Assignment 3 Group Presentation

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Regent University - Group Presentation for Advanced Motivation and Developmental Theory

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Assignment 3 Group Presentation

  1. 1. Vygotsky vs. Gibson Pro/Contra PresentationAssignment 3 Advanced Motivation and Developmental TheoryDr. M. Gail Derrick<br />Group 4<br />Geertina Ellis, Jacqueline Higgins, Margaret Gibson-Gutierrez, Harriet Watkins<br />
  2. 2. A Contrast in Theories …<br />Welcome to our presentation. In the following slides, we present two starkly different theories of development. <br />Eleanor Gibson’s theory of perceptual development and Lev Vygotsky’ssocio cultural approach. <br />We hope to demonstrate the pros and cons of each theory and synthesize the works applying them to the K-12 school environment <br />Short example of Gibson’s theory<br />
  3. 3. CONTRASTOF THEORIES<br />Pro<br />
  4. 4. Lev SemyonovichVygotsky(1896-1934)<br />A socio-cultural approach:<br />The child-in-cultural context<br />
  5. 5. Vygotsky’s Views<br />Children ‘s quantitative and qualitative developmental patterns of behavior vary across cultures, subcultures and/or historical time. <br />This is the worldview to which Vygotsky’s socio-cultural approach ascribes (Miller, 2002).<br />
  6. 6. Socio-cultural ApproachAssumptions<br /><ul><li>Child – in Activity – in Cultural-Context: the unit of study
  7. 7. The Zone of Proximal Development
  8. 8. The Socio-cultural Origins of Mental Functioning
  9. 9. Cultural Tools Mediate Intellectual Functioning
  10. 10. Socio-cultural Methodology</li></li></ul><li>Child-in-Activity-in Cultural Context<br />Zone of Proximal Development<br /><ul><li>The “zone”: child’s actual </li></ul> development level based on <br /> independent problem solving vs. <br /> their potential development level <br /> with help<br /><ul><li> Immature functions that are in the</li></ul> process of maturation state are <br /> defined <br /><ul><li> Learning and internal development </li></ul> “awaken” with implicit and explicit <br /> interaction with peers and others<br /> through inter-subjectivity or <br /> common goals <br /><ul><li> Interaction affects behavior</li></ul> between children and adults <br /> through collaboration <br /><ul><li>Focus is on the child-in-context or the child and his/her activities in the larger and sub-culture
  11. 11. The child, other people and the cultural setting collectively impact each other and shape experiences
  12. 12. The communication of feelings and desires are the essence of cognition and part of everyday life
  13. 13. Emphasis is on how children manipulate organized cultural opportunities and activities such as family structures, rituals and narratives</li></li></ul><li>The Sociological Origins of Individual Mental Functioning:<br />Intermental (between minds)<br />Intramental (within minds)<br />Internalized in child’s mind<br />Interaction between a child, adult or older child<br />is<br />becomes<br />EXTERNAL<br />INTERACTION<br />INTERNAL <br />INTERACTION<br />Movement from intermental<br />to intramental explains<br /><ul><li> Why child-in-activity—in context is smallest unit to study; </li></ul>intermental/intramental activity between child and adult can’t be separated <br /><ul><li> Children internalize problem solving mode that was supported socially
  14. 14. Learning to converse with others leads to ability to problem solve within one’s self </li></li></ul><li>Cultural Tools that Mediate Intellectual Functioning<br />INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING<br />PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS<br /><ul><li>Counting systems
  15. 15. Writing
  16. 16. Diagrams, maps, conventional</li></ul> signs<br /><ul><li> Works of art
  17. 17. Strategies for learning, attending</li></ul> or memorizing<br /><ul><li> Language systems: most important </li></ul> (Miller, 2002, p. 383) <br /><ul><li>Improve spatial skills
  18. 18. Control thought or behavior
  19. 19. Transforms elementary mental function into higher mental functions (e.g. attention & logical and abstract thinking)
  20. 20. Utilization of cultural system of meaning
  21. 21. Connects children
  22. 22. Directs thinking </li></ul> (Miller, 2002, p. 384)<br />Impact on<br /><ul><li> Different cultures emphasize different tools
  23. 23. Tools mediate between the child and environment</li></ul>Points to Consider<br />
  24. 24. Socio-cultural MethodologyMethods to capture the uniqueness of Development and Social Interaction<br />
  25. 25. Applications of Vygotsky’s theoryin the K-12 setting<br />Problems in the current educational system: <br /><ul><li> too much focus on cognitive development
  26. 26. too much focus on imparting knowledge without the possibility of discovery and exploration
  27. 27. too much focus on cognitive skill acquisition without meaning </li></ul>Solutions based on Vygotsky’ s theory:<br /><ul><li>Assess what a child can learn and understand with help vs. standardized assessment
  28. 28. Base schooling on child readiness rather than actual level – teach them where they are
  29. 29. Shift from teacher regulated activity to child self-regulation
  30. 30. Utilize unconventional tools vs. conventional tools</li></ul> (Miller, 2002 p. 406)<br />
  31. 31. Eleanor J. Gibson“perceptual learning”<br />An ecological approach:<br />The function of perception in real life<br />
  32. 32. Perception<br /><ul><li>The senses are used to extract information from the environment (Gibson, 1991)
  33. 33. Adaptive
  34. 34. Active
  35. 35. Differentiation, not enrichment is the basis of perceptual learning (Pick, 1992)
  36. 36. Focus on distinctive features
  37. 37. Discovery of invariant relations
  38. 38. Extraction of (higher-order) structure </li></li></ul><li>Developmental growth<br /><ul><li>Perception becomes more precise and efficient (Miller, 2002)
  39. 39. Attention becomes more active and selective (Miller, 2002)</li></ul>Development depends both on a quantitative increase in differentiation <br />as well as on discovery of meaning in the environment<br /><ul><li>Utility of objects/</li></ul> aspects in the environment for the developing child (Pick, 1991).<br /><ul><li>Reciprocal relationship between child and environment
  40. 40. Objective
  41. 41. Subjective</li></ul>“affordances”<br />
  42. 42. Gibson’s ecological theory as a model for K-12 schools<br />Reasons why Gibson’s theory should be the basis for curriculum and instruction:<br /><ul><li>Children actively explore their environment in accordance with their motor development
  43. 43. Children will seek uses and meaning for objects in the environment
  44. 44. Thinking and perceiving are adaptive and functional: our goal is to live our life</li></li></ul><li>Applications of Gibson’s theoryin the K-12 setting<br />Problems in the current educational system: <br /><ul><li> too much focus on cognitive development
  45. 45. too much focus on imparting knowledge without the possibility of discovery and exploration
  46. 46. too much focus on cognitive skill acquisition without meaning </li></ul>Solutions based on Gibson’ s theory:<br /><ul><li>Learning occurs through the senses (“multimodal stimulation” Miller, 2002)
  47. 47. Learning occurs when objects can be utilized in different ways (“discovering contingencies” Miller, 2002)
  48. 48. Learning occurs through perception of new things in the same learning environment (“Differentiation”)</li></li></ul><li>Contrast of theories<br />Con<br />
  49. 49. Vygotsky vs. Gibson<br /><ul><li>Dynamic Assessment vs. Static Assessment.
  50. 50. Gibson provides a contrasting view of formal assessment with the “visual-cliff” example, proving that children develop depth perception at 6 or 7 months of age.
  51. 51. The Zone of Proximal Development is vague.
  52. 52. Gibson counters this belief by showing how information for perception is specified in stimulation and the active nature of human perceivers.
  53. 53. Culture and Interaction Drives Development.
  54. 54. Gibson posits that development happens through the child's perception of the environment and as perception becomes increasingly differentiated.</li></li></ul><li>Ecological theory of perceptual development and the socio cultural approach<br />Synthesis<br />
  55. 55. Comparison & Contrast<br />Vygotsky<br />Gibson<br /><ul><li>Contextual Worldview
  56. 56. Behaviors are explained in social-historical contexts
  57. 57. Learning occurs for children with interaction and collaboration with peers, people and the environment
  58. 58. Organismic Worldview
  59. 59. Children formulate knowledge through affordances & repetitive experiences
  60. 60. Learning is individual, based upon successful extraction of affordances</li></li></ul><li>Summary<br />Vygotsky<br /><ul><li>Development is social in nature and both qualitative and quantitative
  61. 61. Development comes form the internalizing of intermental interactions
  62. 62. Cultural tools mediate intellectual functioning</li></ul> <br />Gibson<br /><ul><li>The senses are used to extract information from the environment
  63. 63. Development is the process of differentiation in perception
  64. 64. Growth is both the increase of differentiation and discovery of meaning in the environment </li></li></ul><li>Synthesis of the ecological and socio-cultural approach<br />The child is an active explorer and participant in the learning process: <br />Learning occurs in social interactions when new meaning is found <br />Developmental growth is a dialectical process of differentiation of efficient perception and selective attention<br />Assess perceptual level and type of affordances : combination provides zone of proximal development<br />Emphasis on culture<br />Emphasis on kinesthetic learning and gathering of meaningful information<br />Both theories emphasis important aspect of development and offer solid solutions to current problems in the K-12 setting<br />
  65. 65. References <br />Gibson, E.J. (1991). An odyssey in learning and perception. Learning, development, and conceptual change. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.<br />Miller, P.H. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology (4thed). New York: Worth Publishers.<br />Pick, H.L. (1992). Eleanor J. Gibson: Learning to perceive and perceiving to learn. Developmental Psychology (28)5, 787-794.<br />

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