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  1. 1. Y376 International Political Economy September 22, 2009
  2. 2. Multinational Corporations (MNCs) <ul><li>A multinational corporation is “an enterprise that engages in foreign direct investment (FDI) and that owns or controls value-added activities in more than one country. </li></ul>Synonyms: transnational corporation (TNC), multinational enterprise (MNE), transnational enterprise (TNE)
  3. 3. The Multinationality of MNCs <ul><li>Increases with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of countries in which it has subsidiaries or affiliate firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of countries in which the firm has operations of various sorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign assets, revenues, employees over total </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proportion of foreign employees, managers, stockholders </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. UNCTAD ’s Transnationality Index (TNI) by Industry, 2005 <ul><li>Index based on three indicators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign assets/total assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign sales/total sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign employment/total employment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Example: IBM <ul><li>“ IBM operates in 170 countries, with about 65 percent of our </li></ul><ul><li>employees outside the U.S., including 30 percent in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific. Non-U.S. operations generate about 60 percent </li></ul><ul><li>of IBM’s revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s research and software development have long </li></ul><ul><li>been globally integrated. The company’s R&D system assigns </li></ul><ul><li>work among our 20,000-plus software developers in 61 labs </li></ul><ul><li>in 15 countries, and 3,000 scientists and technologists in </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Research centers in the U.S., China, Israel, Switzerland, </li></ul><ul><li>Japan and India, based on areas of unique expertise.” </li></ul>Source: IBM Annual Report 2006
  6. 6. Example: Samsung (Korea) <ul><li>Total revenue = $158 billion in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>The company employs approximately 138,000 people in 124 offices in 56 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung Electronics is a leading producer of digital TVs, memory chips, mobile phones and LCDs. </li></ul>Samsung is not as globally organized As IBM.
  7. 7. Hierarchy of MNC Activities <ul><li>Sales or marketing office </li></ul><ul><li>Simply assembly plants (screwdriver plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Full-scale manufacturing (final products and components manufactured abroad) </li></ul><ul><li>R&D operations abroad </li></ul>
  8. 8. The OLI Model of Foreign Direct Investment <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul>Market power that derives from ownership of special knowledge Advantages of a particular foreign location Firm must prefer FDI to other ways of conducting foreign business (e.g., exports, licensing) Source: Various works by John Dunning .
  9. 9. Product-Cycle Theory Maturity Growth Decline Time Sales Source: Raymond Vernon.
  10. 10. Definition of Foreign Direct Investment <ul><li>An investment made to acquire control over enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor. Control means owning 10% or more of the ordinary shares or voting power of a firm or its equivalent; lower ownership shares are known as portfolio investment . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two Main Reasons to Invest Abroad via FDI <ul><li>To gain access to local markets ( horizontal FDI ) </li></ul><ul><li>To gain access to low-cost inputs ( vertical FDI ) </li></ul>Most North-North FDI is horizontal; most North-South FDI is vertical.
  12. 12. Greenfield vs. Mergers and Acquisitions <ul><li>Two main methods of acquiring control of foreign assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenfield investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mergers and Acquisitions </li></ul></ul>Daimler-Benz purchase of Chrysler
  13. 13. The Role of Mergers and Acquisitions
  14. 14. Figure 4-2. Outflows of FDI from Industrialized and Developing Nations, in Billions of Current Dollars, 1970-2006 Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2007 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 2007).
  15. 15. Figure 4-3. Inflows of FDI from Industrialized and Developing Nations, in Billions of Current Dollars, 1970-2006 Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2007 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 2007).
  16. 16. Figure 4-1. Outward Stock of Direct Foreign Investment in Billions of Dollars, 1960-2006 Sources: UNCTC, Transnational Corporations in World Development (New York: UN, 1988); UNCTAD, World Investment Report (Geneva: UNCTAD, 1999 and 2007).
  17. 17. Figure 4-5. Inflows of FDI into the Big Five Industrialized Countries, in Billions of Current Dollars, 1965-2006 Source: World Bank, World Data 1994 CD-ROM (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994); UNCTAD, World Investment Report (Geneva: UNCTAD, 2007).
  18. 18. Figure 4-7. FDI Inflows into Developing and Transition Economies by Region, in Billions of Dollars, 1970-2006 Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2007 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 2007).
  19. 19. Number of MNCS from Developed and Developing Economies
  20. 20. Key Facts <ul><li>FDI flows are increasing more rapidly than trade flows </li></ul><ul><li>Most FDI flows, like trade flows, are from rich countries to other rich countries </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing amount of FDI is going to a small number of developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>There are increasing numbers of MNCs headquartered in developing countries </li></ul>
  21. 21. How the US-Japan Trade Dispute in Autos Led to Greater FDI Flows from Japan to US <ul><li>After the oil price increases of 1973, US consumers bought larger number of fuel-efficient vehicles (VWs, Toyotas, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Auto industry accused Japan of dumping autos on US markets </li></ul><ul><li>Carter Administration negotiated a Voluntary Restraint Agreement (VRA) with Japan on autos </li></ul>
  22. 22. Exports vs. Local Production of Automobiles in the United States by Japanese Firms, 1980-1990, in Thousands of Vehicles Source: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association .