A quark is an elementary particle and a
fundamental constituent of matter.
Quarks combine to form composite particles
called hadrons, the most stable of which are
protons and neutrons, the components of atomic
Quarks are never found in isolation.
Statistical behavior: Fermion
1st, 2nd, 3rd
+2⁄3 e, −1⁄3 e
A proton composed of two up
quarks and one down quark
•Since 1969, many other experiments have been conducted to determine
the underlying structure of protons/neutrons.
All the experiments come to the same conclusion.
Protons and neutrons are composed of smaller constituents.
These quarks are the same ones predicted by Gell-Mann & Zweig in 1964.
2 “up” quarks
1 “down” quark
1x 10-18 m
1 “up” quark
2 “down” quarks
(1.6 x 10-15 m)
• At the time of the quark theory's
inception, the "particle zoo "
included, amongst other particles, a
multitude of hadrons .
The quark model was independently
proposed by physicists Murray GellMann and George Zweig in 1964
TYPES OF QUARK
There are six type of Quark
Constituents of hadrons,
most prominently, proton
discovered in cosmic rays
in both pp and e+ecollisions.
Discovered in collisions of
protons on nuclei
Discovered in pp collisions
SLAC = Stanford Linear Accelerator
BNL = Brookhaven National Lab
GEnERATIOn OF QUARKS
Also, each quark has a corresponding antiquark.
The antiquarks have opposite charg to the quarks
Six of the particles in the Standard
Model are quarks (shown in purple).
The Standard Model is the theoretical framework
describing all the currently known elementary
particles, as well as the unobserved Higgs boson.
This model contains six flavors of quarks (q),
named up(u), down (d), charm (c), strange (s),
top (t), and bottom (b).
Antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks and
are denoted by a bar over the symbol for the
corresponding quark, such as u for an up
PROPERTIES OF QUARK
QUARK POSSESS FIVE PROPERTIES
STRONG INTERACTION & COLOR CHARGE
Quarks have fractional electric charge values either − 1⁄3
or +2⁄3 times the elementary charge depending on
flavor. Up, charm, and top quarks (collectively referred
to as up-type quarks) have a charge of +2⁄3, while down,
strange, and bottom quarks (down-type quarks) have
Antiquarks have the opposite charge to their
corresponding quarks; up-type antiquarks have charges
of −2⁄3 and down-type antiquarks have charges of +1⁄3
Spin is an intrinsic property of elementary particles,
and its direction is an important degree of freedom.
The spin value of up quark is +1/2 & -1/2 for down
Spin can be represented by a vector whose length is
measured in units of the reduced Planck constant ħ
(pronounced "h bar").
For quarks, a measurement of the spin vector
component along any axis can only yield the values
+ħ/2 or −ħ/2
A quark of one flavor can transform into a quark of
another flavor only through the weak interaction.
By absorbing or emitting a W boson, any up-type quark
(up, charm, and top quarks) can change into any downtype quark (down, strange, and bottom quarks) and vice
. This flavor transformation mechanism causes the
radioactive process of beta decay in which a neutron (n)
"splits" into a proton (p), an electron (e−) and an electron
n→ p + e
+ νe (Beta decay, hadron notation)
STROnG InTERACTIOn And COLOUR
•Quarks possess a property called color charge.
• There are three types of color charge,
arbitrarily labeled blue, green, and red.
•Each of them is complemented by an anticolor
—antiblue, antigreen, and antired. Every quark
carries a color, while every antiquark carries an
Two terms are used in referring to a quark's mass:
current quark mass refers to the mass of a quark by
itself, while constituent quark mass refers to the
current quark mass plus the mass of the gluon
particle field surrounding the quark.
These masses typically have very different value.
Quarks, gluons, neutrinos and all sorts
of other things much smaller than
protons and electrons.
Gluons only exist to hold quarks
together, so we can't do anything with