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  1. 1. APPLICATIONS OF MICRO CHP IN HOSPITALS Harshad Suresh Desai, NITC Gopalakrishnan VC, NITC
  3. 3. A WhisperGen micro CHP UNIT
  4. 4. What is CHP? <ul><li>CHP stands for Combined Heat and Power. Also called Co-generation </li></ul><ul><li>It is the efficient use of fuel for energy conversions into Heat and Electric Power </li></ul><ul><li>A CHP plant generates heat and electricity simultaneously </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>CHP plants reach efficiencies of almost 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Using CHP means using less amount of fuel for same amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>It is economic, environmental friendly and easy to operate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Central Power Generation compared with CHP plant Source: Climate Energy, Massachusetts, USA
  8. 8. CHP UNITS are classified on the basis of operating parameter driven operation CHP UNITS INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANTS eg: in sugar factory MICRO/MINI CHP PLANTS eg: in residential areas
  9. 9. <ul><li>CHP units in Industries are driven by electrical demand with heat as by product used for heating purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial CHP units rated in MW electrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper, food processing, sugar, fertilizers and chemical industries usually have CHP installations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Micro CHP is replacing a conventional boiler for heating purposes of a hospital or residential area. </li></ul><ul><li>These are thermal led meaning heat is the primary output with electricity as useful byproduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence these are rated in Thermal kW. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Hospitals are critical loads in terms of heat as well as power. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous electricity is required for all sensitive medical devices. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid outages hospitals are provided power directly from sub-stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some hospitals have their own Diesel-Generator Sets, Photovoltaic Panels etc for continuous power supply. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Thermal energy is used for sterilization, steam supply and hot water purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the hospitals generate heat using conventional boilers. </li></ul><ul><li>These boilers burn fuels like coal, natural gas, diesel and the like. </li></ul><ul><li>With the rising climate concerns many hospitals have now shifted to Solar Panels for heat generation as well. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>When hospitals derive energy from two separate sources the transmission losses incurred are more. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals must minimize these losses to concentrate on their prime motive of patient care. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus in case of hospitals which have energy demand for all the 24 hours, CHP unit is the best possible solution. </li></ul>
  15. 15. COMPONENTS OF CHP Source: Creative Environment Networks Website(
  16. 16. <ul><li>Prime Movers can be IC Engines, Stirling Engines, Rankine Cycles or Fuel Cells. </li></ul><ul><li>IC Engines though cheap have limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Stirling Engines are the most popular ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Rankine cycles are used in power plants. Organic Rankine cycles are being developed as CHP prime movers. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cells have high initial costs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Natural gas is the most preferred fuel for micro CHP. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easily available, burns cleanly and is easy to transport. </li></ul><ul><li>However, economists believe extensive use may increase cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Other fuels include coal, diesel, biofuels and heavy oils. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Generators are rated on the basis of peak electrical and thermal demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat recovery system extracts heat from engine cooling systems and waste gases. </li></ul><ul><li>An automated control system is essential for the ease of operation of micro CHP in hospitals. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>A micro CHP unit operates most efficiently when delivering energy continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals are perfect examples of continuous energy requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic benefits include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Direct savings due to lower transmission </li></ul><ul><li>and distribution losses. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Generation of income through export to utility. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hospitals can avail carbon offsets. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Savings can be allocated as funds for patient care. </li></ul><ul><li>CHP installation increases the reliability of continuous energy supply to the critical medical devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity derived from CHP is carbon free and hence is environment friendly. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The hospitals must implement all other energy efficiency measures before going for CHP. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of CHP unit is inversely proportional to its size. </li></ul><ul><li>Before installation the hospital must have a feasibility study. </li></ul><ul><li>The study includes annual profile of electricity and heat demand, the hospital size, distribution type, the present heat and electricity tariffs and finance available. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The study should also determine the potential benefits of the installation and an initial low-cost appraisal must be performed. </li></ul><ul><li>An off site metering and control system is best suited for the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>An Energy Services firm may be hired for the detailed study as well as the implementation and off site control. </li></ul><ul><li>This way hospitals worry only about the cost to the firm. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Installation of many CHP units may cause potential damage to the grid. </li></ul><ul><li>A proper control system would ensure the export synchronization and hence decreasing the unpredictable nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy trading (Net Metering) may not always be beneficial to the producer. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing newer trading practices is a possible solution. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>An increase in CHP units may result in price instability of fuels like natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid such situations it is important to have R&D in multi fuel engines i.e. engines which may run on other fuels like bio-fuels, fuel cell technologies. </li></ul>
  28. 28. CONCLUSION
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Governments throughout the world are striving for energy security. </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of India through the Electricity Act 2003 emphasizes the need of deregulated power sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals demand continuous high power along with heat. </li></ul><ul><li>CHP installations in hospitals may be one of the possible solutions to meet deregulation in the generating sector. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>A CHP installation is reliable, ecologically sound and provides sustained reductions in energy costs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to have a feasibility study before sizing a CHP unit in the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>Once installed their maintenance is to be ensured as savings are lost every minute the unit is not in operation. </li></ul>
  31. 31. A Tecogen CHP Unit
  32. 32. REFERENCES <ul><li>1. Jeremy Harrison 'MICRO COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) FOR HOUSING', 3rd International conference on sustainable energy technologies,Nottingham,UK,June 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Good Practice Guides, Combined Heat and Power in Hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Climate Energy website (HTTP :// ) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bob Olmstead, 'Mini Package CHP in the Manufacturing Process', Aegis Energy Services, Inc </li></ul><ul><li>5. R.Jablko, C.Saniter & R.Hanitsch, S.Holler, 'Technical and Economic Comparisons of Micro CHP Systems', Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cogeneration Association of India website (HTTP :// ) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Cogen Europe website (HTTP :// ) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Wikipedia website (HTTP :// ) </li></ul><ul><li>9. T.K.Nagsarkar, M.S.Sukhija, 'Power System Analysis' , Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>10. Ted Bronson, 'Combined Cooling,Heating and Power Technologies (CHP): An Overview ', Combined Heat And Power Symposium, February 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>11. HTTP :// </li></ul><ul><li>12.Creative Environment Networks, (CEN) website (HTTP :// ) </li></ul>
  33. 33. THANK YOU