Molecular electronics


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This presentation talks all about the molecular level of electronics and how it can be changed for future technology and uses

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Molecular electronics

  2. 2. What is Moletronics • It is interdisciplinary theme that spans Physics , Chemistry & Material science. • Special feature is the use of molecular building block for fabrication of electronic component in both active and passive form. • It is such field of nanoscience ,that evolves with the exploration of the electronic level structure , response & transport for development of electronic devices. • As there is binding of molecular building block it forms larger structure and show dynamical stereochemistry.
  3. 3. History • Robert muliken & Albert Szent-Gyorgi proposed study of charge transfer theory in1940. • In 1974 Mark Ratner & Avi Aviram illustrated a theoratical molecular rectifier. • Later Avi Aviram detailed a single molecular field effect transistor in1988. • In 2000Shirakawa, Heeger and MacDiarmid won Noble prize in physics for potentially high conductivity of (oxidised) polyacetelene & it’subsequent development.
  4. 4. About Molecular Electronics • The principle of above research is that biological systems can give useful paradigm for developing electronic and computational devices at the molecular level. • The approach involves the design and synthesis of dyads, triads and other super molecular species using the techniques of organic chemistry. • In order to studied newly prepared molecule time resolved laser spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy.
  5. 5. Why molecular electronics • For electronic application, molecular structures has four major advantages: • Size. • Assembly & Recognition. • Dynamical stereochemistry. • Synthetic tailor ability.
  6. 6. Figure Buckminister Fullerene Rotating view of Buckminister Fullerene C60 crystal
  7. 7. Moore’s law • The number of transistors that can be fabricated on a silicon integrated circuit--and therefore the computing speed of such a circuit--is doubling every 18 to 24 months. • After four decades, solid-state microelectronics has advanced to the point at which 100 million transistors, with feature size measuring 180 nm can be put onto a few square centimeters of silicon.
  8. 8. Electrode effect • The molecule electrode interface limit current flow & completely modify the measured electrical response of the junction. • Poor covalent bonding exists between molecule and electrode. • A related consideration involves how chemical nature of molecule-electrode affects the rest of the molcule
  9. 9. Molecule Electronics Circuits • The proposed circuit architectures have attempted to deal with five key issues: • Tolerance to manufacturing defects. • Introduction to non-traditional fabrication methods. • scalability to near molecular dimensions. • Briding between device densities. • Fabrication symplicity.
  10. 10. Some Molecular Electronics Circuit FEDs SETs
  11. 11. Crossbars & Demultiplexers • The most attractive architectures for designing molecular-electronics circuits for computational applications and interfacing them to the macroscopic world is the crossbar. • The memory, shown on the right, consists of two major components. The central crossbar—the crossing of16 vertical and 16 horizontal black wires—constitutes a 256-bit memory circuit.
  12. 12. Figure of Crossbars and Demultiplexers Crossbars and Demultiplexers
  13. 13. Advantages • Tiny. • Low power consumption. • Able to integrate large circuit • Re-configurable.
  14. 14. Disadvantages • Controlled fabrication with in specified tolerances. • Hard experimental verification.
  15. 15. Application • Sensors. • Displays, Energy transduction devices. • Smart Material, Molecular scale transistors. • Molecular Motors, Logic and memory devices.
  16. 16. Conclusion • Molecular systems, or systems based on small organic molecules, possess interesting and useful electronic properties. • The investigations of molecular systems that have been performed in the past have been strongly influenced. • The potential application of molecular electronics has already attracted the interest of some large corporate.