Mental Models, Service
Design & the Problem with
            Convergence
    Filip Healy & Ian Collingwood
Convergence to users


Users don’t know what convergence is, they just want things to work in a convenient
and useful way....
Who is offering convergence?


There are many companies offering many services under a single brand
Benefits


Users expect benefits from this
Brand convergence


Uniting the brand leads to expectations of converged services
Mental models


They form a mental models…
Who is offering convergence?


A converged brand does not always mean a converged customer experience
Orange broadband offer
Virgin Media
Moment of truth


The point is that the user forms a mental model that is not always true
Why is this important?
Why is this important?



                                                                 Personas


Card sorting     Eye...
However


We often get involved in a specific product or UI dilemma
However


We are not dealing with users
Service design


We only focus on one part of the “front desk”
Example


A telecoms company creates a browser toolbar….
Example
Example


A telecoms company creates a mobile music service….
mobile music player
Service design


Designing the “front stage” experience requires features at the “back stage”
Road block
They build what they can




Burj Dubai (height 818m)
What causes the roadblock


It wasn’t in the plan to do it that way
What causes the roadblock


We don’t have budget for that
What causes the roadblock


We have to keep to the schedule
Technical constraints


Impossible
                 Not impossible




                 Bill        Bill
Who is scoping?


It’s beyond the scope of the project….




NOT FOR
THE
CUSTOMER
We’re too late




The “back office” was already
designed much earlier
Mental models


The mental models can help to shape the organisation
Integrated definition


“IDEFØ is a method designed to model the decisions, actions, and activities of an
organization or ...
Who’s listening?


Mr Big is not in the room
Who’s listening?



“I don’t want it good, I want it
on Tuesday”
Who’s listening?


Mr Big is not in the room

                                       Product
                             ...
3 steps to move forward


          1                             2                            3



If you work for an org...
Step 1. Charity starts at home


         1                            2                 3

 Converge the user experience...
Step 2. Converge product development


        1                            2          3

 Recommend a program manager
 ...
Step 3. UX at a strategic level


          1                                      2                  3

 Insights must r...
The service system


Service design is more explicit about connecting front and back stages
UCD and service design


For “self service” applications “document exchange design” needs inputs for user
requirements and...
UCD and service design


For “self service” applications “document exchange design” needs inputs for user
requirements and...
UX in converged service provider


•   If you are a service provider

•   If you are uniting several services under one br...
UX in converged service provider




                                 “Generating shareholder
               UX           ...
In the short term?


We know the user’s mental model
+   =
Convergence centred organisation

Convergence is a service. It
                                                           ...
Filip Healy
filip@amber-light.co.uk




                           58 Bloomsbury Street
                             Londo...
Mental Models, Service Design & The Problem With Convergence
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Mental Models, Service Design & The Problem With Convergence

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Mental Models, Service Design & The Problem With Convergence

  1. 1. Mental Models, Service Design & the Problem with Convergence Filip Healy & Ian Collingwood
  2. 2. Convergence to users Users don’t know what convergence is, they just want things to work in a convenient and useful way. Bridging: Uniting: “The right parts of the service available on “The right services available the right devices” together in one place”
  3. 3. Who is offering convergence? There are many companies offering many services under a single brand
  4. 4. Benefits Users expect benefits from this
  5. 5. Brand convergence Uniting the brand leads to expectations of converged services
  6. 6. Mental models They form a mental models…
  7. 7. Who is offering convergence? A converged brand does not always mean a converged customer experience
  8. 8. Orange broadband offer
  9. 9. Virgin Media
  10. 10. Moment of truth The point is that the user forms a mental model that is not always true
  11. 11. Why is this important?
  12. 12. Why is this important? Personas Card sorting Eye-tracking Ethnography Diary studies Ethnography Web testing Mobile testing Iterative usability Online surveys Wireframing Usability workshops Personas Prototyping
  13. 13. However We often get involved in a specific product or UI dilemma
  14. 14. However We are not dealing with users
  15. 15. Service design We only focus on one part of the “front desk”
  16. 16. Example A telecoms company creates a browser toolbar….
  17. 17. Example
  18. 18. Example A telecoms company creates a mobile music service….
  19. 19. mobile music player
  20. 20. Service design Designing the “front stage” experience requires features at the “back stage”
  21. 21. Road block
  22. 22. They build what they can Burj Dubai (height 818m)
  23. 23. What causes the roadblock It wasn’t in the plan to do it that way
  24. 24. What causes the roadblock We don’t have budget for that
  25. 25. What causes the roadblock We have to keep to the schedule
  26. 26. Technical constraints Impossible Not impossible Bill Bill
  27. 27. Who is scoping? It’s beyond the scope of the project…. NOT FOR THE CUSTOMER
  28. 28. We’re too late The “back office” was already designed much earlier
  29. 29. Mental models The mental models can help to shape the organisation
  30. 30. Integrated definition “IDEFØ is a method designed to model the decisions, actions, and activities of an organization or system” (www.idef.com/idef0.html)
  31. 31. Who’s listening? Mr Big is not in the room
  32. 32. Who’s listening? “I don’t want it good, I want it on Tuesday”
  33. 33. Who’s listening? Mr Big is not in the room Product A • UX input Product B • UX input Strategic Technical Product decisions systems design Product C • UX input Product D • UX input
  34. 34. 3 steps to move forward 1 2 3 If you work for an organisiation that cannot always deliver the products and experience that customers are expecting then you could have this problem
  35. 35. Step 1. Charity starts at home 1 2 3  Converge the user experience team  Facilitate knowledge sharing  Create a central UX information resource  Create a wiki  Work across programs not products  Capture every instance the user mental model breaks  Create a document to feedback upstream  Proactively deliver value beyond immediate project
  36. 36. Step 2. Converge product development 1 2 3  Recommend a program manager  Ensure program manager attends all debriefs  Liaise with the program manager  Recommend program level UX involvement  Involve service designers  Promote inter-working and knowledge sharing  Change reward mechanics  Provide collective pool for requirements  Provide back channel to senior management
  37. 37. Step 3. UX at a strategic level 1 2 3  Insights must reach decision makers earlier  Early product design prior to strategic and technical decisions  Products sketched out with key stakeholders  Converged experiences mapped out based on user expectations  UX program manager advises decision makers  UX program manager supports product teams  Holistic information gets to product UX team  Product UX findings converged upstream  User mental models understood early in process  Product marketing inline with mental models
  38. 38. The service system Service design is more explicit about connecting front and back stages
  39. 39. UCD and service design For “self service” applications “document exchange design” needs inputs for user requirements and context of use. Robert J. Glushko (2006), Information & Service Design program, UC Berkeley
  40. 40. UCD and service design For “self service” applications “document exchange design” needs inputs for user requirements and context of use. ISO 13407
  41. 41. UX in converged service provider • If you are a service provider • If you are uniting several services under one brand • If you want to develop new products for your customers that are successful UX should be part of your strategy
  42. 42. UX in converged service provider “Generating shareholder UX value on the road to full Costs convergence correlates with generating recognised and effective value to the targets customer” Fixed-Mobile Convergence Alliance 2008 Strategy & technology
  43. 43. In the short term? We know the user’s mental model
  44. 44. + =
  45. 45. Convergence centred organisation Convergence is a service. It Marketing needs to be designed. Organisational Technology structure Convergence Product Strategy development Remuneration UX
  46. 46. Filip Healy filip@amber-light.co.uk 58 Bloomsbury Street London WC1B 3QT +44 (0)207 307 7770 www.amber-light.co.uk

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