Zig Bee


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Zig Bee

  1. 1. Submitted to :- Neeraj Raheja Submitted by :- Harsh Kishor (Asst. Professor) Roll No :- 11107111 Class :- M.Tech(CSE) 2 nd Year Seminar Report On ZigBee
  2. 2. Origin Of Name ZigBee <ul><li>The domestic honeybee, a colonial insect, lives in a hive that contains a queen, a few male drones, and thousands of worker bees. </li></ul><ul><li>The survival, success, and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this silent, but powerful communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern, she is able to share information such as the location, distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. </li></ul><ul><li>Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle, bees around the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is ZigBee ? <ul><li>ZigBee is a Ad-hoc networking technology for Low Rate –Wireless Personal Area Networks(LR-WPAN). </li></ul><ul><li>Based On IEEE 802.15.4 standard that defines the Physical(PHY) and Medium Access Control(Mac) Layers for ZigBee. </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for 2.45 Ghz , 868 Mhz and 915 Mhz Band. </li></ul><ul><li>Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption as compared to competing technologies . </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to network inexpensive devices . </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40 Kbps 915Mhz and 20Kbps for 868Mhz band. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ZigBee General Characteristics <ul><li>Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies </li></ul><ul><li>255 devices per network </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Low Latency Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Carriers Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance(CSMA-CA ) Channel Access </li></ul><ul><li>Fully handshake protocol for transfer reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power Usage consumption </li></ul><ul><li>3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Market Requirements <ul><li>Global licence free Industrial, Scientific and Medical(ISM) band operation </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted geographic use </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic/semi-automatic installation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to add or remove devices </li></ul><ul><li>Possible voice support </li></ul><ul><li>10k-115.2kbps data throughput </li></ul><ul><li>10-75m coverage range (home/garden) </li></ul><ul><li>Support for 32-255 nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Support for 4 critical devices </li></ul><ul><li>4-100 co-located networks </li></ul><ul><li>0.5-2 year battery life </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 5m/sec. (18kmph) permitted mobility </li></ul>
  6. 6. ZigBee Alliance
  7. 7. What is ZigBee Alliance? <ul><li>An organization with a mission to define reliable, cost effective, low-power, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance provides interoperability, certification testing, and branding. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ZigBee Protocol Overview <ul><li>Node Types </li></ul><ul><li>Network Topology </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol Stack Architecture </li></ul>
  9. 9. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Different Node Types in a ZigBee Network </li></ul><ul><li>Full Function Device (FFD): Can communicate with every </li></ul><ul><li>type of device. A FFD can operate in three different modes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAN Coordinator: Sends beacon frames, provides routing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>information, manages short, network-specific addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinator: Acts as router. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal device. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced Function Device (RFD): Can only talk to a single </li></ul><ul><li>FFD. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network </li></ul><ul><li>Star Network </li></ul><ul><li>In the star topology, the PAN coordinator chooses a unique (within </li></ul><ul><li>its radio sphere of influence) PAN id. All attached nodes can only </li></ul><ul><li>talk to the central PAN coordinator. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Network </li></ul><ul><li>Within a peer-to-peer topology, each FFD can communicate with </li></ul><ul><li>any other device within its range. A RFD may only communicate </li></ul><ul><li>with a single FFD at a given time. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Cluster Network </li></ul><ul><li>Larger networks may be established by forming multi-cluster </li></ul><ul><li>topologies. Each cluster has a single cluster head that is </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for coordination within the cluster. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol Stack Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The IEEE 802.15.4 standard describes the physical and MAC layer. </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee builds on the IEEE standard and defines the network and application layer. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Physical(PHY) Layer </li></ul><ul><li>The physical layer is responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activation/Deactivation of transceiver. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channel selection, assessment. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission and reception of packets. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency bands: 2.4 GHz (worldwide), 868 MHz (EU), 916MHz (US) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium Access Control(MAC) Layer </li></ul><ul><li> The following services are provided by the MAC layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beacon management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channel access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frame validation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledgment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Association, disassociation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Network(NWK) Layer </li></ul><ul><li>The lower level of the ZigBee protocol builds on the MAC layer of </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15.4. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topology specific routing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New device configuration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network startup </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joining/leaving a network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbour discovery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Route discovery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reception control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. ZigBee Protocol Overview Contd. <ul><li>Application Layer </li></ul><ul><li>The application layer provides the following services: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain tables for binding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation, reassembly and reliable data transport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide communication endpoints for the application </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovering devices and application services. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating/responding to binding requests between endpoints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each ZigBee node has a unique 64 bit MAC address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additionally the Coordinator maintains a table to map the 64 bit addresses to network-specific 16 bit addresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within each node, the application can define up to 240 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Application endpoints. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How is ZigBee related to IEEE 802.15.4? <ul><li>ZigBee takes full advantage of a powerful physical radio specified by IEEE 802.15.4 </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee adds logical network, security and application software </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee continues to work closely with the IEEE to ensure an integrated and complete solution for the market </li></ul>
  18. 18. ZigBee Channel Access Options <ul><li>Two channel access mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-beacon network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A simple, traditional multiple access system used in simple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>peer and near-peer networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard CSMA-CA communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive acknowledgement for successfully received packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beacon-enabled network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superframe structure- network coordinator transmits beacons at predetermined intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated bandwidth and low latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power consumption mode for coordinator </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>What is Beacon Mode ? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A very powerful mechanism for controlling power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consumption in extended networks like cluster tree or Mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows all clients in a local piece of the network the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ability to know when to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PAN has a coordinator that manages the channel and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arranges the calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant value will be in system power consumption for networks which are primarily battery powered </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ZigBee network applications PERSONAL HEALTH CARE ZigBee LOW DATA-RATE RADIO DEVICES HOME AUTOMATION CONSUMER ELECTRONICS TV VCR DVD/CD Remote control security HVAC lighting closures PC & PERIPHERALS consoles portables educational TOYS & GAMES monitors sensors automation control mouse keyboard joystick monitors diagnostics sensors INDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL
  21. 21. ZigBee – Highly Reliable <ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh and tree networking protocol provides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>redundant paths </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic retries and acknowledgements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast delivery scheme ensures reliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>broadcasts across the network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents keep track of messages for sleeping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High intrinsic interference tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple channels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency agility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robust modulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ZigBee – Highly Secure <ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) 128-bit encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of a “trust center” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link and network keys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication and encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security can be customized for the application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keys can be “hard-wired” into application </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Advantages of ZigBee <ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable and self healing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports large number of nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to deploy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very long battery life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used globally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Thank You