NUCLEAR
REACTOR
TECHNOLOGY

1
Introduction to Nuclear
Reactor
A nuclear reactor is a device in
which nuclear chain reactions are
initiated, controlled, ...
Heat Generation
The reactor core generates heat in a
number of ways:
•The kinetic energy of fission products
is converted ...
Working of Nuclear Reactor
•A nuclear reactor operates by the controlled

fission of 235U. Fission occurs at a slow
steady...
Key Reactor Power Terms
• Availability – Fraction of time over a
reporting period that the plant is
operational

– If a re...
Key Reactor Power Terms
• Capacity – Fraction of total electric power
that could be produced

– If reactor with a maximum ...
Piecing Together a Reactor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Fuel
Moderator
Control Rods
Coolant
Steam Generator
Turbine/Generator
...
5. Steam generator

3. Control rod

1. Fuel

2. Moderator

Basic Reactor Model
4. Coolant
6.

8.

7.
8
Pressurized Water Reactor
(PWR)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Pressure Vessel
Light Water
3.2% U-235 Fuel
2-4 Loops => Steam
UO2 Pe...
Basic Diagram of a PWR

http://www.nrc.gov/10
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
•
•
•
•
•
•

Direct Boiling
10% Coolant = Steam
Similar Fuel to PWR
Lower Power Density
than P...
Basic Diagram of a BWR

http://www.nrc.gov/12
A BWR in Practice

http://www.energy-northwest.com
13
THANK YOU!!

14
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Nuclear technology

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This presentation is all about the nuclear technology and its uses and how it is used in producing electricity

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Nuclear technology

  1. 1. NUCLEAR REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 1
  2. 2. Introduction to Nuclear Reactor A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate. The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for the power in some ships.This is usually accomplished by methods that involve using heat from the nuclear reaction to power steam turbines. 2
  3. 3. Heat Generation The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways: •The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms. •Some of the gamma rays produced during fission are absorbed by the reactor, their energy being converted to heat. •Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat source will remain for some time even after the reactor is shutdown. 3
  4. 4. Working of Nuclear Reactor •A nuclear reactor operates by the controlled fission of 235U. Fission occurs at a slow steady rate, rather than suddenly in a fraction of a second, as in a bomb. Fission produces heat, and this heat is used to generate electricity, in the same way that the heat of burning oil or coal generates electricity in a conventional power plant. •Some reactors operate with natural uranium (0.7% 235U), some with slightly enriched uranium (3% 235U). Since weapons require about 90% 235U, the uranium used in reactors cannot be diverted to weapons use. 4
  5. 5. Key Reactor Power Terms • Availability – Fraction of time over a reporting period that the plant is operational – If a reactor is down for maintenance 1 week and refueling 2 weeks every year, the availability factor of the reactor would be (365-3 * 7) / 365 = 0.94 5
  6. 6. Key Reactor Power Terms • Capacity – Fraction of total electric power that could be produced – If reactor with a maximum thermal power rating of 1000 MWt only operates at 900 MWt, the capacity factor would be 0.90 • Efficiency – Electrical energy output per thermal energy output of the reactor Eff=W/QR (MWe/MWt) 6
  7. 7. Piecing Together a Reactor 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Fuel Moderator Control Rods Coolant Steam Generator Turbine/Generator Pumps Heat Exchanger 7
  8. 8. 5. Steam generator 3. Control rod 1. Fuel 2. Moderator Basic Reactor Model 4. Coolant 6. 8. 7. 8
  9. 9. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) • • • • • • • • • • Pressure Vessel Light Water 3.2% U-235 Fuel 2-4 Loops => Steam UO2 Pellets in Zircaloy 17 x 17 array 12 foot long bundle ~32% Efficiency External Pipe Corrosion Lower Capital Cost • • • • • • AP600 Westinghouse 600 MWe Passive Safety Cooling Systems Prefabricated and Assembled On-Site Simple Plant Design = Reduced Volume and Cost 3-year Construction 9
  10. 10. Basic Diagram of a PWR http://www.nrc.gov/10
  11. 11. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) • • • • • • Direct Boiling 10% Coolant = Steam Similar Fuel to PWR Lower Power Density than PWR Corrosion Product Activated in Core Higher Radiation Field • GE – ABWR • 1350 MWe (3926 MWt) UO2 Fuel • • 60 – yr Service Life • Internalized Safety and Recirculation Systems 11
  12. 12. Basic Diagram of a BWR http://www.nrc.gov/12
  13. 13. A BWR in Practice http://www.energy-northwest.com 13
  14. 14. THANK YOU!! 14

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