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talus fracture

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TAlus Facture
talar fracture

Published in: Health & Medicine

talus fracture

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON FRACTURE TALUS CHAIRPERSON PRESENTED BY Dr Rupa Kumar .C.S Dr Harsimran Sidhu HOD and UNIT chief P.G in ORTHOPAEDICS Date : 07/04/15
  2. 2. Introduction The complexity of anatomy , physiological role of talus in functioning of lower extremity and variability of fracture pattern often complicates the outcomes of talus fracture To gain full confidence in the treatment , orthopaedic surgeon should have thorough knowledge of osseous anatomy and vascular supply and modern method of fixation . Surgeon should be prepared to deal with complications which often occur.
  3. 3. HISTORY  Roman Times- The heel bone of horse was used as dice and was called Taxillus. This Word evolved into Talus  Year 1500-Talus Fracture was first described by Egyptians .  Year 1608 –Fabricius Von Hilden -Reported fracture dislocation resulting in Talectomy.
  4. 4. HISTORY  Year 1882- SHEPARD- Described fracture of lateral tubercle in English literature.  Year 1919-Anderson – reported the first series of talar neck fractures in World War I pilots and coined the term Aviators Astragalus.  YEAR 1943- BLAIR described talectomy of the Talus body with tibial slide fusion to the head and neck of talus.
  5. 5. HISTORY  Year 1970- Hawkins – presented classification of neck of talus fracture based on pattern of injury and disruption of blood supply .  He determined the risk of osteonecrosis to talar dome
  6. 6. HISTORY  YEAR 1978- Canale and Kelly Expanded the HAWKINS classification system and introduced type 4 .  Canale – pioneered specific radiographic techniques for talus
  7. 7. Talus fracure INCIDENCE  0.1 to 0.85% of all fractures  5 to 7 % of foot fractures
  8. 8. ANATOMY Second largest tarsal bone. Ossification – from one centre which appear in 6th month of intrauterine life 60 % is covered with articular cartilage
  9. 9. ANATOMY  PARTS OF TALUS 1. HEAD 2. NECK 3. BODY 4. LATERAL PROCESS 5. POSTERIOR PROCESS PROCESS
  10. 10. ANATOMY BODY OF TALUS  5 surfaces:-  1. superior surface  2. Inferior surface  3.medial surface  4. lateral surface  5.posterior surface
  11. 11. ANATOMY  Body Of Talus  Superior Surface :-  TROCHLEAR SURFACE
  12. 12. ANATOMY  Body of talus  Medial surface:-  articular surface for medial malleolus
  13. 13. Anatomy…  Body Of Talus Inferior surface:-  Posterior and middle articulating surfaces.  SULCUS talli
  14. 14. ANATOMY…  NECK OF TALUS  Constricted potion of bone between the body and the oval head .  Directed forward , medial word , downward  Angle of medial deviation is 15 to 20 degree in adults  Plantar deviation is 24 degree approx  Neck body angle is 150 degree in adults  Relatively thin diameter makes it weaker area and hence more vulnerable to fractures
  15. 15. ANATOMY…  HEAD OF TALUS  Anterior articular surface is large , oval and convex articulating with navicular bone  Inferior surface have two facets medial and lateral for articulation with calcaneum
  16. 16. ANATOMY  TARSAL CANAL  Formed of sulcus of inferior surface of talus and superior sulcus of calcaneum  Contents- artery of tarsal canal and talocalcaneal interosseous ligament TARSAL CANAL
  17. 17. ANATOMY  Posterior process has a medial and lateral tubercle separated by a groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon
  18. 18. ANATOMY …  Talus Articulates with 4 bones  1.Tibia  2. Fibula  3. Calcaneus  4. Navicular
  19. 19. ANATOMY  ATTACHMENTS  NO MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS  Medial side Anterior Tibio talar ligament Posterior tibio talar ligament
  20. 20. ANATOMY  ATTACHMENT • Lateral side Anterior talo fibular ligament
  21. 21. ANATOMY…..  ATTACHMENTS  Posteriorly  Posterior talo fibular ligament
  22. 22. ANATOMY
  23. 23. Blood supply of talus - EXTRAOSEOUS ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY(36.2%) POSTETIOR TIBIAL ARTERY(47 %) PERFORATING PERONEAL ARTERIES(16.9 %)
  24. 24. Blood supply of talus PERFORATING PERONEAL ARTERIES(16.9 %) ARTERY TO TARSAL SINUS
  25. 25. Blood supply of talus - EXTRAOSEOUS ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY(36.2%) MEDIAL RECURRENT TARSAL ARTERY MEDIAL TALAR ARTERY MEDIAL SIDE
  26. 26. Blood supply of talus - EXTRAOSEOUS POSTETIOR TIBIAL ARTERY(47 %) POSTERIOR TUBERCLE ARTERY ARTERY TO TARSAL CANAL DELTOID BRANCHES MEDIAL AND LATERLA PLANTAR ARTERIES
  27. 27. Blood supply of talus
  28. 28. Blood supply of talus- INTERAOSSEOUS HEAD BODY MIDDLE ONE THIRD OF TALUS CORONAL SECTION
  29. 29. Blood supply of Talus- INTERA OSSEOUS MIDDLE ONE THIRD OF TALUS SAGITAL SECTION
  30. 30. Sectors of Blood supply of talus
  31. 31. FRACTURE TALUS ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION OF TALUS FRACTURE :-  1. Talar neck fracture  2. Talar body fracture  3. Talar head fracture  4. Lateral process fracture  5. Posterior process fracture
  32. 32. CLINICAL PRESENTATION  Talus fractures frequently occur in a young, active, and mobile population  History of high velocity injury present • Clinically :- Intense pain , unable to move ankle, Gross edema and echymosis usually present When there is subluxation or dislocation the normal contours of ankle and hind foot are distorted Open injury may occur if there is significant distortment
  33. 33. Diagnosis  RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION  XRAYS ANTEROPOSTERIOR VIEWS  ANKLE MORTISE VIEW  LATERAL VIEW  CANALE VIEW
  34. 34. RADIOGRAPHIC XRAYS  CANALE AND KELLY VIEW view of the talar neck achieved by internal rotation of the foot by placing the foot plantigrade on an x-ray film and angling the beam at 75 degrees to the perpendicular  Gives best view of talus neck  Useful intraoperatively to check alignment of neck
  35. 35. DIAGNOSIS…  CT SCAN give excellent visualization of the congruity of the subtalar joint and provide superior details of fracture. small but significant fractures of the inferior aspect of the talus, are better appreciated on CT scans compared to plain xray films alone.
  36. 36. DIAGNOSIS MRI SCAN  demonstrates osteonecrosis most effectively. Use of titanium screws have been preffered if AVN of bone is suspected.
  37. 37. FRACTURE NECK OF TALUS  Constitue 30 % of talus fractures.  MECHANISM OF INJURY  Forced hyperdorsiflexion of the ankle and impingement of the taller neck on the distal anterior tibia .  Axial load to plantar foot causes talar neck fracture
  38. 38. HAWKIN CLASSIFICATION OF TALAR NECK FRACTURE  Hawkins 1970 - talar neck fractures into three type  Canale and Kelly added type IV  Based on displacement of body of talus.  Useful to perdict long term outcome and development of avn of talar body
  39. 39. HAWKINS TYPE 1  Undisplaced fracture of talar neck.  Here medial blood supply is still assured
  40. 40. HAWKINS TYPE 2  Displaced fracture of the talar neck with subtalar dislocation or subluxation.  The medial blood supply may be preserved.
  41. 41. HAWKINS TYPE 3  Displaced fracture of the talar neck with dislocation or subluxation of the talar body from both the tibiotalar and subtalar joints.  All medial blood supply to the body is disrupted
  42. 42. HAWKINS TYPE 4  Displaced fracture of the talar neck with dislocation or subluxation of the talonavicular , tibiotalar , and subtalar joints.  Worst prognosis because of avn of the body and often of the head fragment
  43. 43. TREATMENT  Goals of treatment: 1. Early anatomic reduction of the neck fracture 2. Reduction of dislocated joints 3. Stable fixation 4. Avoidance of complications
  44. 44. Treatment Options Hawkins type 1 fracture  Nonoperative Management Considered for fractures in which there is no displacement of the fracture line and no incongruity of the subtalar joint. SHOULD BE CONFIRMED WITH CT SCAN IF DOUBTFULL
  45. 45. Treatment Options…TYPE 1  Non operative management Treated with below knee non weight bearing cast with ankle in slight equinus for 1 month Cast should be removed and short leg walking cast is applied for 2 more months until Clinical and x-ray signs of healing appears. Once secure union is achieved active range of motion and progressive weight bearing as tolerated is started.
  46. 46. TREATMENT TYPE 1  OPERATIVE HAWKINS TYPE 1  Hawkins I Operative- Percutaneous screw fixation
  47. 47. TREATMENT  HAWKINS TYPE 2  NON OPERATIVE Achieving closed reduction is very difficult. Should be only attempted if surgery is delayed.
  48. 48. TREATMENT  HAWKINS TYPE 2 CLOSED REDUCTION  firstly, adequate analgesia and sedation  technique involves bringing the foot, including the talar head, to the residual talar body fragment  requires the talar body to be reduced within the ankle mortise  the knee is flexed and the foot is flexed plantar ward. This relaxes the gastrocsoleus complex and brings the talar head fragment into proper relation to the body  At that point, any varus or valgus malalignment can be corrected as well  reduction is achieved, excessive dorsiflexion will cause a redisplacement of the head fragment, and therefore radiographs to confirm reduction should be performed with the foot in a comfortable position of equinus.
  49. 49. CLOSED REDUCTION OF HAWKINS TYPE 2
  50. 50. Treatment SURGICAL APPROACHES  Anterolateral approach  Anteromedial approach  Anteromedial approach combined with medial malleolar osteotomy
  51. 51. TREATMENT  HAWKINS TYPE 3 AND 4  Most authors agree that group III and IV cannot be reduced and held by closed attempts • Almost all require surgical stabilization.  Most patients require additional surgery for relief of complications resulting from the initial injury
  52. 52. SURGICAL OPTIONS  TYPE 3 & TYPE 4  SCREW FIXATION ANTERIOR TO POSTEROR POSTERIOR TO ANTERIOR • DIRECT PLATE FIXATION
  53. 53. Treatment Screw fixation Advantages Disadvantages Anterior-to-posterior screw fixation1 1. Direct visualization of fracture reduction 1.Difficult to insert perpendicular to fracture line 2. Avoidance of articular cartilage damage 2.Less strong compared to posterior-to-anterior screws and plate fixation 3. Use of compression screws where indicated 3.Inappropriate use of compression may cause malalignment , especially varus
  54. 54. Treatment Screw fixation Advantages Disadvantages Posterior-to-anterior screw fixation Stronger fixation compared with anterior screw fixation Indirect visualization of reduction; may require change in positioning Easily inserted perpendicular to fracture line Some cartilage damage to posterior talus. May cause less soft tissue disruption Risk of iatrogenic nerve damage
  55. 55. Treatment Plate fixation Advantages Disadvantages Direct plate fixation 1. Strong fixation 1. Extensive soft tissue dissection 2. Useful to buttress comminuted columns 2. Risk of hardware prominence
  56. 56. TREATMENT  External Fixation Limited roles:  Multiply injured patient with talar neck fracture in whom definitive surgery will be delayed.  Temporary measure to stabilize reduced joints
  57. 57. Complications AVN Malunion Nonunion Arthritis
  58. 58. AVN OF TALUS  Most common complication of talar neck fracture.  Extent of involvement of talar body by osteonecrosis is directly related to degree of vascular disruption
  59. 59. AVN: Incidence after Talus Fracture  Hawkins (1970) I 0% II 42% III 91%  Canale(1972):  I: 15 %  II: 50 %  III: 85 %  IV: 100 % Behrens (1988): Overall 25 %
  60. 60. HAWKIN’S SIGN  Osteonecrosis is identified based on AP radiograph between 6 and 8 weeks  Subchondral lucency is indicative of relative osteopenia secondary to bony resorption and an intact blood supply  Progresses from medial to lateral due to vascular re- establishing from medial side of dome through deltoid ligament  Indicative of diffuse osteopenia with vascular congestion suggests continuity of blood supply
  61. 61. AVN: Diagnosis  Technetium bone scan and MRI are used to evaluate osteonecrosis and also condition of articular cartilage in MRI Osteonecrosis of talar body after 6 months of fracture
  62. 62. AVN Treatment  Precollapse:  Modified Weight Bearing  Patela tendon brace cast Compliance difficult Efficacy unknown  Postcollapse:  Observation  Arthrodesis if symptomatic
  63. 63.  Mal-union and shortening of talar neck secondary to comminution of dorsal medial bone is common Malunion
  64. 64.  Degenerative arthrosis of tibio-talar joint secondary to Hawkin’s III talar neck fracture Degenerative arthrosis
  65. 65. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  DEFINITION-fractures of the talar body are intra- articular injuries in which the articular surfaces of the tibiotalar and the subtalar joints are involved.  RADIOGRAPHIC –LATERAL XRAY VIEWS fractures extending into or posterior to the lateral process of the talus are defined as talar body fractures, whereas fractures anterior to the lateral process are defined as talar neck fractures.
  66. 66. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  MECHANISM OF INJURY  AXIAL COMPRESSION OF THE TALUS BETWEEN TIBIAL PLAFOND AND THE CALCANEUS  USUALLY SEEN IN MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS AND FALLS FROM HEIGHT
  67. 67. TALUS BODY FRACTURE  CLASSIFICATION  SNEPPEN ET AL CLASSIFIED BASED ON ANATOMICAL LOCATION  I- transchondral dome fractures;  II- shear fractures;  III- posterior tubercle fractures;  IV- lateral process fractures; and  V- crush fractures
  68. 68. TALAR BODY FRACTURES  MULLER AO/OTA CLASSIFICATION  fracture are grouped according to increasing severity with increasing treatment difficulty and worst prognosis  C1- osteochondral injuries with ankle joint involvement C 1
  69. 69. TALAR BODY FRACTURES  MULLER AO/OTA CLASSIFICATION  C2 SUBTALAR JOINT INVOLVEMENT C2
  70. 70. TALAR BODY FRACTURES  MULLER AO/OTA CLASSIFICATION  C3- ankle and subtalar joint involvement c3
  71. 71. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  TREATMENT  OPERATIVE  SURGICAL APPROACH – ANTEROMEDIAL APPROACH WITH MEDIAL MALLEOLUS OSTEOTOMY  .
  72. 72. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  SURGICAL ORIF- As surface for fixation is always articular, fixation is done by headless compression screw or bioabsorbable pins
  73. 73. TALAR BODY FRACTURE TREATMENT  COMMINUTED FRACTURES OF BODY Difficult to treat Accurate replacement of fragments is near impossible Long term results- bad  IN SUCH CASES TALECTOMY ALONG WITH CALCANEOTIBIAL FUSION IS PREFFERRED. GIVES PATIENT PAINLESS AND STABLE WALKING FOOT
  74. 74. CALCANEOTIBIAL FUSION 4 YEARS FOLLOWUP 16 YEARS FOLLOWUP
  75. 75. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  PROBLEMS FACED WITH TALOCALCANEAL FUSION  DECREASE IN HEIGHT AND THE RIGIDITY OF ANKLE JOINT  BLAIR SUGGESTED ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE-  TIBIOTALAR ARTHRODESIS
  76. 76. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  TIBIOTALAR ARTHRODESIS  PROCEDURE-sliding graft from anterior surface of tibia is inserted into the remnant of head and neck of the talus in an attempt to obtain fusion around the area
  77. 77. TALAR BODY FRACTURE  ADVANTAGES OF TIBIO TALAR ARTHRODESIS OVER CALACANEOTIBIAL FUSION Position of foot is unchanged  Weight bearing thrust is placed on more or less normal undisturbed joint tissue. No shortening After surgery- still slight flexion and extention of the foot on leg , the two subtalar facets and talonavicular joint is possible.
  78. 78. BLAIR FUSION/ TIBIO TALAR ARTHRODESIS PREOP POST OP AFTER 3 MONTHS
  79. 79. Talus head fracture  Incidence- 5 to 10 % of talar injuries  Mechanism of injury- axially directed loading and compression of talar head Dorsal compression fracture of anterior tibial plafond • injuries to calcaneocuboid and subtalar joint are common with these injuries
  80. 80. TREATMENT TALAR HEAD FRACTURE  PRINCIPLES Maintainance of alignment of dorsomedial arch of foot. Prevention of talonavicular joint incongruity and instability Reduction of displaced talar head fragment
  81. 81. TREATMENT TALAR HEAD FRACTURE  Fracture without displacement  Well molded short leg cast for 6 weeks Weight bearing is started at 6 weeks
  82. 82. TREATMENT TALAR HEAD FRACTURE  Displaced fractures and those associated with joint subluxation or dislocation  ORIF Small comminuted segments can be excised Larger fragments are reduced with screws ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 mm
  83. 83. TALAR HEAD FRACTURE COMPLICATIONS AND PROGNOSIS  TALONAVICULAR ARTHRITIS IN DISPLACED FRACTURE Conservatively managed with longitudianal arch support shoe If conservative fails then talonavicular arthrodesis releives symptoms  NONUNION- UNCOMMON  MALUINION - TALONAVICULAR JOINT SUBLUXATION
  84. 84. FRACTURE OF LATERAL PROCESS OF TALUS  Snowboarder’s fracture”  MISDIAGNOSED OFTEN- ANKLE SPRAIN  MECHANISM OF INJURY- Axial loading, dorsiflexion , external rotation and eversion of foot
  85. 85. FRACTURE OF LATERAL PROCESS OF TALUS  RADIOGRAPHIC XRAYS  VON KNOCH ET AL described v sign  V SiGN- it is the contour of lateral process over lateral view xrays  V sign positive- any disruption in contour of V indicating fracture lateral processs Negative V sign
  86. 86. FRACTURE OF LATERAL PROCESS OF TALUS Hawkins classification
  87. 87. FRACTURE OF LATERAL PROCESS OF TALUS - treatment  Type I fractures can be treated in a non weight-bearing cast for 6 weeks, unless they are displaced or involve a significant portion of the talar side of the posterior facet, in which case they should be treated by ORIF.  Type II fractures benefit from débridement of frature fragments  Type III fractures- treated conservatively with cast application  If non union occurs the debridement of fragments is advised
  88. 88. POSTERIOR PROCESS FRACTURES  These include the medial and lateral tubercle fractures  Fracture occurs in a severe ankle inversion injury where posterior talofibular ligament avulses the lateral tubercle  Undisplaced fracture treated with a short leg cast for 4 weeks  Displaced fracture treated with primary excision of small fragments or ORIF when entire posterior process is fractured
  89. 89. REFERENCES  Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults; 7th Edition; Volume 2  Watson – Jones fractures and Joint injuries, 7th Edition  Campbell’s Operative orthopaedics; 11th Edition; Volume 4  Grays Anatomy for students
  90. 90. THANK YOU!!!

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