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Operating Systems As a Product


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This presentation was in respect to present operating system as product , as it tells about the general operating systems and how it started and how they are projected as product to market.

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Operating Systems As a Product

  1. 1. Operating System Harshit Srivastava
  2. 2. Outline • • • • • • • • • • What is operating system How it helps Types of operating system The very first OS and the progressive ones Why it was developed (Need of OS) How needs increased Working Of OS (basic) Applications and Uses Future OS Conclusion
  3. 3. What is Operating System • An operating system manages computer resources, such as memory and input/output devices, and provides an interface through which a human can interact with the computer • An operating system allows an application program to interact with these other system resources
  4. 4. Operating System An operating system interacts with many aspects of a computer system.
  5. 5. OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Layers Of A System Humans Program Interface User Programs O.S. Interface O.S. Hardware Interface/ Privileged Instructions Disk/Tape/Memory 1: Operating Systems Overview 5
  6. 6. Why Was Operating System Developed
  7. 7. How it Helps • The various roles of an operating system generally revolve around the idea of “sharing nicely” • An operating system manages resources, and these resources are often shared in one way or another among programs that want to use them • Like o Multiprogramming which deals in keeping multiple programsin main memory at the same time these programs compete access to the CPU so that they can execute. o Memory Management which keeps track of what program are in memory and where in memory they reside.
  8. 8. How it Helps • Hiding the complexities of hardware from the user • Managing between the hardware's resources which include the processors, memory, data storage and I/O devices • Handling "interrupts" generated by the I/O controllers • Sharing of I/O between many programs using the CPU • And in some cases providing user interface to work easily.
  9. 9. Is There More Than One Type Of OS? • Generally, there are four types, based on the type of computer they control and the sort of applications they support. 1.Single-user, single task This type manages the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time.
  10. 10. Types Of Operating System 2. Multi-user, multi-task • Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. MAINFRAME
  11. 11. Types Of Operating System 3. Real Time Operating Systems RTOS are used to control machinery, scientific instruments, and industrial systems. There is typically very little userinterface capability. Resources are managed so that a particular operation executes precisely the same every time.
  12. 12. Types Of Operating System 4. Single-user, Multi-tasking This is the type of operating system most desktops and laptops use today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s MacOS are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several same time Programs in operation at the same time. Microsoft" Windows Mac OS
  13. 13. Operating System • There are few more enduring manifestations of user interface technology than that of the Graphical User Interface Desktop. Pioneered by engineers at Xerox PARC, refined by Steve Jobs and Apple and brought to masses and ingrained into our daily lives by Microsoft Windows
  14. 14. Graphical User interface OS launched • Apple company was the first company which introduced the graphical user interfaced operating system as macintosh • Microsoft which started a major breakthrough by developing a graphical user interfaced OS known as Windows while competing with apple macintosh
  15. 15. Windows 1 Major OS’s PC Windows ce/ne Windows vista Windows xp Windows 7 Windows 6 and 6.5 Windows 8 Microsoft Mobile/PDA Windows mango 7.5 Windows 8 Mobile Cheetah licensed Rhapsody MAC OS X Cheetah Puma PC/Laptop MAC OS X Hera MAC OS X Jaguar MAC OS X Panther MAC OS X Kodiak MAC OS Leopard Lion Mountain Lion Tiger Mobile Phone iOS IPAD Snow Leopard MAC OS X Mini Operating system BSD UNIX RHEl Chrome Open Solaris Susi Linux Fedora PC/Laptop MS DOS Cupcake Android Donut (1.6) Froyo Éclair(2-2.1) Gingerbread ICS HoneyComb Jelly Bean Open Source Ubuntu Kit Kat (near future) Mobile Phone Symbion Bada Mavericks
  16. 16. The very 1st Operating Sytem The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any form of operating system EXEC was the very first operating system developed by UNIVAC who was the first commercial computer manufacturer in 1970’s which was based on Real Time basic to support large scale time sharing. TOPS-10 and TOPS-20 was next few OS developed by Digital Equipment Corporation which were time sharing systems for the 36-bit PDP-10 class systems. Prior to the widespread use of UNIX, TOPS-10 was a particularly popular system in universities, and in the early ARPANET community. MS-DOS and UNIX were the major breakthrough in development of OS which is said as written of Microsoft Corporation(Precisely) under IBM PC, Intel 8088 CPU and Motorola 6899 CPU family.
  17. 17. Most famous Operating System • UNIX is the most famous Operating System which is the current base of the most working operating system now days. • Basically UNIX was written in assembly language by Ken Thompson in AT&T Bell laboratories and Unix rewritten in C, developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system • UNIX based OS are basically Servers, Workstation and Linux and BSD based operating system.
  18. 18. Working of Operating System
  19. 19. The Process States of Operating System • The Process States •
  20. 20. Basic functions of the operating system Device configuration Controls peripheral devices connected to the computer File management Operating System Transfers files between main memory and secondary storage, manages file folders, allocates the secondary storage space, and provides file protection and recovery Memory management Allocates the use of random access memory (RAM) to requesting processes Interface platform Allows the computer to run other applications
  21. 21. Operating System Design and Implementation • Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful • Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely • Start by defining goals and specifications • Affected by choice of hardware, type of system • User goals and System goals • User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast • System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient •
  22. 22. Simple Structure • MS-DOS – written to provide the most functionality in the least space • Not divided into modules • Although MS-DOS has some structure, its interfaces and levels of functionality are not well separated •
  23. 23. Application And Uses • Applications • Providing a proper base to run programs of different kind like • • • • • • Military use Government use Business purpose Commercial Purpose Education purpose To develop new program with easy user interface. • Uses • The main use of an operating system is to ensure that a computer can be used and do exactly what the user wants it to do. •
  24. 24. Source-
  25. 25. Future Operating Systems • The operating system - the baseline operating system: a typical desktop Linux can be quite resource hungry. However, properly specified Linux also has a proven track record of offering services within a restricted resource environment such as on mobile phones or media players. • An opportunity for RISC OS? • RISC OS has in it's favour: • It can work in a low memory, slow CPU environment. Current versions of RISCOS can boot to a desktop with less than 512k of RAM. Even this could be improved upon with customisation. • It's designed to be ROM loadable with only a few disk based resources. RISC OS doesn't need to be tied to a hard disk as it doesn't need a swap file or masses of disk based configuration. If the OS is installed it ROM, it can even boot without a hard disk. • Fast start up and shutdown. On most RO workstations, there is a 'shutdown procedure' but this is mainly to flush any disc buffers. It's not a protracted sequence. • It's modular: it's designed to have features added to its core and to be tailored to a specific task. •
  26. 26. Conclusion • For person with a desktop machine, the OS gives interface to the machine that fills some gaps in his digital life. As such a user can connect the hardware and can control to his existing network through OS interface easily, it could occupy a conceptual space similar to that of Apple's new iTV device but somewhat more computer than dedicated media. •
  27. 27. References • • • Application of Operating System Concepts to Coordination in Pervasive Sensing and Computing Systems by Jesse M. Davis, Joseph B. Evans Benjamin J. Ewy, Larry M. Sanders, 2006 • • •
  28. 28. Thank You