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Chapter 2 NUTR


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Chapter 2 NUTR

  1. 1. Chapter 2Planning a Healthy Diet © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  2. 2. Principles and Guidelines• Diet-Planning Principles  Adequacy (dietary)—providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients for healthy people  Balance (dietary)—consuming the right proportion of foods  kcalorie (energy) control—balancing the amount of foods and energy to sustain physical activities and metabolic needs  Nutrient density—measuring the nutrient content of a food relative to its energy content  Empty-kcalorie foods denote foods that contribute energy but lack nutrients.  Moderation (dietary)—providing enough but not too much of a food or nutrient  Variety (dietary)—eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  3. 3. Principles and Guidelines• Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate nutrients within energy needs• Consume foods from all food groups and limit foods that can be detrimental to health. • Consume a balanced diet. Weight management • Maintain a healthy body weight. • Prevention of weight gain © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  4. 4. Principles and Guidelines• Dietary Guidelines for Americans Physical activity • Increase energy expenditure and decrease sedentary activities. • Include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching, and resistance exercises. Food groups to encourage • Choose a variety of fruits, vegetables, milk and milk products, and whole grains. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  5. 5. Principles and Guidelines• Dietary Guidelines for Americans Fats • Limit saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fats. • Choose monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat sources. • Choose lean, low-fat, or fat-free foods. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  6. 6. Principles and Guidelines• Dietary Guidelines for Americans Carbohydrates • Choose those that are high in fiber. • Choose products with a minimal amount of added sugar. • Decrease the risk of dental caries. Sodium and potassium • Choose foods that are low in salt and high in potassium. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  7. 7. Principles and Guidelines• Dietary Guidelines for Americans Alcoholic beverages • Drink in moderation. • Some should not consume alcohol. Food safety • Wash and cook foods thoroughly and keep cooking surfaces clean. • Avoid raw, undercooked, or unpasteurized products. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  8. 8. Diet-Planning Guides• Food group plans sort foods into groups based on nutrient content.• These guides are important in selecting foods for a nutritious diet providing balance, variety, adequacy and moderation.• A combination of whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, meats or meat alternates and milk products is essential to a healthy diet. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  9. 9. Diet-Planning Guides• The USDA Food Guide assigns foods to the five major food groups of fruits, vegetables, grains, meat and legumes, and milk.  Recommended Amounts • The recommended intake of each food group depends upon how many kcalories are required. • There are different kcalorie requirements for those who are sedentary compared to those who are active. • There are five subgroups of vegetables including dark green vegetables, orange and deep yellow vegetables, legumes, starchy vegetables, and others. • Variety should be a goal when choosing vegetables. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  14. 14. Diet-Planning Guides• USDA Food Guide Notable Nutrients • Key nutrients for each group • Allows for food substitutions within a group • Legumes may be considered a vegetable or a meat alternative • The typical American diet requires an increased intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk and a decrease in refined grains, fat, and sugar. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  15. 15. Diet-Planning Guides• USDA Food Guide  Nutrient Density • Foods can be of high, medium or low nutrient density. • Must consider energy needs when choosing these foods  Discretionary KCalorie Allowance • Calculated by subtracting the amount of energy required to meet nutrient needs from the total energy allowance • Those with discretionary kcalories may eat additional servings, consume foods with slightly more fat or added sugar, or consume alcohol. • For weight loss, a person should avoid consuming discretionary kcalories. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  17. 17. Diet-Planning Guides• USDA Food Guide  Serving Equivalents • Cups are used to measure servings of fruits, vegetables, and milk. • Ounces are used to measure servings of grains and meats. • Visualization with common objects can be used to estimate portion sizes.  Mixtures of Foods • Foods that fall into two or more groups • Examples are casseroles, soups, and sandwiches © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  18. 18. Diet-Planning Guides• USDA Food Guide  Vegetarian Food Guide • Reliance on plant foods such as grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts and seeds • Similar food groups and servings sizes  Ethnic food choices fit into the food pyramid • Asian examples • Mediterranean examples • Mexican examples © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  20. 20. Diet-Planning Guides• USDA Food Guide My Pyramid – Steps to a Healthier You • • The width of the bands represent the amount that should be consumed. • The pyramid can be individualized for each person. • Web site provides consumer education about making food choices © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  22. 22. Diet-Planning Guides• Exchange Lists help to achieve kcalorie control and moderation. Foods are sorted by energy-nutrient content. Originally developed for those with diabetes Portion sizes vary within a group Food groupings may not be logical © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  23. 23. Diet-Planning Guides• Putting the Plan into Action Choose the number of servings needed from each group. Assign food groups to daily meals and snacks.• From Guidelines to Groceries - Processed foods have been treated thus changing their properties. Fortified foods have improved nutrition. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  26. 26. From Guidelines to Groceries• Grains  Refined foods lose nutrients during processing.  Enriched foods have nutrients added back including iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate.  Whole-grain products are not refined. Examples include brown rice and oatmeal.  Fortified foods have nutrients added that were not part of the original food. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  29. 29. From Guidelines to Groceries• Vegetables  Choose fresh vegetables often.  Dark green leafy and yellow-orange vegetables are important.  Good sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber  Be careful to control added fat and salt.  Legumes • Variety is important • Economical • Low-fat, nutrient-rich and fiber-rich © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  31. 31. From Guidelines to Groceries• Fruit  Choose citrus and yellow-orange fruits.  Processed fruits are acceptable alternatives to fresh.  Provides vitamins, minerals, fibers and phytochemicals  Fruit juices lack fiber but are healthy beverages.  Watch energy intakes and fruit “drinks.” © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  32. 32. From Guidelines to Groceries• Meat, fish and poultry  Provides minerals, protein and B vitamins  Choose lean cuts.  Textured vegetable protein is a processed soybean protein and can be used in recipes.  Weighing can be used to determine portion sizes.  Use low-fat cooking methods, and trim and drain fat to reduce fat intake. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  33. 33. From Guidelines to Groceries• Milk  Dairy foods are often fortified with vitamins A and D.  Imitation foods that resemble other foods are nutritionally inferior.  Food substitutes are designed to replace other foods.  Many lower fat dairy products are available including fat-free, non-fat, skim, zero-fat, no-fat, low-fat, reduced-fat, and less-fat milk. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  34. 34. Food Labels• The Ingredient List  All ingredients listed  Descending order of predominance by weight• Serving Sizes  Facilitate comparisons among foods  Need to compare to quantity of food actually eaten  Do not necessarily match the USDA Food Guide © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  35. 35. Food Labels• Nutrition Facts  Listed by quantity and percentage standards per serving, called Daily Values  kCalories listed as total kcalories and kcalories from fat  Fat listed by total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat  Cholesterol  Sodium  Carbohydrate listed by total carbohydrate, starch, sugars, and fiber  Protein  Vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium are listed in % DV only. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  37. 37. Food Labels• The Daily Values (DV) Estimate of individual foods’ contribution to total diet Based on 2000-kcalorie diet Can also calculate personal daily values Ease in comparing foods © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  38. 38. Food Labels• Nutrient Claims  Must meet FDA definitions and include conditions of use  No implied claims  General terms include free, good source of, healthy, high, less, light or lite, low, more, and organic.  Energy terms include kcalorie-free, low kcalorie, and reduced calorie.  Fat and cholesterol terms include percent fat-free, fat-free, low fat, less fat, saturated fat-free, low saturated fat, less saturated fat, trans fat-free, cholesterol-free, low cholesterol, less cholesterol, extra lean, and lean.  Carbohydrate terms include high fiber and sugar-free.  Sodium terms include sodium-free and salt-free, low sodium, and very low sodium. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  39. 39. Food Labels• Health Claims  Reliable health claims on the FDA “A” list represent clear links between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition.  “B” list health claims have supportive evidence but are not conclusive.  “C” list health claims have limited evidence and are not conclusive.  “D” list health claims have little scientific evidence to support the claim. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  40. 40. Food Labels• Structure-Function Claims Claims made without FDA approval Cannot make statements about diseases• Consumer Education Government education programs “Healthier US Initiative” Program © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  41. 41. Vegetarian Diets © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  42. 42. Vegetarian Diets• Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets - Lifestyle practices are often different from omnivores  Healthy body weights are common due to high intakes of fiber and low intakes of fat.  Blood pressure is often lower due to lower body weights, low-fat and high-fiber diets, and plenty of fruits and vegetables.  Lower incidence of heart disease due to high-fiber diets, eating monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low intakes of dietary cholesterol • Inclusion of soy products like tofu and tempeh  Lower incidence of cancer due to high intakes of fruits and vegetables  Other diseases © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
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  44. 44. Vegetarian Diet Planning• Specific information for planning a vegetarian diet can be found at  Protein • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume animal-derived products and thus high-quality protein. • Meat replacements and textured vegetable protein can be used.  Iron - Iron-rich vegetables and fortified grain products consumed with foods that are high in vitamin C can help vegetarians meet iron needs.  Zinc - Consuming legumes, whole grains, and nuts can provide zinc to those who do not consume meat. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  45. 45. Vegetarian Diet Planning• Calcium  Calcium is not an issue for the lactovegetarian.  Calcium-rich foods should be consumed.• Vitamin B12  Vegans may not receive enough B12 from the diet.  Consumption of fortified products or supplementation may be necessary.• Vitamin D can come from sunlight exposure or fortified foods.• Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Food sources include flaxseed, walnuts, soybeans, and their oils. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  46. 46. Healthy Food Choices• A variety of food is the key to adequacy. Be careful of macrobiotic diets.• Meal patterns are changed.• Diet and other lifestyle habits need to be healthy. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth