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  1. 1. Brain chip Presented By HARIOM 10 EI 25
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction  History  Development  Chip Implantation  Current Technology  Future Of Brain chip  Application  Advantage  Disadvantage  Conclusion 
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Brain Chip consists both biological and electronics terms.  Some times we see that due to paralysis attack or due to terrible accident or from berth , people loose their sensitivity . It is due to failure of connection between brain and other part of body .  Now with the help of this technology people can improve their lifestyle because it can make broca’s area of the brain reasonable active.
  4. 4.  Brain chip can enhance memory of human beings, help paralyzed patients and are intended for military purposes.
  5. 5. HISTORY  The history of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is very old.  BCI combines technologies from computer science, electrical engineering, neurosurgery and biomedical engineering .  1875: Richard Canton first discovered electrical signals on surface of animal brain.
  6. 6.  1950s: Jose Delgado, a neurosurgeon at Yale University, invents the stimoceiver, an electrode device that can be controlled wirelessly by FM radio. He tests it in the brain of a bull and is able to make the animal charge and change direction by the pushing of different buttons.  June 2004: The first human, Matthew Nagle, is implanted with a brain-computer interface.
  7. 7. Delgado controlling a bull with the help of brain chip
  8. 8. Development  Studies in human subjects with electronics broadened the area of researches .In this technology the electronic chip is implemented in skulls and their facial expression and general behaviour, and their desire to repeat the experience outcome.
  9. 9. Neural Network  Neural networks are loosely modelled on the networks of neurons. They can learn to perform complex tasks. They are especially effective at recognizing patterns, classifying data, and processing noisy signals.  Brain cells and silicon chip linked electronically .  Once a device is implanted in body , glial cells defences from surround ,the foreign object and prevent neurons and electrodes from making contact
  10. 10. Figure of neuron
  11. 11.  They are implantable neurons that would perform the function of a part of brain that has been damaged by stroke or epilepsy .  A transmitter helps the user to pick up signals from the Brain and translate them into cursor commands on the computer.
  12. 12. Working of brain chip
  13. 13. Chip Implantation  A brain–computer interface (BCI), often called a mind-machine interface (MMI), or sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.
  14. 14. In the figure the implantation of brain chip in monkey is shown .
  15. 15. Current Technology In present time brain chip is made on silicon chip. Silicon chip
  16. 16. Future Of Brain chip
  17. 17.  This technology is known as SYNAPSE (Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics) .  It is miles ahead of any computer system before it and works much differently.  This includes functions like memory and learning, which are already present in the prototype chip built by IBM.
  18. 18. Bypassing the Spinal Cord is another technology
  19. 19.  This concept illustrates some of the future applications of Brain Chip technology in which the function of the spinal cord can be replaced by computer-aided transmission of brain activity.
  20. 20.  "Brain pacemakers" are used to treat people who suffer from epilepsy, major depression and other diseases. The pacemaker is a medical device that is implanted into the brain to sendelectrical signals into the tissue. Depending on the area of the brain that is targeted, the treatment is called deep brain stimulation, or cortical stimulation.
  21. 21. Brain ‘pace makers’
  22. 22. Advantages  Brain implants enhance capability of human organs and senses.  It has a significant role to play in future genetic engineering fields and neuroscience.  This made easier life for the people which are physically are mentally disable.
  23. 23. Disadvantages      Cost. Safety. Losing Identity. Risk for surgeons. Since it is operated by system and programming then there is possibility of hacking .  It can be used for bad purpose such as terrorist activities.
  24. 24. CONCLUSION  This remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralyzed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs, wheelchairs.  Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the control device that allow breathing , limb movements.
  25. 25. References www.wikipedia.com www.brownuniversity.com http://biocybernaut.com/tutorial/eeg.html http://www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrol10pg# http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=neuros ci.figg Biomedical Instrumentation by R.S. Khandpur