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Topics covered:
1. Introduction to LI-FI
2. LI-FI Construction
3. How Li-Fi Works?
4. Advantages
5. Future Scope
6. Conclusion

Published in: Technology
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  1. 1. LIGHT FIDELITY TECHNOLOGY (LI FI) Introduction LiFi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fibre out of fibre optics by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. In simple terms, Li-Fi can be thought of as a light-based Wi-Fi. That is, it uses light instead of radio waves to transmit information and instead of Wi-Fi modems, Li-Fi would use transceiver-fitted LED lamps that can light a room as well as transmit and receive information. Since simple light bulbs are used, there can technically be any number of access points. Li-Fi is a Visible Light Communication (VLC), technology developed by a team of scientists including Dr Gordon Povey, Prof. Harald Haas and Dr Mostafa Afgani at the University of Edinburgh. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof. Haas when he amazed people by streaming high-definition video from a standard LED lamp, at TED Global in July 2011. Li-Fi is now part of the Visible Light Communications (VLC) PAN IEEE 802.15.7 standard. This technology uses a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is still not greatly utilized i.e. the “Visible Spectrum”. Li-Fi, as it has been named, has already achieved blisteringly high speeds in the lab. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin, Germany, have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED. Although, it is also believed that Li-Fi can provide more than 10 Gbps, theoretically allowing a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds.
  2. 2. LI FI Construction The LI FI product consists of 4 primary sub-assemblies: • Bulb • RF power amplifier circuit (PA) • Printed circuit board (PCB) • Enclosure The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the microcontroller used to manage different lamp functions. A radio-frequency (RF) signal is generated by the solid-state PA and is guided into an electric field about the bulb. The high concentration of energy in the electric field vaporizes the contents of the bulb to a plasma state at the bulb’s centre; this controlled plasma generates an intense source of light. All of these subassemblies are contained in an aluminium enclosure. LI FI Block Diagram How Li-Fi Works? Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter. These devices are normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current. However, by fast and subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. This very property of optical current is used in Li-Fi setup. The operational procedure is very simple-, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if it’s off you transmit a 0. The LEDs can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitting data.
  3. 3. Hence all that is required is some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs. All one has to do is to vary the rate at which the LED’s flicker depending upon the data we want to encode. Further enhancements can be made in this method, like using an array of LEDs for parallel data transmission, or using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light’s frequency with each frequency encoding a different data channel. Advantages 1. Green information technology Unlike radio-waves and other communication waves having an effect on the birds, human bodies etc, Li-Fi never gives such side effects on any living thing. This phenomenon has been termed as Green information technology and can be extensively used to avoid ill effects of radio waves. 2. Free From Frequency Bandwidth Problem Li-fi is a communication medium in the form of light, so there is nothing to worry about the frequency bandwidth problem. It can utilize the unutilized spectrum resulting in lesser costs of communication and lesser licensing issues. 3. Increased Communication Safety Due to visual light communication, the node or any terminal attached to our network is visible to the other hosts enabling safer channels for communication. 4. Multi User Communication Li-Fi supports the broadcasting of network helping to share multiple resources at a single instance called broadcasting server. Future Scope 1. Li-Fi can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fibre like hospitals. 2. In operation theatre Li-Fi can be used for modern medical instruments. 3. In traffic signals Li-Fi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of the cars and accident numbers can be decreased. 4. Thousand and millions of street lamps can be transferred to LiFi lamps to transfer data providing internet connectivity using visual light communication.. 5. Li-Fi can also be used in aircrafts for noise free and secure data transmission.
  4. 4. 6. It can be used in petroleum chemical or power plants where other transmission or frequencies can be hazardous. Conclusion The Li-Fi technology has numerous opportunities of research and this segment can be explored further. If the technology is put into practical use, every bulb can be used something like a Wi-Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data. This will help us to proceed towards the cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future. The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest, not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless.