Scholastic bowl info

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Miscellaneous information that we need to know for Scholastic Bowl. These items come up EVERY year in some form or other.

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Scholastic bowl info

  1. 1. Scholastic Bowl<br />Things to Know<br />
  2. 2. Layers of the Earth’s Crust<br />The earth is divided into four main layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The core is composed mostly of iron (Fe) and is so hot that the outer core is molten, with about 10% sulphur (S). The inner core is under such extreme pressure that it remains solid. Most of the Earth's mass is in the mantle, which is composed of iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O) silicate compounds. At over 1000 degrees C, the mantle is solid but can deform slowly in a plastic manner. The crust is much thinner than any of the other layers, and is composed of the least dense calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) aluminum-silicate minerals. Being relatively cold, the crust is rocky and brittle, so it can fracture in earthquakes. <br />
  3. 3. Layers of the Earth’s Atmosphere<br />This picture explains about the mesosphere. The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. It starts about 50 km (31 miles) above the ground and goes all the way up to 85 km (53 miles) high. The layer below it is called the stratosphere. The layer above it is the thermosphere. The border between the mesosphere and the thermosphere is called the mesopause. Most meteors burn up in the mesosphere. A type of lightning called sprites sometimes appears in the mesosphere above thunderstorms. Strange, high-altitude clouds called noctilucent clouds sometimes form in this layer near the North and South Poles. It is not easy to study the mesosphere directly. Weather balloons can't fly high enough and satellites can't orbit low enough. Scientists use sounding rockets to study the mesosphere. The top of the mesosphere is the coldest part of the atmosphere. It can get down to -90° C (-130° F) there! As you go higher in the mesosphere, the air gets colder<br />
  4. 4. Time Zones<br />Time in the United States is divided into nine standard time zones, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for part of the year. Time zones are: Atlantic Standard Time (AST), Eastern Standard Time (EST), Central Standard Time (CST), Mountain Standard Time (MST), Pacific Standard Time (PST), Alaskan Standard Time (AKST), Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time (HST), Samoa standard time (SST) and Chamorro Standard Time (ChST).Note: Daylight Saving Time began on March 14, 2010, and returned again to Standard Time on November 7, 2010. Arizona and Hawaii use standard time throughout the year. However the Navajo Nation observes DST throughout its entire territory, including the portion that lies in Arizona. But the Hopi Nation, which is entirely surrounded by the Navajo Nation, does not observe DST. <br />
  5. 5. Art--Michaelangelo<br />Renaissance (1475-1564)<br />Sculptor, painter, architect, poet.<br />Italian<br />Sistine Chapel ceiling<br />David<br />La Peita<br />
  6. 6. Art– daVinci(1452-1519)<br />Italian Renaissance<br />Painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, inventor.<br />Mona Lisa (La Gioconda)<br />Vitruvian Man<br />Last Supper<br />
  7. 7. Art--Artists<br />Rembrandt (1606-1669) Dutch painter: self-portraits and historical scenes with chiaroscuro (light against dark) technique.<br />Jan Vermeer (16232-1675) Dutch painter: use of light and color. <br />Raphael (1483- 1520) Italian painter<br />Titian (1487-1576) Italian painter<br />Hans Holbein (1497-1543) German painter of portraits <br />Bruegel (1525-69)<br />Caravaggio (1571-1610) Italian painter <br />Rubens (1577-1640) Flemish painter<br />
  8. 8. Art--Artists<br />Gainsborough (1727-1788) English portraits & landscapes.<br />Turner (1775-1851) English landscapes. Dramatic.<br />Constable (1776-1837) English landscapes. Nostalgic country.<br />Goya (1746-1828) Spanish. “Third of May” <br />
  9. 9. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood<br />1848: England<br />Group of Englishpainters, poets, designers, and critics including<br />William Holman Hunt<br />John Everett Millais<br />Dante Gabriel Rossetti<br />Ford Madox Brown<br />John Wm Waterhouse<br />William Morris<br />Edward Burne-Jones<br />Medieval/historical<br />
  10. 10. Art--Impressionism<br />Ordinary, everyday scenes.<br />Unfinished looking.<br />Effects of light and shade.<br />Renior (french scenes)<br />Monet (water lilies)<br />Degas (ballerinas)<br />
  11. 11. Art--Pointillism<br />Tiny dots of pure, contracting colors.<br />Seurat “Sunday on La Grande Jette” (on display in Chicago’s Art Institute)<br />
  12. 12. Art—Vincent vanGogh<br />Post-Impressionist<br />Dutch (From Holland)<br />Not popular in his lifetime.<br />Mentally unstable.<br />Starry Night<br />Self-Portrait<br />Sunflowers<br />
  13. 13. Art– Abstract Expressionism<br />1940’s-1950’s<br />Very large<br />Meant to awe viewers and provoke emotions.<br />Jackson Pollack<br />Mark Rothko<br />
  14. 14. Art--Picasso<br />1881-1973<br />Spanish<br />“cubism”<br />Guernica<br />
  15. 15. Art– Pop Art<br />Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. <br />Andy Warhol<br />Roy Lichtenstein<br />David Hockney<br />
  16. 16. Mathematical Formulas<br />
  17. 17. Celsius to Fahrenheit<br />Below is the formula to convert a Celsius scale temperature into degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. <br />Tf = (9/5)*Tc+32; Tc = temperature in degrees Celsius, Tf = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit Assume that you have a Celsius scale temperature of 100 degrees and you wish to convert it into degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. Using the stated formula, you first multiply the Celsius scale temperature reading by nine-fifths and get a result of 180. Then add 32 to 180 and get the final converted result of 212 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. Below is another accepted conversion method that works just as well and perhaps might be easier to remember. No matter which direction you want to covert, Fahrenheit to Celsius or Celsius to Fahrenheit, always first add 40 to the number. Next, multiply by 5/9 or 9/5 just like the first method. Then, always subtract out the 40 you just added to yield the final result. To remember whether to use 5/9 or 9/5 when converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius or Celsius to Fahrenheit, just simply remember, F (for Fahrenheit) begins with the same letter as Fraction. 5/9 is always a Fraction; while 9/5 is also a fraction, in this form, it is Clearly a whole number plus a fraction (1 and 4/5). Thus, if you want to convert Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C), then use the Fraction 5/9; Celsius (C) to Fahrenheit (F), use the other, 9/5, which is Clearly not just a fraction. <br />
  18. 18. Newberry Winners--recent<br />2011 Medal Winner<br />The 2011 Newbery Medal winner is Moon over Manifest by Clare Vanderpool, <br />12 year old Abilene Tucker is the daughter of a drifter who, in the summer of 1936, sends her to stay with an old friend in Manifest, Kansas, where he grew up, and where she hopes to find out some things about his past.<br />
  19. 19. Newbery Awards—best YA book<br />2010 When You Reach Me Rebecca Stead <br />2009 The Graveyard Book Neil Gaiman<br />2008 Good Masters! Sweet Ladies! Voices from a Medieval Village Laura Amy Schlitz <br />2007 The Higher Power of Lucky Susan Patron <br />2006 Criss Cross Lynne Rae Perkins <br />2005 Kira-Kira Cynthia Kadohata<br />2004 The Tale of Despereaux Kate DiCamillo<br />2003 Crispin: The Cross of LeadAvi<br />2002 A Single Shard Linda Sue Park <br />2001 A Year Down Yonder Richard Peck <br />2000 Bud, Not Buddy Christopher Paul Curtis <br />1999 Holes Louis Sachar<br />1998 Out of the Dust Karen Hesse<br />1997 The View from Saturday E.L. Konigsburg<br />1996 The Midwife's Apprentice Karen Cushman <br />1995 Walk Two Moons Sharon Creech <br />1994 The Giver Lois Lowry <br />1993 Missing May Cynthia Rylant<br />1992 Shiloh Phyllis Reynolds Naylor <br />1991 Maniac Magee Jerry Spinelli<br />1990 Number the Stars Lois Lowry<br />
  20. 20. Caldecott Award – best picturebook art<br />1990 Lon Po Po:  a Red-Riding Hood Story from China<br />1991Black and White Macaulay David Macaulay <br />1992 Tuesday David Wiesner<br />1993 Mirette on the High Wire Emily Arnold McCully<br />1994 Grandfather's Journey Allen Say <br />1995 Smoky Night David Diaz <br />1996 Officer buckle and Gloria Peggy Rathmann<br />1997 Golem David Wisniewski <br />1998 Rapunzel Paul O. Zelinsky<br />1999 Snowflake Bentley Mary Azarian<br />2000 Joseph Had a Little Overcoat Simms Taback<br />2001 So You Want to Be president? St. George David Small <br />2002 The Three Little Pigs J Caldecott Wiesner David Wiesner<br />2003 My Friend Rabbit J Caldecott Rohmann Eric Rohmann<br />2004 The Man Who Walked Between the Towers J Caldecott Gerstein Mordicai Gerstein <br />2005 Kitten's First Full Moon J Caldecott Henkes Kevin Henkes<br />2006 The Hello, Goodbye Window J Caldecott Juster Chris Raschka<br />2007 Flotsam J Caldecott Wiesner David Wiesner<br />2008 The Invention of Hugo Cabret J Caldecott Selznick Brian Selznick <br />2009 House In The Night J Caldecott Swanson Beth Krommes<br />2010 The Lion and the Mouse J Caldecott Pinkney Jerry Pinkney<br />2011 A Sick Day for Amos McGee, illustrated by Erin E. Stead, written by Philip C. Stead<br />
  21. 21. U.S. Presidents<br /> 01 Washington, George (1789-1797) <br />02 Adams, John (1797-1801) <br />03 Jefferson, Thomas (1801-1809) <br />04 Madison, James (1809-1817) <br />05 Monroe, James (1817-1825) <br />06 Adams, John Quincy (1825-1829) <br />07 Jackson, Andrew (1829-1837) <br />08 Van Buren, Martin (1837-1841) <br />09 Harrison, William Henry (1841) <br />10 Tyler, John (1841-1845) <br />11 Polk, James Knox (1845-1849) <br />12 Taylor, Zachary (1849-1850) <br />13 Fillmore, Millard (1850-1853) <br />14 Pierce, Franklin (1853-1857) <br />15 Buchanan, James (1857-1861<br />
  22. 22. Presidents<br />) 16 Lincoln, Abraham (1861-1865) <br />17 Johnson, Andrew (1865-1869) <br />18 Grant, Ulysses S. (1869-1877) <br />19 Hayes, Rutherford Birchard (1877-1881) <br />20 Garfield, James Abram (1881) <br />21 Arthur, Chester Alan (1881-1885) <br />22 Cleveland, Grover (1885-1889) <br />23 Harrison, Benjamin (1889-1893)<br /> 24 Cleveland, Grover (1893-1897) <br />25 McKinley, William (1897-1901)<br />
  23. 23. Presidents<br />26 Roosevelt, Theodore (1901-1909) <br />27 Taft, William Howard (1909-1913) <br />28 Wilson, Woodrow (1913-1921) <br />29 Harding, Warren Gamaliel (1921-1923) <br />30 Coolidge, Calvin (1923-1929) <br />31 Hoover, Herbert Clark (1929-1933) <br />32 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (1933-1945))<br />
  24. 24. Presidents<br />33 Truman, Harry (1945-1953)<br />34 Eisenhower, Dwight David (1953-1961) <br />35 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1961-1963) <br />36 Johnson, Lyndon Baines (1963-1969) <br />37 Nixon, Richard Milhous (1969-1974) <br />38 Ford, Gerald Rudolph (1974-1977) <br />39 Carter, James Earl Jr. (1977-1981 <br />40 Reagan, Ronald Wilson (1981-1989) <br />41 Bush, George Herbert Walker (1989-1993) <br />42 Clinton, William Jefferson (1993-2001) <br />43 Bush, George Walker (2001-2009) <br />44 Obama, Barack Hussein (2009-present)<br />
  25. 25. Greek Gods<br />Zeus: Zeus was the ruler and leader of all the Greek Gods. He was the ruler of the sky and ruled and resided on mount Olympus. His Roman God equivalent is Jupiter and in the Hindu religion he is known as Indra. Zeus is the son of Cronus and Rhea, is the husband to Hera, and has fathered 15 children, all of whom were Olympians. The symbols of Zeus were the thunderbolt, eagle, bull and oak.<br />Jupiter<br />
  26. 26. Greek Gods<br />Hera: Hera is the Goddess of child birth and marriage. She is often said to be the Goddess of women and is the wife of Zeus. Her symbols are the scepter, peacock and diadem.<br />Juno<br />
  27. 27. Greek Gods<br />Aphrodite: Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and is considered to be the most popular deity in Greek culture. She is the Goddess of love, beauty and lust. She is the wife of Hephaestus, and a mother of two, Eros or famously known as the Cupid and Harmonia. Aphrodite is represented by the symbols of scepter, dove and myrtle.<br />Venus<br />
  28. 28. Greek Gods<br />Apollo: was probably the most learned deity of the Greek culture. He was the God of music, medicine, health, fitness, light and truth. He was also the God of archery and bows. He is always associated with the sun and its light and also said to be the most handsome Greek deity. He is a son to Zeus and is the twin of Artemis. He is represented by the symbols of bows, lyre and laurel.<br />Apollo<br />
  29. 29. Greek Gods<br />Artemis: She is the twin of Apollo and unlike her brother is associated with the moon. She is also the Goddess of hunting, virginity, wild life and dew. She is represented by the bow, dogs and deer.<br />Diana<br />
  30. 30. Greek Gods<br />Ares: Ares is considered to be the most violent of all Greek deities. He is theGod of war, bloodshed and murder. He is the son of Zeus and lover of Aphrodite.<br />Mars<br />
  31. 31. Greek Gods<br />Athena: Athena is the daughter of Zeus and sister to Ares. She is seen by the Greeks as the wisest of all and is the Goddess of wisdom, warfare and reason. <br />Minerva<br />
  32. 32. Gods & Goddesses<br />Demeter: Often considered to be the deity of the farer, Demeter is the Goddess of fertility, grain, agriculture and harvest. She is a sister of Zeus and the calmest of all deities. She is represented by the symbols of corn, scepter and torch. She is also, many a times considered to be the Goddess of creativity.<br />Ceres<br />
  33. 33. Greek Gods<br />Dionysus: Dionysus is the God of enjoyment and merriment. He is often represented as a drunk fellow and also governs intoxication of wine, parties, festivals and merry occasions. He is symbolized by grape vine and ivy.<br />Bacchus<br />
  34. 34. Greeks Gods<br />Hades: Hades is probably the darkest of all Greek Gods, as he is the ruler and God of the Underworld and wealth. He is represented by the Helm of Darkness and a three headed dog. He is also the husband to Persephone.<br />Pluto<br />
  35. 35. Greek Gods<br />Hephaestus: Hephaestus, often known as the lord of forge, is the God of blacksmiths and all metal workers. He is also the God of technology with so renowned skills that he made the arms and armor of Greek heroes like Achilles. His symbols are the axe, flame and hammer.<br />Vulcan<br />
  36. 36. Greek Gods<br />Hermes: Hermes Hermes is the God of hives, mischief and travelers. He is a messenger of the Greek Gods and has a humorous knack of playing tricks on people. He is represented by a pair of winged boots.<br />Mercury<br />
  37. 37. Greek Gods<br />Hestia: Hestia is the sister of Zeus and is the Goddess of homes and hearth. She is the center point of all the homes of Greek civilization.<br />Vesta<br />
  38. 38. Greek Gods<br />Poseidon: Often known as Neptune, Poseidon is the ruler and God of the sea. He is the one who creates the horses from sea foam and is also the creator of earthquakes. His symbols are sea foam, trident and dolphins.<br />Neptune<br />

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