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  1. 1. Submitted to Neelam Miss
  2. 2.     Increasing urbanization & industrialization has to led to mass consumption and over-exploitation of resources. With the increasing incomes, rising standard of life, and mass production the amount of waste generation has also increased tremendously. Unfortunately the rapid growth in urban infrastructural development is not in sync with scientific progress in methods of waste recycling and waste treatment. We all produce waste nearly everything we do. A variety of wastes in early are produced as we perform our activities such as cooking, farming, maintaining our home or school, running a shop, business, industry, or office in our day to day life.
  3. 3.    Materials that are discarded, unused & rejected as worthless or unwanted are knowns as WASTE. It is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage or junk depending upon the types of materials and the regional terminology. It is infact difficult t define specifically what a waste is. Item that some people discard have value to others. It is widely recognised that waste materials are a valuable resource, whilst there is a debate as to how this value is realised. Government need to define what waste is in order to ensure the safe & legal disposal of the waste
  4. 4.  Waste exists in three forms such as Solid, Liquid and Gaseous. Solid waste is easily visible. It is generated from various activities like construction, industries, mining, commerce, offices and domestic use. Liquid and Gaseous waste is also generated from these sources in various quantities. In our homes also we produced all three forms of waste materials. Waste can be either wet or dry.
  5. 5. a) Hazardous waste. b) Non-hazardous waste. Hazardous waste : Hazardous waste materials which are highly toxic to humans, animals and plants. These materials react when exposed to certain things, for e.g. gases. Some of the hazardous waste can cause genetic disorder. Certain types of hospital waste and industrial wastes are considered hazardous waste as they contain toxic substance.
  6. 6. Non-Hazardous waste : Non-hazardous waste include municipal and household waste, construction and domestic waste etc. It may further be classified into “Biodegradable” and “Non-biodegradable” waste. 1) Biodegradable waste : Biodegradable waste is also known as organic waste. For e.g. Vegetable peels, remains of fruits, vegetables, bones, meat, and etc. Biodegradable wastes are decomposed by earthworms, ants, fungi and microbes. The degraded materials again enter the biogeochemical cycles.
  7. 7. 2) Non-Biodegradable waste: Non-biodegradable waste consists of synthetic materials like plastics, thermocol, rayon, nylon aluminium foil, rubber etc. Some of non-biodegradable waste materials contain recyclable components. They include paper, plastic, metal, glass etc. Another way of classification of waste is Toxic waste and Non-Toxic waste. Toxic waste includes waste from mines, industries, car exhaust fumes, lead, mercury, radioactive wastes etc. Non-toxic waste includes paper, rags, vegetables, fruits, meat etc.
  8. 8.   Plastic have become an indispensable part of our daily life but repeated reprocessing of plastic waste, and its disposal cause environmental problems, pose health hazards, in addition to being a public nuisance. Packing is the major application accounting for nearly 52%of plastic consumption. Plastic carry bags made from virgin plastics are accepted as user friendly. The problem arises when plastics are recycled for repeated use. Carry bags manufactured using third and low grade recycled materials are acceptable and are the main environmental culprits.
  9. 9.   The government of Himachal Pradesh was one of the earliest to introduce legislation prohibiting the throwing and disposing of plastic articles in public places. recycling of plastic waste is a major activity in India through which thousands families earn livelihood. Any decision to suddenly restrict this sector will have serious economic and social repurcussion. At the same time environmental issues involved need to be addressed. The challenge for environmental administrators lies in reconciling these two aspects
  10. 10. MYTH:- Plastic bags are harmful as they clog the drains FACT:- Plastic bags are lighter(less dense) than water; hence they float. This why they accumulate when thrown indiscriminately. MYTH:- Paper bags should be used instead of plastic. FACT:- Paper is made from wood and hence would require forest cover to be cut. Also, manufacturing paper bags require two & a half times the energy, compared to the manufacture of plastic bags of the same size. The manufacture of paper produces significantly higher air pollutants too.