2nd year human development practical
Submitted by group II
(Aishwarya, Damini, Harshita)
Mrs. Joyti meena
TYEPS OF DELIVERY PROCESS
birth-Done normally in each case.
(Normal human birth)
It is a normal delivery process in which child birth takes
place by passing through vaginal passage
Of the mother.
Caesarean birth-Done during serious cases.
(By operation )
In this process child birth is not normal but an operation
took place for delivery
are three stages for delivery
Before active labour starts, your body
goes through some changes in preparation, so it's not
always easy to tell exactly when labour has started.
When your baby is ready to be born, the balance of
hormones (chemicals found naturally in your body)
changes and makes your cervix (the neck of your womb)
become softer and shorter.
Hormones also cause you to have contractions. The
muscles in your womb tense and relax so that your cervix
stretches and opens (dilates)
It may take some time for the contractions to become
regular but they will gradually get stronger and closer
Most women are healthy and have a straightforward pregnancy and labour.
More than eight out of 10 women give birth vaginally to a single baby after
37 weeks of their pregnancy with the baby being born head first.
At first you may only have a contraction every 15 to 30
minutes. After a while, they will be more frequent and
stronger, occurring every two to three minutes. The
length of time that each contraction lasts is usually
between 10 and 40 seconds, but this will be different for
When you have a contraction, you will feel a build-up of
tension across your abdomen (tummy), pain in your back
and possibly also between your thighs and low down in
your pelvis. You may also find that your waters break.
This is a normal part of labour and is when the bag of
fluid that surrounds your baby breaks as your cervix
widens. It's also referred to as your membranes rupturing.
The fluid may rush out in one go or in a steady leak.
When the woman feels the pressure of baby moving down the birthing canal, she will
feel a need to push. This pushing action, combined with the muscle contractions of
the uterus will move baby slowly down the birthing canal toward the opening of the
vaginal. While many mothers and father simply do not understand how baby will fit
through the canal, the female body is made to handle just this movement.
Second stage-The second stage of labour is
when you give birth to your baby. It usually lasts
about one to two hours.
As your baby's head gets lower, you will eventually
feel a strong urge to push and this helps your baby to
be born. This is a unique feeling which your body does
of its own accord. You will still be having contractions
to help you push, though they may be less frequent
but longer. You may feel more comfortable if you are
upright, kneeling, sitting or squatting.
As you push, your baby moves further down through
your pelvis until his or her head stays at the entrance
to your vagina between contractions. This is called
'crowning' and means your baby is about to be born.
Usually, your baby’s head is born first, followed by
the shoulders and the rest of the body.
As pressure on the cervix
increases, women may have the
sensation of pelvic pressure and
an urge to begin pushing
, the head is fully engaged in
the pelvis; the widest diameter
of the head has passed below
the level of the pelvic inlet. The
fetal head then continues
descent into the pelvis, below
the pubic arch and out through
the vaginalintroitus (opening).
This is assisted by the additional
maternal efforts of "bearing
down" or pushing
Complete expulsion of the baby
signals the success
stage-This is when the placenta and
membranes that held your baby in the womb are
passed out of your body.
As your baby's shoulders are being born, you will
be given an injection of a hormone called
oxytocin, or a combination of oxytocin and a
medicine called ergometrine. Within about two
minutes, these cause your womb to contract
strongly to help reduce serious bleeding. The
umbilical cord is clamped and cut about two to
three minutes after your baby is born. The
midwife or doctor will then deliver the placenta
by pulling gently with one hand on the part of
the umbilical cord that is still attached to it.
The period from just after the fetus is expelled until just
after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage.
The umbilical cord is routinely clamped and cut in this
stage. General hospital-based obstetric practice
introduces artificial clamping as early as 1 minute after
the birth of the child. In birthing centers, this may be
delayed by 5 minutes or more, or omitted entirely.
Delayed clamping of the cord decreases the risk of
anemia but may increase risk of jaundice. Clamping is
followed by cutting of the cord, which is painless due to
the absence of nerves.
expulsion begins as a
separation from the
wall of the uterus.
The period from just
after the fetus is
expelled until just
after the placenta is
expelled is called
the third stage of
labour. The average
time from delivery of
the baby until
complete expulsion of
the placenta is
estimated to be 10–12
minutes dependent on
whether active or