiber optics networks </li></ul>Sergey Brin on TED
  14. 14. Undersea Fiber Optic Cables
  15. 15. Fiber moves closer to home <ul><li>Fiber backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber to the curb (FTTC) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber to the home (FTTH) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pioneers of the Web: 1980 <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Caillau </li></ul>HTML developed for scientists at The CERN complex in Geneva
  17. 17. What is HTML? <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant standard for creating web pages and web sites </li></ul><ul><li>These pages can be accessed by standard “web browsers” </li></ul><ul><li>Permits the combination of text, graphics, and other media on a single page and links to other pages </li></ul>
  18. 18. URLs <ul><li>Uniform Resource Locators </li></ul><ul><li>A system for locating uniform resource names (URNs) on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the URL http://www.indiana.edu identifies a resource that is obtainable via HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) from a network called www.indiana.edu </li></ul>
  19. 19. World Wide Web <ul><li>Berners-Lee and Cailliau proposed in March 1989 the creation of what was to become the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>They went on to create the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to make technical decisions about it. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Rise of Microcomputers and Hacker Culture <ul><li>1976 Apple I computer sold to computer hobbyists </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Allen and Bill Gates create a BASIC language compiler for microcomputers </li></ul><ul><li>1981 IBM PC begins to compete in the microcomputer market </li></ul>
  21. 21. What motivated the PC revolution? <ul><li>Desire for the dispersion of computing power to “the people” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding dependence on large, centralized computing systems owned by large organizations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Some Interesting Historical Facts <ul><li>Although Apple led the way to mass consumer markets, it was overtaken by PCs and PC-clones in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft was the main beneficiary of the rise of PC clones </li></ul><ul><li>The switch from narrow band to broadband networks enabled the rise of web-based firms like Google and Facebook </li></ul>
  23. 23. Good Questions in the Textbook <ul><li>How has the historical development of the Internet shaped its contemporary characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>Is TCP/IP a radical communication technology? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is the do-it-yourself, or hacker, ethos for making sense of the Internet’s development? </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the impact of the World Wide Web and the graphical browser on the diffusion of the Internet. </li></ul>