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SHOCK AND
HAEMORRHAGE
HARSHITA
INTERN
A.B.C.O.N
SHOCK
SHOCK
Shock is a syndrome that results
from a decrease in effective
circulating blood volume or fluid in
the body as a res...
CAUSES
• Severe or extension injuries
• Severe burns
• Severe pain ; heart attack
• Electric shock
CAUSES
• Loss of blood
• Exposure to extreme heat and cold
• Poison taken internally
• Bites or stinges of poisonous snake...
EFFECTS OF SHOCK
• Early loss of consciousness that mainly
involves the nervous system and that may be
fatal.
• Progressiv...
HYPOVOLEMIC
Due to decreased circulating blood volume in
relation to the total vascular capacity and
characterized by a re...
CAUSES
• Hypovolemic shock results from significant
blood or fluid losses in our body. Blood loss
of this magnitude can oc...
CAUSES
In addition to actual blood loss, the loss of body
fluids can cause a decrease in blood volume.
blood in your body ...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Anxiety
• Blue lips and fingernails
• Low or no urine output
• Profuse sweating
• Shallow breath...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Confusion
• Chest pain
• Loss of consciousness
• Low blood pressure
• Rapid heart rate
• Weak pu...
CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
Due to cardiac pump failure related to loss of
myocardial contractility myocardium or
structural failure...
CAUSES
• Cardiogenic shock occurs whenever the heart
is unable to pump as much blood as the body
needs.
• The most common ...
CAUSES
These complications include:
• A large section of heart muscle that no longer
moves well or does not move at all
• ...
CAUSES
• Pressure on the heart due to a build up of fluid
around it (pericardial tamponade)
• Tear or rupture of the muscl...
CAUSES
• Tear or rupture of the wall (septum) between
the left and right ventricles (lower heart
chambers)
• Very slow hea...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Chest pain or pressure
• Coma
• Decreased urination
• Fast breathing
• Fast pulse
• Heavy sweati...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Loss of alertness and ability to concentrate
• Restlessness, agitation, confusion
• Shortness of...
CIRCULATORY SHOCK
It is an inadequate blood flow throughout the
body. In the absence of mechanisms that
function to mainta...
CIRCULATORY SHOCK
As a consequence, tissues can suffer from
damage as a result of too little delivery of
oxygen to cells. ...
SEPTIC SHOCK
Septic shock is a medical condition as a result 
of severe infection and sepsis, though the 
microbe may be s...
CAUSES
• When bacteria or viruses are present in the 
bloodstream, the condition is known 
as bacteremia or viremia.
• Sep...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• High Cardiac Output
• Tachycardia
• Hyperthermia
• Nausea 
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Confusion
• A...
RISK FACTORS
• AGE (<1 and >65yrs.)
• Malnourishment
• Chronic illness
• Invasive procedure
NEUROGENIC SHOCK
Neurogenic shock is a distributive type 
of shock resulting in hypotension, occasionally 
with bradycardi...
CAUSES
• Severe central nervous system damage (brain 
injury, cervical or high thoracic spinal cord). 
• In more simple te...
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Dry skin
• Hypo tension with bradycardia
• Hypothermia
• Central venous pressure is low due to 
...
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
• An acute systemic allergic reaction
• The result of a re-exposure to an antigen that 
elicits an IgE ...
CAUSES
• Medication
• Foods
• Insects Stings
• Anti-bodies
CLINICAL
MANISFESTATION
• Peripheral vasodilation
–  vascular permeablility (edema)
• Bronchospasm
• Cardiac arrhythmias
•...
FACTORS INFLUENCING
SHOCK
• PAIN:- It increase severity of shock
• PHYSICAL CONDITION:-People who are 
starved or exposed ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING
SHOCK
• IMPROPER CARE/MOVEMENT:-Shock may 
be increased by rough and by delay in 
treatment 
SIGNS
• Causality is anxious and restless.
• Weakness ; fatigue or giddiness
• Shallow ; rapid and gasping breathing
• Nau...
SYMPTOMS
• Pulse rate increases; but become weaker
• Shaking trembling arms and legs
• Blood pressure fail
• Unconsciousne...
MANAGEMENT
• FLUID REPLACEMENTTO RESTORE INTRA 
VASCULAR VOLUME
FLUID REPLACEMENT IS ADMINISTER IN ALL 
TYPE OF SHOCK. 
TH...
MANAGEMENT
• THE FLUID ADMINISTERED MAY BE
CRYSTALLOIDS 
COLLOIDS
• COMMON IV FLUIDS USED ARE FOR  
RSUSCITATION IN HYPOVO...
COMPLICATION
• CARE MUST BE TAKEN WHEN RAPID 
ADMINISTRING ISOTONIC CRYSTALLOIDS 
TO AVOID EXCESS EDEMA ; 
PARTICULARLY PU...
COMPLICATION
• ADVENTITIOUS LUNG SOUNDS SUCH A 
CRACKLES MAY INDICATE PULMONARY 
EDEMA.
MANAGEMENT
VASO ACTIVE MEDICATION THERAPY
• ADMINSTERD IN ALL FORMS OF SHOCK TO 
IMPROVE THE PATIENT HAEMODYNAMIC 
STATUS....
MANAGEMENT
• THESE RECEPTOR ARE RECEPTOR ARE :-
a)ALPHA- ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR
b)BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR 
MANAGEMENT
• OTHER MEDICATION:-
I. ANTA ACIDS
II.H2 BLOCKERS
III.RANITIDINE
IV.PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR TO PREVENT
ULCERS
NUTRITIONAL THERAPY
• INCREASE ENERGY REQIREMENT AND
THERFORE CALORIE REQUIREMENT.
• PARENTRAL OR ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL
SUPP...
EMERGENCY
MANAGEMENT
•REASSURE THE
CASUALITY
BODY POSITIONING
INCASE OF HEAD
INJURIES
•THE HEAD MAY NOT BE
ELEVATED IN CASE OF IF THERE
IN CASE OF MUCUS IN THROAT
102;108 FOR AMBULANCE
DO NOT
• APPLY HOT WATER BOTTLE
• MOVE THE CASUALITY UNNECESSARILY
.THIS WILL INCREASE THE SHOCK.
• LET THE CASUALITY SMOK...
HAEMORRHAGE
HAEMORRHAGE
BLEEDING TECHNICALLY KNOWN AS
HAEMORHAGING;IS THE LOSS OF BLOOD
ESCAPING FROM THE CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM. BLEEDING...
TYPES
• ARTERIAL BLEEDING
• VENOUS BLEEDING
• CAPILLARY BLEEDING
ARTERIAL BLEEDING
• BLOOD IS BRIGHT RED IN COLOUR.
• IT SPURTS AT EACH CONTRACTION.
• FLOW IS PULSATIVE.
VENOUS BLEEDING
• BLOOD IS DARK RED IN COLOUR.
• IT DOES NOT SPURTS.
• SLOW BUT EVEN FLOW
CAPILLARY BLEEDING
• BLOOD IS RED IN COLOUR
• IT DOES NOT SPURTS
• SLOW BUT EVEN FLOW
EFFECT OF HEMORRHAGE
• LOSS OF RBC CAUSE LACK OF OXYGEN.
• A DECREASE IN BLOOD VOLUME CAUSE A
DECREASSE IN BP.
• THE HEART...
CLASSIFICATION
• EXTERNAL BLEEDING
• INTERNAL BLEEDING
EXTERNAL BLEEDING
EXTERNAL BLEEDING CAN BE OCCUR
EITHER THROUGH A NATURAL OPENING
SUCH AS THE MOUTH , NOSE , EAR ,
URETHRA...
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
• THIRST
• BLURRING OF VISION
• FAINTING
• GIDDINESS
• PULSE BECOME FASTER BUT WEAKER
• RESTLESSNESS
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
• BREATHING BECOME SHALLOW
• UNCONCIOUSNESS MAY OCCUR
• FACE AND LIPS BECOME PALE SKIN FEELS
COOL AND CA...
INTERAL BLEEDING
• HISTORY OF SUFFICIENT INJURY TO
CAUSE INTERNAL BLEEDING.
• WOUNDS THAT HAVE PNETRATED SKULL ;
CHEST; AB...
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
• BLOOD MAY APPEAR FROM ONE BODY
ORIFICES NOSE; EAR; MOUTH; RECTUM
etc.
• FRACTURE OF LONG BONE (ARM AND...
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
• INTR CRANIAL BLEEDING
• INTRA ABDOMINAL BLEEDING
GENERAL TREATMENT
• LIE THE VICTIM ; FLEX THE LEGIN SEMI-
FLEXED POSITION:-
I. MAINTAIN AIRWAY
II.CONTROL THE BLEEDING
• P...
BODY POSITIONING
MINOR EXTERNAL INJURY
• WASH YOUR HAND BEFORE DEALING WITH
WOUND(IF POSSIBLE)
• IF IT IS DIRTY LIGHTLY RINSE IT WITH
RUNNI...
MAJOR EXTERNAL
INJURY
• DO NOT WASTE TIME HUNTING FOR A
DRESSSING
• APPLY PRESSURE BY A CLEAN CLOTH
• ELEVATE THE PART
• A...
INTERNAL BLEEDING
• KEEP CASUALITY DOWN WITH HEAD LOW
• IF INJURY ALLOW RAISE THE LEG TO AID
THE RETURN OF BLOOD FLOW TO V...
INTERNAL BLEEDING
• CHECK FOR
a) BREATHING
b) PULSE
c) LEVEL OF RESPONSIVENESS AT 10
MINUTES INTERVAL
• KEEP CASUALITY COV...
INTERNAL BLEEDING
DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING BY
MOUTH…………
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
Shock and hemorrhage
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Shock is a syndrome that results from a decrease in effective circulating blood volume or fluid in the body as a result of any injury or illness

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Shock and hemorrhage

  1. 1. SHOCK AND HAEMORRHAGE HARSHITA INTERN A.B.C.O.N
  2. 2. SHOCK
  3. 3. SHOCK Shock is a syndrome that results from a decrease in effective circulating blood volume or fluid in the body as a result of any injury or illness.
  4. 4. CAUSES • Severe or extension injuries • Severe burns • Severe pain ; heart attack • Electric shock
  5. 5. CAUSES • Loss of blood • Exposure to extreme heat and cold • Poison taken internally • Bites or stinges of poisonous snakes and insects
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF SHOCK • Early loss of consciousness that mainly involves the nervous system and that may be fatal. • Progressive loss of blood from active circulation which may leading to failing heart output and insufficient oxygen to that are vital for survival. • Sustained lower blood pressure which may lead to liver and kidney failure.
  7. 7. HYPOVOLEMIC Due to decreased circulating blood volume in relation to the total vascular capacity and characterized by a reduction of diastolic filling pressures.
  8. 8. CAUSES • Hypovolemic shock results from significant blood or fluid losses in our body. Blood loss of this magnitude can occur because of: • Bleeding from cuts or wounds • Bleeding from blunt traumatic injuries due to accidents or seizure activity • Internal bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract or ruptured ectopic pregnancy
  9. 9. CAUSES In addition to actual blood loss, the loss of body fluids can cause a decrease in blood volume. blood in your body to drop. This can occur in cases of: • Excessive diarrhea • Severe burns • Protracted and excessive vomiting • Excessive sweating
  10. 10. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Anxiety • Blue lips and fingernails • Low or no urine output • Profuse sweating • Shallow breathing • Dizziness
  11. 11. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Confusion • Chest pain • Loss of consciousness • Low blood pressure • Rapid heart rate • Weak pulse
  12. 12. CARDIOGENIC SHOCK Due to cardiac pump failure related to loss of myocardial contractility myocardium or structural failure of the cardiac anatomy and characterized by elevations of diastolic filling pressures and volumes.
  13. 13. CAUSES • Cardiogenic shock occurs whenever the heart is unable to pump as much blood as the body needs. • The most common causes are serious heart complications. Many of these occur during or after a heart attack(myocardial infarction).
  14. 14. CAUSES These complications include: • A large section of heart muscle that no longer moves well or does not move at all • Breaking open (rupture) of the heart muscle due to damage from the heart attack • Dangerous heart rhythms, such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia
  15. 15. CAUSES • Pressure on the heart due to a build up of fluid around it (pericardial tamponade) • Tear or rupture of the muscles or tendons that support the heart valves, especially the mitral valve
  16. 16. CAUSES • Tear or rupture of the wall (septum) between the left and right ventricles (lower heart chambers) • Very slow heart rhythm (bradycardia) or problem with the electrical system of the heart (heart block)
  17. 17. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Chest pain or pressure • Coma • Decreased urination • Fast breathing • Fast pulse • Heavy sweating, moist skin • Light headedness
  18. 18. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Loss of alertness and ability to concentrate • Restlessness, agitation, confusion • Shortness of breath • Skin that feels cool to the touch • Pale skin color or blotchy skin • Weak (thready) pulse • Dysarrythmia
  19. 19. CIRCULATORY SHOCK It is an inadequate blood flow throughout the body. In the absence of mechanisms that function to maintain blood pressure within a normal range of values, blood pressure decreases dramatically.
  20. 20. CIRCULATORY SHOCK As a consequence, tissues can suffer from damage as a result of too little delivery of oxygen to cells. Severe circulatory shock can damage vital body tissues to the extent that death of the individual occurs. This is divided into three types:
  21. 21. SEPTIC SHOCK Septic shock is a medical condition as a result  of severe infection and sepsis, though the  microbe may be systemic or localized to a  particular site
  22. 22. CAUSES • When bacteria or viruses are present in the  bloodstream, the condition is known  as bacteremia or viremia. • Sepsis is a constellation of symptoms  secondary to infection that manifest as  disruptions in heart rate, respiratory rate,  temperature and WBC.
  23. 23. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • High Cardiac Output • Tachycardia • Hyperthermia • Nausea  • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Confusion • Agitation
  24. 24. RISK FACTORS • AGE (<1 and >65yrs.) • Malnourishment • Chronic illness • Invasive procedure
  25. 25. NEUROGENIC SHOCK Neurogenic shock is a distributive type  of shock resulting in hypotension, occasionally  with bradycardia, that is attributed to the  disruption of the autonomic pathways within the  spinal cord.
  26. 26. CAUSES • Severe central nervous system damage (brain  injury, cervical or high thoracic spinal cord).  • In more simple terms: the trauma causes a  sudden loss of  background sympathetic stimulation to the  blood vessels. This causes them to relax  (vasodilation) resulting in a sudden decrease in  blood pressure (secondary to a decrease  in peripheral vascular resistance)
  27. 27. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Dry skin • Hypo tension with bradycardia • Hypothermia • Central venous pressure is low due to  decreased systemic vascular resistance
  28. 28. ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK • An acute systemic allergic reaction • The result of a re-exposure to an antigen that  elicits an IgE mediated response • Usually caused by a common environmental  protein that is not intrinsically harmful
  29. 29. CAUSES • Medication • Foods • Insects Stings • Anti-bodies
  30. 30. CLINICAL MANISFESTATION • Peripheral vasodilation –  vascular permeablility (edema) • Bronchospasm • Cardiac arrhythmias • Smooth muscle contractions
  31. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING SHOCK • PAIN:- It increase severity of shock • PHYSICAL CONDITION:-People who are  starved or exposed to extremes of cold or heat  go into shock easily. • FATIGUE:- It increase severity of shock. • DISEASES:-People having chronic disease  develop shock easily.
  32. 32. FACTORS INFLUENCING SHOCK • IMPROPER CARE/MOVEMENT:-Shock may  be increased by rough and by delay in  treatment 
  33. 33. SIGNS • Causality is anxious and restless. • Weakness ; fatigue or giddiness • Shallow ; rapid and gasping breathing • Nausea; vomiting or extreme thirst • Skin become pale ; cold calming sweating may  develop.
  34. 34. SYMPTOMS • Pulse rate increases; but become weaker • Shaking trembling arms and legs • Blood pressure fail • Unconsciousness may develop • Any external or internal injury
  35. 35. MANAGEMENT • FLUID REPLACEMENTTO RESTORE INTRA  VASCULAR VOLUME FLUID REPLACEMENT IS ADMINISTER IN ALL  TYPE OF SHOCK.  THIS TYPE OF FLUID ADMINISTERED AND  THE SPEED OF DELIVERY VARY BUT  FLUIDS ARE ADMINISTERED TO IMPROVE  CARDIAC TISSUE OXYGENATION.
  36. 36. MANAGEMENT • THE FLUID ADMINISTERED MAY BE CRYSTALLOIDS  COLLOIDS • COMMON IV FLUIDS USED ARE FOR   RSUSCITATION IN HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK  INCLUDES 0.9%.
  37. 37. COMPLICATION • CARE MUST BE TAKEN WHEN RAPID  ADMINISTRING ISOTONIC CRYSTALLOIDS  TO AVOID EXCESS EDEMA ;  PARTICULARLY PULMONARY EDEMA. • CLOSE MONITRING OF PATIENT DURING  FLUID REPLACEMENTS NECESSARY TO  IDENTIFY SIDE EFFECTS .
  38. 38. COMPLICATION • ADVENTITIOUS LUNG SOUNDS SUCH A  CRACKLES MAY INDICATE PULMONARY  EDEMA.
  39. 39. MANAGEMENT VASO ACTIVE MEDICATION THERAPY • ADMINSTERD IN ALL FORMS OF SHOCK TO  IMPROVE THE PATIENT HAEMODYNAMIC  STATUS. • SELECTED FOR THEIR ACTION ON  RECEPTORS OF THE SYMPATHETIC  NERVOUS.
  40. 40. MANAGEMENT • THESE RECEPTOR ARE RECEPTOR ARE :- a)ALPHA- ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR b)BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR 
  41. 41. MANAGEMENT • OTHER MEDICATION:- I. ANTA ACIDS II.H2 BLOCKERS III.RANITIDINE IV.PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR TO PREVENT ULCERS
  42. 42. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY • INCREASE ENERGY REQIREMENT AND THERFORE CALORIE REQUIREMENT. • PARENTRAL OR ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT SHOULD BE INITIATED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.
  43. 43. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT •REASSURE THE CASUALITY
  44. 44. BODY POSITIONING
  45. 45. INCASE OF HEAD INJURIES
  46. 46. •THE HEAD MAY NOT BE ELEVATED IN CASE OF IF THERE IN CASE OF MUCUS IN THROAT
  47. 47. 102;108 FOR AMBULANCE
  48. 48. DO NOT • APPLY HOT WATER BOTTLE • MOVE THE CASUALITY UNNECESSARILY .THIS WILL INCREASE THE SHOCK. • LET THE CASUALITY SMOKE • GIVE CASUALITY BY MOUTH
  49. 49. HAEMORRHAGE
  50. 50. HAEMORRHAGE BLEEDING TECHNICALLY KNOWN AS HAEMORHAGING;IS THE LOSS OF BLOOD ESCAPING FROM THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. BLEEDING CAN OCCUR INTERNALLY OR EXTERNALLY…….
  51. 51. TYPES • ARTERIAL BLEEDING • VENOUS BLEEDING • CAPILLARY BLEEDING
  52. 52. ARTERIAL BLEEDING • BLOOD IS BRIGHT RED IN COLOUR. • IT SPURTS AT EACH CONTRACTION. • FLOW IS PULSATIVE.
  53. 53. VENOUS BLEEDING • BLOOD IS DARK RED IN COLOUR. • IT DOES NOT SPURTS. • SLOW BUT EVEN FLOW
  54. 54. CAPILLARY BLEEDING • BLOOD IS RED IN COLOUR • IT DOES NOT SPURTS • SLOW BUT EVEN FLOW
  55. 55. EFFECT OF HEMORRHAGE • LOSS OF RBC CAUSE LACK OF OXYGEN. • A DECREASE IN BLOOD VOLUME CAUSE A DECREASSE IN BP. • THE HEART PUMPING RATE INCREASES TO COMPENSATE FOR BLOOD PRESSURE. • THE FORCE OF THE HEART BEAT IS REDUCED SINCE THERE IS BLOOD TO PUMP.
  56. 56. CLASSIFICATION • EXTERNAL BLEEDING • INTERNAL BLEEDING
  57. 57. EXTERNAL BLEEDING EXTERNAL BLEEDING CAN BE OCCUR EITHER THROUGH A NATURAL OPENING SUCH AS THE MOUTH , NOSE , EAR , URETHRA, VAGINA, OR ANUS THROUGH A BREAK IN THE SKIN.
  58. 58. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS • THIRST • BLURRING OF VISION • FAINTING • GIDDINESS • PULSE BECOME FASTER BUT WEAKER • RESTLESSNESS
  59. 59. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS • BREATHING BECOME SHALLOW • UNCONCIOUSNESS MAY OCCUR • FACE AND LIPS BECOME PALE SKIN FEELS COOL AND CALMMY
  60. 60. INTERAL BLEEDING • HISTORY OF SUFFICIENT INJURY TO CAUSE INTERNAL BLEEDING. • WOUNDS THAT HAVE PNETRATED SKULL ; CHEST; ABDOMEN. • PAIN AND TENDERNESS AROUND THE AFFFECTED AREA; SWELLING AND TENSION MAY BE FELT.
  61. 61. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS • BLOOD MAY APPEAR FROM ONE BODY ORIFICES NOSE; EAR; MOUTH; RECTUM etc. • FRACTURE OF LONG BONE (ARM AND THIGH) • BLOOD OUTSIDE THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IS VERY IRRITATING TO TISSUE.
  62. 62. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS • INTR CRANIAL BLEEDING • INTRA ABDOMINAL BLEEDING
  63. 63. GENERAL TREATMENT • LIE THE VICTIM ; FLEX THE LEGIN SEMI- FLEXED POSITION:- I. MAINTAIN AIRWAY II.CONTROL THE BLEEDING • PREVENT LLOSSS OF BODY HEAT • VICTIM SHOULD BE AT REST
  64. 64. BODY POSITIONING
  65. 65. MINOR EXTERNAL INJURY • WASH YOUR HAND BEFORE DEALING WITH WOUND(IF POSSIBLE) • IF IT IS DIRTY LIGHTLY RINSE IT WITH RUNNING WATER IF AVAILABLE • SECURE WITH STERILE DRESSING(IF POSSIBLE) • ELEVATE THE INJURED PART
  66. 66. MAJOR EXTERNAL INJURY • DO NOT WASTE TIME HUNTING FOR A DRESSSING • APPLY PRESSURE BY A CLEAN CLOTH • ELEVATE THE PART • ARTERIAL BLEEDING CAN BE CONTROLLED BY THUMB OR FINGER PRESSURE
  67. 67. INTERNAL BLEEDING • KEEP CASUALITY DOWN WITH HEAD LOW • IF INJURY ALLOW RAISE THE LEG TO AID THE RETURN OF BLOOD FLOW TO VITAL ORGAN • LOOSEN ANY CONSTRICTION CLOTHING AROUND NECK; CHEST; AND WAIST. • MINIMISE SHOCK
  68. 68. INTERNAL BLEEDING • CHECK FOR a) BREATHING b) PULSE c) LEVEL OF RESPONSIVENESS AT 10 MINUTES INTERVAL • KEEP CASUALITY COVER
  69. 69. INTERNAL BLEEDING DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH…………
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Shock is a syndrome that results from a decrease in effective circulating blood volume or fluid in the body as a result of any injury or illness

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