LIGHT FIDELITY TECHNOLOGY (LI FI)
LiFi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fibre out of fibre optics by
sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can
follow. In simple terms, Li-Fi can be thought of as a light-based Wi-Fi. That is, it uses light
instead of radio waves to transmit information and instead of Wi-Fi modems, Li-Fi would use
transceiver-fitted LED lamps that can light a room as well as transmit and receive
information. Since simple light bulbs are used, there can technically be any number of access
Li-Fi is a Visible Light Communication (VLC), technology developed by a team of scientists
including Dr Gordon Povey, Prof. Harald Haas and Dr Mostafa Afgani at the University of
Edinburgh. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof. Haas when he amazed people by streaming
high-definition video from a standard LED lamp, at TED Global in July 2011. Li-Fi is now
part of the Visible Light Communications (VLC) PAN IEEE 802.15.7 standard.
This technology uses a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is still not greatly utilized
i.e. the “Visible Spectrum”.
Li-Fi, as it has been named, has already achieved blisteringly high speeds in the lab.
Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin, Germany, have reached data rates of
over 500 megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED. Although, it is also
believed that Li-Fi can provide more than 10 Gbps, theoretically allowing a high-definition
film to be downloaded in 30 seconds.
LI FI Construction
The LI FI product consists of 4 primary sub-assemblies:
• RF power amplifier circuit (PA)
• Printed circuit board (PCB)
The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the microcontroller
used to manage different lamp functions. A radio-frequency (RF) signal is generated by the
solid-state PA and is guided into an electric field about the bulb. The high concentration of
energy in the electric field vaporizes the contents of the bulb to a plasma state at the bulb’s
centre; this controlled plasma generates an intense source of light. All of these subassemblies
are contained in an aluminium enclosure.
LI FI Block Diagram
How Li-Fi Works?
Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter.
These devices are normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current.
However, by fast and subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary
at extremely high speeds.
This very property of optical current is used in Li-Fi setup. The operational procedure is very
simple-, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if it’s off you transmit a 0. The LEDs
can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitting data.
Hence all that is required is some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs. All
one has to do is to vary the rate at which the LED’s flicker depending upon the data we want
Further enhancements can be made in this method, like using an array of LEDs for parallel
data transmission, or using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light’s
frequency with each frequency encoding a different data channel.
1. Green information technology
Unlike radio-waves and other communication waves having an effect on the birds, human
bodies etc, Li-Fi never gives such side effects on any living thing. This phenomenon has been
termed as Green information technology and can be extensively used to avoid ill effects of
2. Free From Frequency Bandwidth Problem
Li-fi is a communication medium in the form of light, so there is nothing to worry about the
frequency bandwidth problem. It can utilize the unutilized spectrum resulting in lesser costs
of communication and lesser licensing issues.
3. Increased Communication Safety
Due to visual light communication, the node or any terminal attached to our network is
visible to the other hosts enabling safer channels for communication.
4. Multi User Communication
Li-Fi supports the broadcasting of network helping to share multiple resources at a single
instance called broadcasting server.
1. Li-Fi can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fibre like
2. In operation theatre Li-Fi can be used for modern medical instruments.
3. In traffic signals Li-Fi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of
the cars and accident numbers can be decreased.
4. Thousand and millions of street lamps can be transferred to LiFi lamps to
transfer data providing internet connectivity using visual light communication..
5. Li-Fi can also be used in aircrafts for noise free and secure data transmission.
6. It can be used in petroleum chemical or power plants where other transmission or
frequencies can be hazardous.
The Li-Fi technology has numerous opportunities of research and this segment can be
explored further. If the technology is put into practical use, every bulb can be used something
like a Wi-Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data. This will help us to proceed towards the
cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future. The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great
deal of interest, not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to