Motivation and self regulation--Myron Dembo


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  • Motivation– Goal setting
  • Motivation and self regulation--Myron Dembo

    1. 1. Myron H. Dembo, Ph.D Emeritus Professor of Educational Psychology University of Southern California [email_address]
    2. 2. <ul><li>Identify the role of self-regulation in learning and motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identif y key motivational constructs that influence student learning and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze causes for students’ learning and motivational problems and recommend specific interventions. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Answers these questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is our intermediate goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we now (related to goal)? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the size of the gap? </li></ul><ul><li>What is causing the gap? </li></ul><ul><li>What solutions will close the gap? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we implement the solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure our progress? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Clark, R. E. & Estes, F. (2002) Turning Research into Results: A Guide to Selecting the Right Performance Solutions . Atlanta GA: CEP Press. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Evidence that people do not analyze the causes of performance gaps: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We impulsively select and implement the wrong solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When solutions do not work, we often blame the people who have the problem </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Knowledge – Can they do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they know how, when, where? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how = they can do it successfully. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation – Are they doing it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have they started, are they persisting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they working hard - mental effort? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture, Policy and Procedures - Do policies or procedures stop them? </li></ul><ul><li>Do instructors and students have different academic expectations? </li></ul>Based on Clark, R. E. & Estes, F. (2002) Turning Research into Results: A Guide to Selecting the Right Performance Solutions . Atlanta GA: CEP Press.
    6. 6.
    7. 7. <ul><li>The ability of learners to control the factors or conditions affecting their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning is not something that happens to students, it is something that happens by </li></ul><ul><li>students.” - Zimmerman </li></ul>
    8. 8. “ It is not that students don’t have the ability to succeed. The problem is that they have not acquired all the tools necessary to learn.” Learning Strategies
    9. 9. <ul><li>Motivation (Why?) </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of learning (How?) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of time (When?) </li></ul><ul><li>Control of one’s physical environment (Where?) </li></ul><ul><li>Control of one’s social environment (With whom?) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor one’s performance (What?) </li></ul><ul><li>From Dembo, M., & Seli, H. (2008). Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success (3 rd ed.). Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum </li></ul>
    10. 10. From Zimmerman and Risemberg (1997) Self-Regulatory Processes of Underachievers and Achievers Processes Underachievers Achievers Time use Are more impulsive Manage study time well Goals Set lower academic goals Set higher specific and proximal goals Self-monitor Monitor less accurately Monitor more frequently and accurately Self-reactions Are more self-critical Set a higher standard for satisfaction Self-efficacy Are less self-efficacious Are more self-efficacious Motivation Give up more readily Persist despite obstacles
    11. 11. <ul><li>Belief Systems </li></ul><ul><li>… influence students’ motivation and learning </li></ul><ul><li>… influence instructors’ interaction with students and classroom instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions to improve learning and instruction must deal with both students and instructors’ belief systems as well as the conflicts between them. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Students lack motivation : </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is not that we as an institution are failing them. We have so many support systems around here. I just wonder how many don’t pay attention…because at orientation they hear all about the resources we offer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Students are lazy : </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have fantastic programs…But I think that if you tell the average student, ‘Here is something else you need to do,’ they don’t want to have to do something else that sounds like more work. That is the mindset a lot of student have.” </li></ul>From Bensimon (2007)
    13. 13. A social cognitive model of achievement motivation (Dai et al., 1998) Effort and persistence, choice of activity, and level of activity Educational experiences, social contexts, gender role socialization, institutional policy and procedures, etc. Aptitudes, temperaments, personality, etc. Self-efficacy, values, goal orientation, attributions, self-worth, attitudes, interests, etc. Social—contextual factors Personal factors Self—Processes Achievement behaviors
    14. 14. <ul><li>The role of the instructor is to present the content of the course in the most concise and clear manner. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to teaching content knowledge, the instructor has a responsibility to teach students how to learn the content and , whenever possible, assist students in overcoming obstacles in learning. </li></ul>Instructor A Instructor B
    15. 15. <ul><li>It is important from the first day of class to communicate to students what they need to do and the consequences of not following directions and completing assignments. Students need to understand that success in my course involves hard work. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important from the first day of class to communicate my expectations. However, I also want to communicate that my job is helping students become successful in my course. This is a belief that I try to reinforce throughout the course. </li></ul>Instructor A Instructor B
    16. 16. <ul><li>Student </li></ul><ul><li>“ I like instructors who tell us what we need to learn to get a good grade in the course and present clear lectures about the content. I don’t like it when instructors waste time in group activities or ask that we receive feedback from other students who may know less than me.” </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am annoyed when students are not engaged in class and fail to ask questions. I want my students to think and analyze the reasoning of others. I don’t believe my role should be simply dispensing knowledge through lectures.” </li></ul>Adapted from Cox, R. (2009). The college fear factor . Cambridge: Harvard University Press
    17. 17. <ul><li>Defensive Dimitri – more motivated to avoid failure than to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Safe Susan – underachiever, plays it safe </li></ul><ul><li>Hopeless Henry – learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfied Sheila – does not seek high grades </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious Alberto – high anxiety, low self- confidence </li></ul>
    18. 18.
    19. 19. GOAL THEORY Students are motivated when they: • have a goal they believe is achievable • have the desire (reasonable effort) to attain the goal • have a plan in place to attain the goal
    20. 20. How one thinks about the self and the future Hoped-for possible self we would like to become (e.g., teacher, attorney, professional athlete) Feared possible self we wish to avoid becoming (e.g., a dropout, homeless, unemployed) Expected possible self we are fairly sure we can become (e.g., college graduate) Possible Selves
    21. 21. <ul><li>Discovering –What are my strengths and weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking – Who am I? What are my hopes and fears? </li></ul><ul><li>Sketching - What am I like? </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting – What can I be? </li></ul><ul><li>Growing – How can I reach my goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Performing – How am I doing? </li></ul>Hock, M., Schumaker, J. , & Deshler, D. (2003). Possible selves: Nurturing student motivation : Lawrence, Kansas: Edge Enterprises.
    22. 22. Self-worth = ability = performance <ul><li>Self-worth is based on ability, BUT if one can demonstrate that his or her performance does not reflect on ability, then self-worth is maintained. This is why students often use failure-avoidance strategies. </li></ul>Covington’s Self-Worth Theory (1992) low goal setting, excuses, procrastination
    23. 23. <ul><li>Help seeking can imply inadequacy and threaten self-worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Help seeking can expose learners to public scrutiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Students often fail to adequately judge their skills level so they believe that they can succeed without assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Students incorrectly contribute their poor performance to a lack of ability rather than effort. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Statements by students who failed but did not go to tutoring : </li></ul><ul><li>“ You have to say you need help and you don’t want to admit it.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’re afraid to ask for help because people will think we’re stupid or something like that.” </li></ul><ul><li>None of the students wanted to admit to lack of ability. </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Possible Causes Based on Research </li></ul><ul><li>Students feel embarrassed and/or don’t want to feel incompetent. Thus, help seeking can threaten self-worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Students fail to adequately judge their skill level so they believe that they succeed without assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Take class to visit appropriate tutoring center. </li></ul><ul><li>Train tutors to understand and deal with students’ beliefs about tutoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to talk about strengths during first session with tutors. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider having students visit tutoring center in pairs or small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Have instructors discuss how errors help us learn and conduct error analysis lectures in class. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>What not to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t get it!” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what you do not understand about the material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an appointment with your instructor, tutor, learning assistant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review content and make a list of specific questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make summary notes soon after you leave the meeting. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo any particular endeavor. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important, but complications from doing too many can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. The manipulation of the appropriate mechanisms should be self-explanatory, and we need not dwell on it here. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Federation vs. Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>In a federation, the national government is fully sovereign; the states may not withdraw without the consent of the national authorities; and the people create both the national government and the state governments, delegate powers to both, and may restrict both through the written constitution. The national government may act directly on the people; it can tax and draft them. In contrast, in a confederation, the states are sovereign; they may join the nation or withdraw from it at will. They delegate specified powers to national institutions and reserve all others to themselves. The national &quot;government&quot; is a creature of the states and can deal only with the states, not directly with their citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation is an ancient form of government; it has bound people together throughout history, from the time of the alliances of the Israelite tribes to the Renaissance and the confederacies which flourished in what is today Germany, Italy...Federalism is more modern; it was developed first in the United States and later was adopted by one-third of the countries of the world, including the Soviet Union, Brazil, India, Nigeria Mexico... </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>What is…? (that is, “define”) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between…? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast… </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How does …work? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the effect of …? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the structure and function of…? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    30. 30.
    31. 31. <ul><li>What are students thinking about when they first enter your class? </li></ul><ul><li>What information are they looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your purposes and goals for the first day? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do to attain these purposes and goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think students say to each other when they leave your class the first day. </li></ul>
    32. 32. “ A learning-centered syllabus requires that you shift from what you, the instructor are going to cover in your course to a concern for what information, tools, assignments, and activities you can provide to promote your students’ learning and intellectual development” (p. xiv). From O’Brien, J. et al. (2008). The course syllabus: A learning-centered approach. San Francisco: Wiley.
    33. 33. <ul><li>A commitment how each aspect of your course will support student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Teach the students you have, not the students you wish you had” (Kuh et al. 2005, p. 78). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to providing information about the content and requirements of the course, the learning-centered syllabus, it can help you: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Convey to your students what matters to you about learning. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Set a tone for learning and how to learn that students will accept. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Send a message about what students can expect from you and the campus community to support their learning during the term. </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Instructor information </li></ul><ul><li>Student information form </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of teaching philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the course </li></ul><ul><li>Course description </li></ul><ul><li>Course objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Readings </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Course calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Course requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and expectations: Attendance, late papers, missed tests, and class behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and expectations: Academic honestly, disability access, and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Grading procedure </li></ul><ul><li>How to succeed in this course: Tools for study and learning </li></ul>From O’Brien, J. et al. (2008). The course syllabus: A learning-centered approach. San Francisco: Wiley.
    35. 35. <ul><li>Some students are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>passive observers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uninvolved” or “unengaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disinterested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lacking motivation to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We wish they were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>active and engaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem-solvers </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Reasons for asking questions : </li></ul><ul><li>Need to increase their understanding of course material </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for not asking questions : </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated negative consequences –fear of appearing unintelligent and avoiding embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Not having a question to ask or not knowing enough to ask a question </li></ul><ul><li>Too busy taken notes or didn’t want to interrupt the lecture </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Show students what good notes looks like </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students how to read content textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Use cooperative learning—two students go over their notes, the first students would paraphrase and explain the first page of notes. Then they would switch and the second member of the pair would go over the next section </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the lecture and allocate 10 minutes of time for students to work in learning groups to review the material, and generate a question that would focus on some material they may not understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Use study buddies </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Ask students to turn in a question about the readings in a box in from of the lecture room. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your lecture around a series of questions that the lecture answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-to-your partner discussions. Divide the lecture into 10 to 15 minute segments. Use different discussion tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the answer to the question being discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Give a reaction to the theory, concepts, or information being presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate the material being presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict or explain </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to resolve the conceptual conflict the presentation has aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesize answers to the question being posed </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>From Kirkpatrick, D. (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>What did the personnel think of the training? </li></ul><ul><li>Was there an increase in knowledge or skill level? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the new </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge/skill being used? </li></ul><ul><li>What effect did the training have on the goals of the organization? </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>I don’t want to change. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t think I can change. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know what to change. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know how to change. </li></ul><ul><li>From Prochaska and Prochaska (1999) </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Acquiring learning and motivational strategies (K&M) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting and attaining personal, academic and career goals (M) </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking help in college: Use of academic support services and assistance from instructors and staff (K,M,O) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to work with others (K&M) </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the course syllabi and classroom instruction (O) </li></ul>